OAK BARRELS


  • SUB-TOPICS Of OAK BARREL CHAPTER
    • What is a Wine Barrel?
    • Oak Barrel Sizes of the World
    • Different Types of Oaks
    • Selection & Preparation
    • Making Oak Barrels
    • Tonnellerie of the World
    • Other Sub-Topics of Barrel Chapter

WHAT IS A WINE BARREL?

WINE BARREL Hollow Cylindrical Container, Made Of Wooden Staves Bound by Metal Hoops.

  • Oak Barrels Aging Has a Profound and Complex Effect On Characteristic and Flavors of Wine. Oak is Porous Which Leads to Slow Aeration and Chemical Reactions That Change Color, Aroma, Texture, Flavor and Complexity. The Larger the Barrel, the Slower the Aeration, Less Wine to Wood Contact, Less Oak Influence. During Each Year of a Barrels Life the Amount of Oak Imparted Diminishes About 20%. Use of Used Barrels (Over 6 Years Old) Are More Inert, Impart Little to No Oak Influence and Flavor Transfer On the Wine. (Burgundian Method)
  • Oak Wood- Strongest of Norther Hemisphere Hard Woods. Qualities Include;
    • Hard, Durability, Supple, Watertight, Breathability, Flavoring
    • Aeration– Process by Which Air is Circulated Through, Mixed With or Dissolved In a Liquid of Substance.
  • TONNELIER- A Company That Produces Wine Barrels.
  • COPPER- A Person Who Hand-Crafts Wine Barrels.
  • HISTORY- Celts Invented the Oak Barrels

OAK FACTS & INFORMATION

  • 600 Species of Oak World Wide, 20 Species Suitable For Making Oak Barrels.
  • 800,000 Oak Barrels Made Annually Worldwide.
  • 1866 Barrique Became Standard “General” Size.
    • Burgundy and Bordeaux Could Never Agree On Barrel Size and to This Day a Burgundy Barrel is 228 Liters and a Bordeaux Barrel is @225 Liters
  • 1 Barrel= 60 Gallons, 25 Cases , 300 Bottles, 223 Liters
  • Oak Barrels Sizes- Vary by Country, Wine and Purpose.
  • Oak Grain Tightness is Measured of Quality, Tighter the Grain, the More Porous Wood.
  • Ways Oak Barrels Are Different:  Forest Location, Stave Age, Style of Toast, Length of Toast, Grain Size, Barrel Age.
  • Quality Barrels Made From 150 Years Age Oak Tree.
    • Different Oak Forest Produce Different Qualities of Oak…Oak Terroir.
    • Increase Moisture and Humidity Produces a Wider Grain, Less Produces Finer Grain.
  • The Swelling of the Wood, Combined With the Constant Constraint of the 2 Metal Hoops Keep the Barrels From Leaking.
  • **Refer to “WINE STYLES/ Aged” For Additional Information
  • **Refer to “WINE EVALUATION/ Tasting Oak” For Additional Information

A Bad Wine Can Be Put In a New Oak Barrel to Cover Its Flaws.

  • AROMA COMPOUNDS IN OAK BARRELS
    • Furanic Aldehydes/5
    • Guaiacol
    • Eugenol
    • Cis-WL
    • Vanillin

LARGE FORMAT BARRELS Large Barrels Treat Wine Different Than Smaller Barrels. The Surface Area is Larger and the Thickness of the Staves Allow Less Oxidative Process Than Normal. Large Format Barrels Preserve the Vineyard Characteristics of Wine by Minimizing Oak Extraction and Oxidation. Big Barrels or Larger Format Cast Tame Grape Tannins Without Imparting Alot of Oak Flavor. Large Barrels Have a Greater Surface to Volume Ratio.

BARREL, CAST, TUN- All Generic Terms For Hollow Cylindrical Container, Traditionally Produced From Wooden Staves Bound by Metal Hoops.

