GLASS/ BOTTLE


  • SUB-TOPIC Of GLASS/ BOTTLE CHAPTER
    • History
    • Wine Bottle Sizes of the World
    • Wine Bottle Shapes of the World
    • Describing Wine Bottles 
    • Wine Bottle Producers

HISTORY

  • 1500 @Msopotamia Invented by, Used by Egyptians, Phoenicians, Syrians.
  • 30 @Rome Development of Blow Pipe Which Lead to Golden Age of Glass Throughout the Roman Empire. (Hand-Made, Free-Blown)
  •  500 @Venice Venetian Glass Foundries, Glass Vessels to the Wealthy.
  • 1600’s-1800’s @Europe Bottles Got Cheaper, More Conformity, Shape.
  • 1740 @Europe Introduction of Modern Bottle
    • Wood Furnaces Where Replaced With Coal Which Burned Hotter and Lead to Stronger, Heavier Bottles With a Distinctive Dark Color From the Impurities of the Coal. Reliable Molds For Making Bottle Changed the Shapes to Taller, Narrower and the Ability to Lay Bottles On Their Sides.
  • 1820’s @Europe Bottle Machine Made Making Uniform Bottles Possible.
  • 1894 @Europe Better Bottle Machine Made Mass-Production Possible.

Glass Facts & Information

  • Made by Heating Silica In Common Sand to 2,500° Degree.
    • Advantages- Easy to Clean, Affordable, Prevented Oxidation When Well Sealed, Easier to Control Temperature, Neutral, No Flavor Transfer.
  • Used as Neutral Container to Store Wine, Often After a Period of Wood Aging.
  • Great Wines Are Often Returned to Cellar For Further Aging/ Maturation.
  • Darker Color Bottles or Tinted Bottles Helps Prevent Ultra-Violent Rays Sunlight From Prematurely Breaking Down Wine or Advancing Oxygenation Over Time.
  • Embossed Bottles- Mold or Stamp a Design On the Surface So It Stands Out In Relief.
  • Engraved Bottles- Cut or Carve a Text or Design On the Surface of the Bottle.

Bottle Facts & Information

PUNT Indentation In the Bottom of Wine and Sparkling Bottles Left From Glass Blowing Process.

  • Beneficial For…
    • Punt In Bottom of Bottle Was Designed to Strengthen the Integrity of the Bottle and Elevate Pressure In Sparkling Wine Bottles. (1940) (Pressure In Champagne Bottle is 90Lb. of Pressure Per Square Inch.)
    • Riddling Champagne
    • Ease of Nesting End to End During Shipment and Storage.
    • Consolidation of Sediment (When Upright)
  • Wine Bottles Should Not Show a Seam Down the Side.
  • Neck Bore– Most Wines Have a Standard Bore Inner Neck of 18.5mm.
  • LARGE FORMAT BOTTLE– Provide a Vessel For Mature Slower, Less Temperature Fluctuation, and a Rarity Factor For Collectors.
  • Case of New Bottles Cost Between $6-$13.
  • Ring Around Top of Neck of Bottle Originally Designed to Hold String On Label.
  • The Braille Like Bumps On the Heel or Rings of the Bottle of One Bottles Enable the Bottle Inspection Equipment to Read the Bottle Identification Information.

What Lead to Uniform Bottle Sizing

  • Binning- The Stacking of Bottles On Their Sides.
  • Need For Something That Was Easy to Store In Large Numbers In Small Spaces.
  • Because of Taxation Purposes Across International Countries Producing Wine.

WINE BOTTLE SIZES Of The WORLD

VITICULTURAL DISCLAIMER~ Some Bottles Sizes Are Called One Thing In Bordeaux and a Different Name In Champagne or Burgundy.  This List of  Bottle Sizes is Based On Bordeaux Bottle Culture and Given the Champagne or Burgundy Equivalent When Needed.

Legends Before the Myth…Custom of Naming Large Bottles After Old Testament Figures.