  • Also- Butt, Barrique

OAK BARREL SIZES Of The WORLD

  • 1,200 Liters– Stuck     @Rhine
    • Qualities…Slow/ Neutral In Oak Transfer   Used… Aging Riesling
  • 1,000 Liters– Foudre/ Fuder     @Alsace, Mosel
    • Qualities…Slow/ Neutral In Oak Transfer, Round In Shape
  •    982 Liters– English Tun     @England
    • Qualities…Standard Imperial Measure 216 Imperial Gallons/ 259 Gallons
  • 900 Liters– Tonneau     @Bordeaux
    • Qualities…Slow/ Neutral In Oak Transfer     Used…Historically In Bordeaux
  • 700 Liters– Gorda     @America
    • Qualities…American Oak     Used…Traditional to American Whiskey
  • 650 Liters– Madeira Drum     @Portugal
    • Qualities…European Oak, Thick Staves      Used… Madeira/ Some Whisky
  • 650/ 522.48 Liters– Port Pipe     @Portugal
    • Qualities…European Oak, Long Narrow Shape    Used…Aging Port
  • 600 Liters– Halbstuck     @Rhine
    • Qualities…Half the Size of Stuck       Used… Aging Wine In Rhine
  • 600 Liters– Demi-Muid     @Chateauneuf-du-Pape
  • 600 Liters– Pipe     @Alsace
    • Qualities…       Used… Aging Wine In Alsace
  • 580 LitersHalbfuder     @Mosel
  • 500 LitersPuncheon(Machine)     @Andelusia
    • Qualities…American Oak, Short-Fat-Shaped.    Used… Sherry, Rum
  • 500 LitersPuncheon(Sherry)     @Andelusia
    • Qualities…Spanish Oak, Shorter, Squat-Shaped.    Used… Sherry
  • 478-500 LitersButt(Sherry)     @Andelusia
    • Qualities…European Oak, Long Slender.  Used…Sherry
  • 450 LitersPuncheon     @New Zealand/ Australia
  • 396 LitersCast     @Marsala, Sicily
    • Used… Aging Marsala
  • 300-350 LitersBarrique(Cognac)    @Cognac
    • Qualities…European Oak.    Used… Cognac/ Second Hand Scotch Whisky
  • 228 LitersBarriques(Burgundy)     @Burgundy
    • Qualities… French Oak    Used…Burgundy/ Throughout Wine World
  • 225 LitersBarriques(Bordeaux)     @Bordeaux
    • Qualities… French Oak    Used…Bordeaux/ Throughout Wine World
  • 225 LitersBarricas Bordeleas     @Rioja
    • Qualities…American Oak    Used… Aging Rioja
  • 225-250 LitersHogshead     @
    • Qualities…Re-Purposed Barrels.    Used…Scotch Whisky
  • 205 LitersChampagne     @Champagne
  • 164 LitersBritish Brewery Barrel     @England
    • Qualities…Standard British Barrel Size, Equals 288 Pints
  • 136 LitersGonci     @Hungary
    • Qualities…Hungarian Oak   Used…Tokaj, Named After Village Produced In.
  • 132 LitersFeuillette     @Chablis
    • Used…Aging  Chablis Wine
  • 50-100 LitersCaretelli     @Italy
    • Used…Tuscany/ Vin Santo

DIFFERENT TYPES OAKS Of The WORLD

  • There’re Over 250 Types of Oak Wood Growing Around the World.
  • 12 Varieties Can Be Used For Making Oak Barrel.
  • 3 Varieties Are Generally Used For Making Oak Barrels.
  • Oak Trees Have a Life Potential of 300 to 400 Years, But Most Trees Are Harvested When They Are 150-170 Years Old.
  • Main Countries Producing Oak Around the World…America, French, Spain, Portugal, Slovenian, Russia.

AMERICAN OAK

  • Species-Quercus Alba- Contains Less Soluble Tannin Than European Oak But Higher Concentration of Aromatic Subtances/ Creamy Oak Lactones.
    • Quercus Gariana ($300/ Barrel)
    • Quercus Douglasii
  • Exhibit- Highly Aromatic, Spice, Intense Vanilla, Wood Sugars, Toastiness
  • Qualities- Fast Growing, Tannic, Wide-Grain, White In Color, Trees 25+ Years Growth Before Oak Can Be Used In Production.
  • OAK FOREST Of AMERICA
    • Minnesota
    • Missouri
    • Wisconsin

FRENCH OAK

  • Species- Quercus Sessilis, Quercus Robur ($1,000/ Barrel)
  • Exhibit- Subtle Tannins of Sweetness, Structure, Complexity
  • Qualities- Slow Growing, Tight Grained, Brown In Color, Tree 100-125 Years Growth Before Oak Can be Used In Production.
  • ASSOICATIONS~ ~National Forest Office~
    • Mission~ Guarantees Sustainable Management of Forests As Certified by the Program For the Endorsement of Forest Certification.
  • OAK FOREST Of FRANCE
    • Argonne Oak Forest- Long Strip of Rocky Mountain and Wild Woodlands.
      • Geography– France(North-East), South of Belgium Border
    • Bertranges-
      • Geography– France(  ), DEPARTMENT– ?
    • Bourgogne-
      • Geography– France(  ), DEPARTMENT– ?
    • Centers-
      • Geography– France(  ), DEPARTMENT– ?
    • Limousin-
      • Geography– France(  ), DEPARTMENT– ?
      • Qualities– Wide Grain and Contains High Tannin, But Less Aromatic Lactones
    • Nevers Oak Forest-
      • Geography– France(Loire Valley), DEPARTMENT-Nevers
    • Troncais Oak Forest-
      • Geography– France(Massif Central, Bourbonnais), DEPARTMENT-Allier
      • Qualities– Tighter Grain and Contains More Eugenol/ Scents of Cloves
        • The Forest of Troncais View by Most to Produce the Highest Quality Oakwood In Europe and the World
    • Vosges Oak Forest-
      • Geography– France(East), DEPARTMENT– ?,  BORDERS– Germany

HUNGARIAN OAK 

  • Species- Sessile
  • Exhibit- Higher Level of Eugenal Compounds, 30% Denser That Other Oak
  • Qualities- $500/ Barrel
  • OAK FOREST Of HUNGARY
    • Kadar

CROATIAN OAK

  • Species- Quercus pubescens AKA=Forest Downy Oak
  • Exhibit-
  • Qualities- $500/ Barrel
  • OAK FOREST Of CROATIA
    • Pristeg/ Dobra Voda
      • Geography– Croatia(Near Stankovci)
    • Brac Island-
      • Geography– Croatia

SLOVONIA OAK

  • Species-
  • Exhibit- Low In Tannins, Low In Aroma, Tight Grains
  • Barrel Producer– Dense Grained
  • OAK FOREST Of SLAVONIA

RUSSIAN OAK

  • Species- Quercus Sessilis
  • Exhibit- Freshness, Aromatic Low In Lactones, Tannins
  • OAK FOREST Of RUSSIA
    • Caucasus In the Republic of Adygue

BALKAN OAK

  • Species– Quercus Robur
  • Exhibit-

PORTUGUESE OAK

  • Species- Quercus Gariana
  • Exhibit-
  • OAK FOREST Of PORTUGAL

OTHER OAK

  • Quercus Petraea

OTHER WOOD USED

  • Redwood-
    • History- Used In California
  • Chest Nut-
    • History-  Used In Piemonte
  • Cherry-
    • History-
  • Acacia-
    • Histoy-

SELECTION & PREPARATION

DETERMINING FACTORS

TYPE OF OAK-

OAK GRAIN SIZES

  • The Slower the Tree Grows the Tighter the Grains is Developed by the Tree.
  • Large, Medium, Fine, Very Fine
  • Tightness of Grain
  • Grain Width of Oak
  • Finer the Grain Width the More Mild the Oak. (French, Hungarian Oak)
  • Courser the Oak the More Profound the Oak. (American Oak)
  • French Oak You Split, American Oak You Cut.
  • Tannin Content

TIME LIVES Of OAK BARRELS
Oak Barrels Have Specific Uses and “Barrel Lives” to Different Producers. Used Barrels Get “Cycled Down” After They Give Up Their Oak and Passed On to Different Produces Who Have Different Oak Needs For the Barrels.