  • MINNIE  50 mi. /  .15%  Bottle
  • TOPETTE–  93.5 mi.   /  
  • MIGNONETTE  95 mi. / ? Bottle
  • SPLIT  187 mi. / .25 Bottle (Champagne)
  • PICOLLO  200 mi. / ? Bottle
  • CHOPINE  250 mi. / .33 Bottle
  • HALF375 mi. / .50 Bottle  (Bordeaux)
    • AKA=DEMI (Champagne)
  • JENNY  500 mi. / .66 Bottle
    • AKA=BOUTEILLE OU POT
  • STANDARD  750 mi. / 1 Bottle  (Bordeaux)
    • History- 750 mi. Bottle Became World Standard In 1970.
    • AKA= BOUTEILLE (Champagne)
  • LITRE–  1 Liter / 1.33 Bottle
  • MAGNUM–  1.5 Liter / 2 Bottles (Bordeaux)
    • History- From the Latin Word Meaning Great.
  • MARIE JEANNE  2.25 Liter / 3 Bottles (Bordeaux)
    • History- ?
  • DOUBLE MAGNUM  3 Liter / 4 Bottles  (Bordeaux)
    • AKA=JEROBOAN  3 Liter / 4 Bottles (Champagne)
      • History- 1st. King of Israel, Served King Solomon, Overthrew Him.
  • JEROBOAN  4.5 Liter / 6 Bottles (Bordeaux)
    • History- Son of Solomon, Initial King of United Monarchy of Israel.
    • AKA=REHOBOAM  4.5 Liter / 6 Bottles   (Champagne)
      • History- Jeroboams Revel and King of the Southern Region of Israel, and Son of King Solomon.
  • IMPERIALE  6 Liter / 8 Bottles  (Bordeaux)
    • AKA=MEHUSELAH 6 Liter / 8 Bottles  (Champagne)
      • History- Oldest Man In the Hebrew Bible.
  • SALMANAZAR  9 Liter / 12 Bottles  (Bordeaux/ Champagne)
    • History- Biblical King of Assyria.
  • BALTHAZAR 12 Liter / 16 Bottles  (Bordeaux/ Champagne)
    • History- One of the 3 Wise Men Who Visited Jesus, In the Book of Daniel, Balthazar Held a Feast While His City Was Under Attack. He and the People of Babylonia Didn’t Think it Was Possible to Breach the Wall of the City.
  • NEBUCHADNEZZAR 15 Liter / 20 Bottles  (Bordeaux/ Champagne)
    • History- King of Babylon, Destroyed Jerusalem’s 1st. Temple.
  • MELCHOIR  18 Liter / 24 Bottle (BordeauxChampagne)
    • History- ?
  • SOLOMON  20 Liter / 28 Bottles (Champagne)
    • History- One of the 3 Wise Men to Present Gifts at Jesus Nativity.
    • History- Biblical King of Israel, Son of David, Wisest of All Men.
  • SOVEREIGN 25 Liter / 33.3 Bottles (Champagne)
    • History- Created by Taittinger to Promote the Sovereign Cruise Ship.
  • GOLIATH 27 Liter / 36 Bottles  (Bordeaux)
    • History- Biblical Figure Stoned by David.
    • AKA=PRIMAT  27 Liter / 36 Bottles.  (Champagne)
  • MELCHIZEDEK–  30 Liter / 40 Bottles   |
    • History- Biblical King of Salem. PriestKing of Jerusalem.
    • AKA=MIDAS 30 Liter / 40 Bottles (Champagne)
  • MAXIMUS–  130 Liter / 184 Bottles
    • History- Produced by Beringer For a 2001 Charity Auction.

Wine Bottles Vary and Are Identified by Different Size, Shape, Color, Wine Styles, Grapes Variety, Time Period and Region.

  • BOTTLE SIZE MNEMONIC
    • (Bordeaux) My Deltoid-Muscle Just Isn’t So Big Now
    • (Champagne) Most Justices Reason More Soundly Before Naps
      • Michael Jackson Really Makes Small Boys Nervous

EFFECTS Of AGING WINE IN LARGER FORMAT BOTTLES

Besides Being a Instant Party Starter and Looking Cool On the Table Aging Wine In Larger Format Bottles Benefits the Wine.

  • REASONS WHY LARGE FORMAT BOTTLES AGE WELL
    • The Evaluation Of the Wine is Slower.
    • Integration of All Aromas Seem to Be More In Harmony.
    • Greater Ratio of Wine to Oxygen In Magnum.
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY?  Does Wine Age Better In Larges Formate Bottles Rather Than Standard Bottles?
    • As a Result to the Air the Wine Ratio In Larger Format Bottles Wine Generally Ages Slower That Standard Bottles.