  • OAK BARREL USES
    • 1 Year New Barrel
    • 2-3 Years Used Barrel
    • +7 Years Neutral Barrel
    • +10 Years Old Barrel
  • PHILOSOPHY?  How Many Years Does a Oak Barrel Have to Be Used to Be Considered Neutral?
    • I Consider a Oak Barrels Neutral After 7 Years, But Even Then I Feel There is Still a Little Oak to Leave Its Influence.
  • CONTENTIOUS ISSUE!  Oak Barrels Are Neutral After 5 Years!
    • While I Consider a Oak Barrel Neutral After 7 Years There Are Groups of Producers Who Believe Oak Barrels Are Neutral After 5 Year and Some Producers Who Believe Barrels Impart Flavors For 10 Years and After.

LIFE CYCLE Of An OAK BARREL

1st. Fill Oak Barrels- The Very First Time the Barrel is In Use (New Oak)
The Effect of a 1st. Fill/ New Oak Can Be Big and Overwhelming and Imparts Distinct Flavors.
2nd. Fill Oak Barrels- After the Barrel Have Been Emptied and Cleaned, It’s Used Again. The Flavor Transfer is Muted and Less Noticeable.

  • 1 Years “New Oak” -1-4 Used For New Wines
  • 4 Years On…Neutral Oak Barrels
  • 4 Years+ Barrels Sold to Whisky and Scotch Producers to Age to +20 Years
  • 10 Years.+ Barrels Are Sold to Beer Producers to Add Complexity to Beer
  • Wines Can Be Aged In Oak For Several Months to Several Years. Over Time Tannins Join Together and Form Long Chains, This Smooths Out Wine and Gives it a Soft, Velvet Like Mouthfeel. Aging Wine Also Encourages Clarification, Stabilization of Wine and to Ensure All Chemical Reaction Have Completed Before Bottling.

HISTORY

  • Romans First to Age Wine, With Fall of Rome Quality/ Quantity of Wine Dropped, Taste For Aged Wine Decreased.
  • Taste For Aged Wine Increased With Development of Glass Bottle, Cork Stoppers, Which Lead to Vintage Aging.

AGING/ Elevage- The Art of Raising or Maturing a Wine to Ready it For the Moment of Bottling. The Key to Elevage Lies In a Wines Relationship With Oxygen and the Exchange With and Through Wood Takes Place.

  • Imparts Qualities Through Process of Evaporation, Low Exposure to Oxygen. Oxygen Can Enter a Barrel Through the Bunghole, Through the Staves or Between Them. A Standard Oak Barrel is Deemed Perfect For Elevage and Subjects the Wine to an Ideal Level of Gentle Oxygenation. (35 Milligrams Per Litre Every Year.)
  • Barrel Fermentation is Difficult to Control.
  • Age of Wood as Well as Thickness of Staves Impact Rate In Which Oxygen Dissolves In Wine.

EVAPORATION- Lose of Wine in Wooden Containers Over Time Due to Evaporation or Leakage.

  • Angles Share- 1%-2% Naturally Occurring Evaporation Each Year. (Based On Cellar Humidity)

ULLAGE- Space Left In Container or Amount by Which a Container Falls Short of Being Full.

  • Ullage Space is Not Empty But Can Contains Alcohol Vapors, Water, Some Carbon Dioxide Previously Dissolved From the Wine.
  • Sacchaomyces(Flor)- Scum Like Yeast That Develops In Ullage of Barrels In High Humidity Climates if Not Topped Off. (Sherry, Vin Jaune)
  • Devil’s Cut- Amount of Wine That Seeps Into the Oak Barrels Wooden Staves.