WINE BOTTLE SHAPES Of The WORLD

  • There is Not Definitive Rule Which Says a particular Variety of Wine Must Be Put In a Certain Style of Bottle, Certain Wine Regions Have Traditionally Had Their Own Bottle Shapes. Many Modern Winemaker Are Embracing These Shapes or Coming Together as a Region to Create Their Own Shapes For Branding and Marketing Purposes.
  • Other Ways to Distinguish or Differentiate Your Wine Bottle From Your Competitor.
    • Decorative Punts
    • Lips Sizes and Shapes
    • Weight (Either Lighter or Heavier)
    • Texture (Either Embossed or Engraved)
  • ALBEISA     REGIONLanghe
    • Shape- 
    • History- Created In 1700’s by Master Glaziers at Vetrerie di Porino In Turin For Producers Around Alba Who Wanted a Unique and Recognizalbe  Bottle.
  • BORDELAISE      REGION-Bordeux
    • Shape-  Cylindrical Shape, With Boxed Shoulders.    AKA=Bordeleise
  • BURGUNDY          REGIONBurgundy
    • Shape- Cylindrical Shape, With Slopping Slopping Shoulders
  • RHODANIENNE    REGION-Rhone Valley
    • Shape- 
  • CLAVELIN    REGION– Jura
    • Shape-  Short/ Squat Fat Bottle (62cl.).
    • ~Etymology~ Gets Name From Abbot of Clavelin Who Ordered 50 Bottles With His Own Emblem From the La Vielle Loye Glassworks In 1914.
    • The Amount of Wine Left of a Liter of Wine After Aging In Cask For Six Years and Three Month.
    • **Commissioned by Producers In Chateau-Chalon From La Vielle Loye Glassworks In 1700’s.
    • **One of the Few Non-Standard Bottles Sizes Allowed by EU. Wine Law.
  • TOKAJI            REGIONTokaji, Hungary
    • Shape-  Smaller is Size Traditionally 375 ml., / 500 ml.
  • VIN De CONSTANCE    REGIONSouth Africa
    • Shape- Bottle With Pronounces Shoulders 500 ml.
  • STELLENBOSCH    REGION- South Africa
    • Shape-  Taller at Base of Shoulders/ Slimmer
  • PORT ONIONS (1600‘s) REGION– Porto
    • Shape-  Round, Deep Indention Point, Tapered Neck, Pronounced Collar to Tie Stopper or Cork.
  • FIASSO (1600’s) REGION– Chianti
    • Shape- Round Swatty Bottle Wrapped With Straw From Italian Swamp.
      • Used to Protect Handblown Bottle During Transportation.
  • SQUATTY   REGIONPuglia
    • Shape-  Black Bottle Usually With Susumaniello Wine.
  • SQUATTY   REGION– COS, Sicily, Italy
    • Shape-  Usually With Cerasuolo di Vittoria.
  • NEPTUNE     REGION Picpoul de Pinot
    • Shape- Tall Slender/ Green
  • TOKAJI STILL  REGIONHungary
    • Shape-  750 ml., Low Shoulders
  • FUTURE    RegionLombardia, Italy
    • Shape- 500ml. Bottle For Scanzo
  • GRANDIOSE    RegionNapa, Chile, Argentina
    • Shape- 750 ml.,  Big/ Oversized Bordeaux Style, Twice te Weight of a Standard Bottle.
      • The Grandiose Bottle Started to Be Use For Wine and Branded For High-End Bordeaux Style Wine Both the Blends and the Single Variety Grape In Napa, Chile and Argentina.
  • CHAMPENOISE/ KRUG      REGION- Champagne
    • Shape-  Tall Slender
  • BOCKSBEUTEL   REGION– Franken
    • Shape- Distinctly Short, Stubby, Green Bottle
    • Etymolgy– Meaning …Goat Scrotum, Referring to the Shape of a Goats Balls
  • FLUTE A CORSET AKA=Skittle    REGION– Provence
    • Shape- Hourglass, Used For Rose Wines

FLUTES General Term For Tall Elongated Bottles

  • ALSACIENNE FLUTE–     REGION-Alsace
    • Shape- Tall Elongated, Tapered Neck Bottle, Flat Base, Dark Green
  • RHEIN FLUTE–    REGION– Rhine
    • Shape-  Distinctly Tall, and Standard to Which All Flutes or Judged
  • RHONE FLUTE–     REGION-Condrieu
    • Shape-  Distinctly Tall
  • GALICIAN FLUTE–     REGION– Rias Baixas
    • Shape- Slightly Fuller In Shoulders Than Rhine Flute
  • BASQUE FLUTE    REGION-Euskadi, Basque Country
    • Shape-  Tall/ Flute Like, Slender/ Rounded
  • MUSCADET FLUTE    REGION– Pays Nantes
    • Shape- Tall Slender

DESCRIBING BOTTLES

DESCRIBING BOTTLE SHAPES

  • Body- Straight/ Taper
  • Cone Shaped 1690-1720
  • Cylinder Shaped
  • Neck- Short/ Long
    • Slope Neck– Steep/ Shallow
  • Shoulders- High/ Low
  • Armorial Seal
  • Slender

BOTTLE COLORS

  • Clear
  • Green
    • Green, Dead Leaf, Dark Olive, Antique
  • Brown
    • Amber
  • Blue
    • Arctic

WINE GLASS CONTAINERS Of  The WORLD

  • BONBONNES/ Carboys Large Glass Jar Typically 24 Liters/ 6.6 Gallons Large, Squat Bottle With Short, Narrow Neck Encased In Wicker.
  • DEMI-JOHN- CARAFE Clear Glass Vessel With Wide Mouth Traditionally Used For Serving Wine Dispense From Larger Container.
  • PORRON Spanish Wine Container With Narrow Pointed Spout That Shoots a Stream of Wine Directly Into Drinkers Mouth Usually From a Distance.
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY? Are Different Bottle Shapes and Sizes Being Branded to Represent Different Regions and Wine Styles?
    • Bottle Shapes and Colors Are Starting to Become Hallmarks of Wine Regions and Are Starting to Be Used In Branding Purposes.

BOTTLE WEIGHTS

  • Eco-Bottles- Weight…Less Than 450 Grams
  • Standard Bottle- Weight…450 Grams
  • Upscale Bottle-  Weight…600- 700 Grams
  • Luxury Bottle- Weight…700- 1,200 Grams
  • ADVANTAGES Of HEAVIER BOTTLES
    • Looks Good
    • Feels Cool to Hold
  • CHALLENGES Of HEAVIER BOTTLES
    • Difficulty In Lifting a Case Difficulty Pouring.
    • Environmental Concerns Not Fitting Into Standard Wine Racks.
    • Increase In Wholesale and Direct-to-Consumer Shipping Costs.
    • The Idea That Heavier Bottles Are Not Sustainable.

The Decision to Put Wine In Heavy Bottles Serves No Functional or Quality Purposes to the Wine.


WINE BOTTLE PRODUCERS

  • All American Containers     @Windsor, California
  • Ardah Group/ Glass     @Indianapolis, Indiana
  • Berlin Packaging     @Fairfield California
  • Gallo Glass Company     @Modesto California
  • Global Package LLC.     @Napa, California
  • Premier Glass & Package Company     @Napa, California
  • Saverglass     @Napa, California
  • TricorBraun WinePak      @Fairfield, California
  • Verallia     @Fairfield, California
  • West Coast Bottles     @Sacramento, California
  • World Wine Bottles & Packaging Solutions     @Napa, California

FOIL CAPSULE

  • Foil Sleeve Are Coverings On the Top of  Wine Bottle.  Foils Where Originally Designed to Protect the Cork From Insects and Vermin Nibbling On the Cork.  Now There’s a Decorative or Style Factor That the Foils Also Convey While Giving the Bottle a Clean Professional Look. Some Wine Producers Nowadays Are Choosing to Do Without Them, Trying to Be More Environmentally Sustainable.
  • Foil Capsule Historically Have Been Made From Lead But Have Been Replaced With Tin, Poly Laminate or Heat Shrunk Versions.
  • Some Naturally Winemakers Have Been Using Wax Capsules to Help Brand Their Movement.
  • **Refer to SERVICE/ Glass-Ware For Additional Information.


**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.