TOPPING OFF/ Ouillage- Adding Wine to Container Which Has Evaporated. Important So No Ullage That Would Allow Air Contact/ Oxidation is Present. Good Viticultural Practice is to “Top-Off” Bi-Monthly or Monthly.

  • Air Exposure is One of the Greatest Enemies to Wine After Fermentation is Complete, It’s the Leading Cause of Oxidation and Microbial Spoilage.
  • An Option to Topping With Wine is to Add Glass Marbles to Barrel/ Vessel to Displace Wine and Fill In Empty Space.
  • Another Option to Topping Wine is Use Inert Gas Such as Nitrogen, Argon, or Co2. This is Recommended For Short Term Storage Only.

There’s a Difference Between Barrel Aging Wine(Putting Wine In a Oak Barrel) to Impart Flavors and ‘Oak Aging’ Wine(Putting Oak Chips In Vats) to Impart Flavors.


MAKING OAK BARRELS

  • The OAK TREE
    • Top- If the Tree is Straight Enough This Section of the Oak is Produced Into Wood Beams For Building.
      • The Branches and Leaves Are Used For Fuel, Fertilizer and Particle Boards.
    • Middle- Wine Barrel Alternatives For Wine Production/ Tank Staves, Wood For Floors or Furniture, Bark, Fuel.
    • Bottom- Staves For Wine Barrels, Barrel Alternatives(Chips)
  • PRE ASSEMBLAGE
    • Oak Trees Are Selected On the Basis of Quality. Quality is Based On the Shape of Tree and the Growing Conditions, Both of Which Determine Texture of Wood Fibers, Tightness fo Grain and Tannin Content.
    • After Tree is Cut Down/ Felled, the Tree is Sectioned Into One Meter Lengths.
    • Splitting- Oak is Hand Split to Preserve Wood Grain Without Breaking Veins, or a Hydraulic Splitter is Used, or Some Oak is Cut by Saw.
    • Once Split Into Workable Shapes, the Oak is Sorted and Defective Pieces Are Discarded or Cut Into Smaller Pieces to Be Used as Oak Chips Later.
    • Curing- Once Sorted the Oak is Stacked and Placed In a Wood Yard and Left to Season/ or Cure For Up to 3 Years. Exposure to Air and Water to Naturally Age the Wood and Purges the Oak of Impurities, Undesirable Odors and Harsher Tannins. The Final Year Numerous Test Are Performed In Order to Monitor Moisture Content, Sugar and Acidity Development.
  • ASSEMBLAGE
    • Act or Process of Putting the Barrels Together or Building the Barrel.
  • ASSEMBLING The OAK STAVES
    • Lumber is Shaped, Beveled, and Cut to Length Before It’s Ready to Use. Important that the Right Number of Staves Are Chosen to Make Sure They Will Be a Tight Fit.
    • Raising the Skirt/ Mise en Rose- Piecing Stave On the Inside of a Metal Hoop.
  • PREPARING To BEND/ Forming
    • Oak Needs to Be Softened to Bend Into Shape. With Lower Irons Bands Installed, It’s Inverted Over a Fire to Heat the Wood. Water is Also Applied to Help Soften Staves So Are Pliable Enough to Bend Into Shape.
  • TOASTING BARRELS FOR FLAVOR
    • Charring Barrels Over For at a Certain Heat Intensity For a Certain Period of Time. Barrels Charred Over a Flame of Gas, Electric or Oak Chip. Temperature and Length of Time Barrel is Toasted Has Profound Effect On Different Flavors and Aromas Associated With Barrels. The Toasting Process Will Caramelized Wood, and the Sugars Brings Out Distinct Flavors In Finished Wine While Activating the Aromatic Esters of the Wood.
      Cresset– Metal Bucket Fire is Started In with the Leftover Oak Scraps.
    • Level of Barrel Toast
      • Light                     Medium Light-
      • Medium Plus      Heavy-
  • LENGTH AND INTENSITY OF CHARRED
    • Matter a Heat, Time and Intensity- Barrels Can Be Toasted For a Minute at High Intensity/ Flame, or Toasted Over Embers For Up to Eight Hours.
    • How Many Times Barrel Was Used.
    • How Many Years Barrel Was Used.
  • INSTALLING The HEADS
    • Once Toasting Barrels and Heads the End Bands are Removed to Allow the Head to be Slipped Into the “Croze” and Place and Then Re-Installed to Hold Everything Together. (Heads Can be Toasted or Not)
  • FINISH & SANDING
    • Cooperages Take Pride In the Look of Their Barrels. The Barrels Are Smoothed Sanded With to Give Barrel the Finish of Fine Work-Man-Ship.
  • HYDRATING The BARREL
    • Barrel Filled With Water to Swell Wood and Check For Leaks. Barrel is Then Wrapped In Cellophane to Prevent From Drying Out Before First Use.
  • GENERALLY One Skilled Cooper Can Produce One Barrel a Day
    • Oak Barrels Are Produced Using No Nails or Wood Glue. The Joint/ Crows and Chimes In the Head and Pressure Keeps the Barrel Integrity In Place.
    • Willow Bark- Historically In Certain Parts of the World Barrels Were Furbished With a Willow Bark Around the Heads of the Barrels to Act as a Varmint Protector Acting Against Them Eating Away at the Wood to Get to the Inside.

BUNG HOLE-

BUNG- Barrel Stopper Used to Plug Bung Hole, Made Out of Glass, Plastic, Wood, Rubber, Silicone.

  • Bung Stave– Stave Bung Hole is Drilled
  • Wine Thief- Pipette Style Glass Tube 17 Inch In Length With Angle, Used to Extract Samples of Wine From Barrel.

A Barrel is Made Up of 34 Staves, Two Head Pieces and 4-8 Metal Hoops.

CLEANING OAK BARRELS

HISTORICALLY

  • Rinse Several Times With Cold Water.
  • Fill Half Way With Hot Water, Add Soda Ash Solution, Fill Completely With Hot Water.
  • Let Sit For 24 Hours, Rinse Several Times With Cold Water.
  • Fill Half Way With Cold Water, Add Sodium Bisulphite Solution, Add Citric Solution, Fill Completely With Cold Water.
  • Let Sit For 24 Hours, Rinse Several Times With Cold Water.

THIS CENTURY

  • Barrel Cleaning Over the Years Has Advance With the Advancement In Viniculture. Combinations of Different Cleaning Methods Also Eliminates Virtually all Yeast, Mold and Bacteria From Wood and Decreases Volatile Acidity Potential.
  • Use of Steam, Allows For a More Sanitary Job Using a Fraction of the Water.
  • MOOG.- Devise Placed In Barrel That Uses a High Pressure Jet Washer to Vertically Wash Barrel Without Rolling or Moving the Barrel.
  • Blasting Water at High Pressure is Used to Remove Tartrate Crystals and Builded Up Wine Residues.
  • Dry-Ice Technology is Used For Barrel Cleaning.
  • Barrel Cleansers/ Hand Held- Cleans the Inside of the Barrel and Siphons Off the Water at the Same Time.
  • Barrel Cleansers/ Machine Rack- Barrels Cleaned On a Rack. The Hydraulically Powered Spray Head is Inserted Into the Bunghole From Below, the Dirty Water Runs Out Agin through the Bunghole.

BARREL RENEWAL- Taking Apart Oak Wine Barrel and Shaving Interior Pigmented Wood of the Staves, Reassembled and Sometimes Re-Toasted. While Barrels Can Be Renewed to Coax Anther 5 Years of Work, it Isn’t Exactly the Same and Most Wineries In America Dispose or Pass Along the Barrels After 5 Year.


TONNELLERIE

TONNELLERIE Of The OLD-WORLD

  • AQUITAINE     @Languedoc, France     Barrels Produced- 40,000
  • BERNARD     @Cognac, France      Barrels Produced- 6,500
  • BERTHOMIEU     @Loire, France       Barrels Produced-
  • BILLON     @Beaune, France       Barrels Produced- 12,000
  • BOUTES     @Entre-d-Mers, France     Barrels Produced- 28,000
  • BULGARIAN OAK     @Bulgaria   Barrels Produced- 500
  • CADUS      @Burgundy, France      Barrels Produced- 17,000
  • CLAUDE GILLET     @St. Romain, France, Barrels Produced- 10,000
  • DAMY     @Meursault, France     Barrels Produced- 20,000
  • DARGAUD & JAEGLE     @  ?     Barrels Produced- 24,000
  • DEMPTOS      @Bordeaux, France
  • EUROPEAN COOPERS     @Hungary
  • KALINA HORDO     @Hungary
  • LAFITTE      @France
  • LAGLASSE      @Lorraine, France
  • LOUIS LATOUR      @Beaune, France
  • MERCIER      @Charente, France     Barrels Produced- 13,000
  • MERCUREY       @Mercurey, France      Barrels Produced- 16,000
  • MEYRIEUX     @Burgundy, France
  • MILLET     @Bordeaux, France
  • MORLIER      @Bordeaux, France     Barrels Produced-3,000
  • NADALIE      @Bordeaux, France
  • QUINTESSENCE       @Bordeaux, France
  • RADOUX       @Charente-Maritime, France
  • RANCOIS FRERES      @Burgundy, France
  • ROUSSEAU      @Burgundy, France
  • SEGUIN MOREAU      @Burgundy      Barrels Produced- 90,000
  • SIRUGUE       @Nuits-Saint-Georges, France
  • SYLAIN       @Bordeaux, France
  • TARANSAUD      @Cognac, France
  • TONNELLERIE QUINTESSENCE      @Bordeaux, France
  • TONNELLERIE TREMEAUX      @Beaune, France
  • TARANSAUD      @France
    • **Produces Wooden Egg-Shaped Barrel
  • TREUIL       @France
  • VERNOU       @France
  • VICARD      @Cognac, France      Barrels Produced-70,000

TONNELLERIE Of The NEW-WORLD

  • BARREL ASSOCIATES       @ ?
  • BARREL BUILDERS INC.       @St. Helena,  California
  • BARREL ASSOCIATES       @Fresno,  California
  • BOUCHARD COOPERAGES       @Napa,  California
  • CANTON COOPERAGE       @Santa Rosa, California
  • CHARLOIS COOPERAGE       @Cloverdale, California
  • COOPERAGES 1912      @Napa, California
  • DEMPTOS      @Napa,  California
  • DENIS AND SONS      @USA.
  • FRENCH COOPERAGES LLC.       @Portland, Oregon
  • INOXCENTRO       @Santiago, Chile
  • MISTRAL BARRELS     @Sonoma,  California
  • NADALIE     @Calistoga, California
  • O      @Benicia, California
  • OKANAGAN VALLEY     @Brittish Columbia, Canada   
  • OREGON BARREL      @McMinnville, Oregon
  • QUALITY WINE BARRELS COOPERAGE      @Arroy Grande, California
  • ReWINE BARRELS      @Salem, Oregon
  • ROLLING THUNDER       @Newport, California
  • SEQUIN MOREAU     @Napa,  California
  • TN COOPERS     @Sonoma, California
  • TRUST, COOPERAGE      @Napa, California
  • WORLD COOPERAGE      @Napa, California

WHAT TO LOOK FOR IN A TONNELIER/ COPPER

  • Quality, Consistency, Experience

OTHER SUB-TOPICS Of BARREL CHAPTER

MANAGING BARRELS INVENTORY And THEIR INVESTMENT

  • Barrels Are a Major Investment to a Winery and One That Rapedlly Depriciating Vinetage After Vinetage.  New French Barrels Will Cost Close to $1,000 a Barrels and New American Oak Barrels Will Set the Wine Producer Back $500.  Over Time These Barrels Need to be Maintained  and Protected or Sold Off to Maximize There Investment.
    • Barrels Need to Be Cleaned, Sanitized and Kept In a Cool, Sufficiently Humid Cellar.
    • Barrels Can Be Pasted Down Vintage to Vintage to Enhance Different Styles of Wine That a Winemaker is Producing.  The First Two Years the Barrel Can Be Used On a Cabernet Sauvignon Wine, the Next Year That Same Barrel Can Be Used to Help Age a Merlot, and the Following Year That Same Barrel Can Be Used For a Pinot Noir Vintage Which Only Requires Only Light Oak Influence.
    • The Last Thing a Wine Producer Can Do is to Sell Off Old Barrels. If the Producer Only Makes Cabernet Sauvingon They Can Sell Off Their Old Barrel Inventory to Another Producer Who Has a Use For 2 Year Old Barrels.
  • **Refer to “CONTAINERS/ Oak Barrels” For Additional Information

OAK BARREL AGING IN SOLERA BLENDING SYSTEM

  • Fractional Blending System- Originated In Jerez For Maintaining Consistency of Wine by Blending Between Multiple Vintages Over Time In Oak Barrels.
  • Using Racking or Gravity to Blend Multiple Years Barrels.
  • **Refer to “BLENDING/ Solera Blending” For Additional Information

The BARREL MATRIX

  • The Barrel Matrix is What Experienced Wine Maker Quantify Before and During Elevage. Just as a Chef has a Spice Rack For Cooking a Wine Maker Has the Barrel Matrix.
  • TYPES Of OAK “TOAST LEVELS”
    • American Chard
    • French Medium Toast
    • Hungarian Light Toast
  • AGE Of BARRELS
    • New 1/2 Barrel
    • Used Barrel
    • Neutral Fudor
    • Old
  • SIZE Of BARRELS
    • Traditional Barrel vs. Fuder
  • TIME AGED IN BARREL
    • 6 Mouths vs. 1 Year. vs. 2 Years

OAK BARREL ALTERNATIVES Mimics Oak Expression at a Lessor Price Alternative.

  • OAK STAVES-
    • Available Individually and Generally Create the Best Barrel Like Oak Profile.
    • Staves Can Be Used During Fermentation, Aging and Finishing Stages of Wine Production.
  • OAK SLEEVES-
    • Full of Chopped Oak Pieces
  • OAK SHAVINGS- 
  • OAK CHIPS-
    • Chips Are Toasted In Same Manner as Staves, and Can Provide Excellent Tannins and Body to a Finished Wine.
    • Available In French and American Oak, and In Different Toast Levels.
    • Alternative Oak Chips…Oak “Dominos”, Oak “Beans”
  • OAK POWDERS-
    • Oak Powders Are Suited to Be Added at the Crusher Prior to Primary Fermentation.
    • Available In French and American Oak, and In Different Toast Levels.

OAK CHIPS- Cheaper Than Barrel Aging, Controllable (Pencil Shaving to Nut Size)

  • American Oak Dust (Light Oak)
  • American Oak Chips (High Toast)
  • French Oak Chips (Medium Toast)

SINGLE STAVES- Staves/ Inserts Oak Planks Places In Stainless Steel Tanks.

  • Imparts Oak Flavors to Wine More Economically, Used In Conjunction With Micro- Oxygenation.
  • Plank- Term Used For a Stave When It’s Used to Add Oak Flavors to a Wine by Putting it Into a Tank or a Vessel by Itself.

BUYING OAK BARRELS

  • Things to Consider
    • Cultivating a Relationship With a Particular Producer.
    • Dollar/ Euro Exchange Rate
    • Buy In Advance, Industry Standard Generally Saves 6%

THINGS WRITTEN ON OAK BARRELS

  • ON HEAD
    • Tonnellier, Barrel Making
    • Toast Level
    • Barrel Size- Liter/ Gallon
    • Year Produced
    • Country of Oak Origin
  • ON STAVES


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced