🇩🇪GERMANY-Overview


GERMANY IS  Anbaugebiete13    Bereiche41    Grosslage164   Einzellage2,660

  • WEIS= Riesling 22%, Rivaner 13% AKA=Muller-Thurgau, Kerner 4%, Bacchus 2%, Scheurebe 2%, Albalonga, Arnsburger, Blauer Urban, Breidecker, Bronner, Bukettaube, Dalkauer, Ehrenfelser, Elbling, Faber AKA=Faberrebe, Freisamer, Geisenheim 318, Gutenborner, Helios, Hibernal, Holder, Huxelrebe, Johanniter, Juwel, Kanzler, Knipperle AKA=Gelber Ortlieber,  Merzling, Morio Muskat, Nobling, Optima, Orangetraube, Oraneinsteiner, Orion, Orleans Gelb, Ortega, Osteiner, Perle, Phoenix, Prinzipal, Rauschling, Regner, Reichensteiner, Riesliner, Saphira, Solaris, Wurzer
    • International– Silvaner 5%, Weisburgunder AKA=Pinot Blanc 4%, Grauburgunder/ Rulander 4% AKA=Pinot Gri, Chardonnay 1%, Gewurztraminer 1%, Gutedel 1% AKA=Chasselas, Auxerrois, Faber, Weisser Heunisch AKA=Gouais Blanc
  • ROT= Dornfelder 8%, Regent 2%, Acolon, Affenthaler, Allegro, Cabernet Carbon, Cabernet Carol, Cabernet Cortis, Cabernet Cubin, Cabernet Dorio, Cabernet Dorsa, Cabernet Mitos, Dakapo, Domino, Dunkelfelder, Helfensteiner, Heroldrebe, Monarch, Prior, Reberger, Rondo, Rosetta, Rotberger, Schonburger, Siegerrebe, Tauberschwarz, Zweigeltrebe AKA=Zweigelt
    • International– Spatburgunder AKA=Pinot Noir 11%, Portugieser 4%, Trollinger AKA=Schiava 3%, Schwarzriesling AKA=Pinot Meunier 2%, Lemberger AKA=Blaufrankisch 2%, Cabernet Sauvignon, Domina, Fruhburgunder,  Merlot, Saint Laurent
    • Teinturier Calandro, Deckrot
  • GERMAN GRAPE CROSSINGSImportant Group of Varieties That Were the Result of Vine Breeding at Geisenheim & Geilweilerhof.
    • WHITE= Albalonga, Bacchus, Ehrenfelser, Faber, Freisamer, Gutenborner, Huxelrebe, Juwel, Kanzler, Kerner, Morio Muskat, Nobling, Optima, Ortega, Perle, Phoenix, Regner, Reichensteiner, Riesliner, Scheurebe, Wurzer
    • RED= Schonburger, Siegerrebe
    • **Refer to “THE GRAPE ITSELF/ Vine Crossing” For Detailed Information On These.

GEOGRAPHY HEMISPHERE-Northern, REGION-Central-Europe, COUNTRY-Germany,  LATITUDE: 47.5*-51.5* ‘N’

  • BORDERS: France(West), Austria(South), Czech Republic(South-East)
  • Stretches From North Sea/ Baltic Sea In the North to the Alps In South.
  • Bundeslander-(16 Federal Republic States)
    • Baden-Wurttemberg, Bavaria, Bremen, Berlin, Branderburg, Hamburg, Hesse, Mecklenurg-Western Pomerania, North Rhine-Westphalla, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhal, Saxony-Lower, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia
  • Anbaugebiete-(13) Wine Region In Germany….(State)(PDO.)
    • Ahr, Baden, Franken, Hessiche Bergstrass, Mittelrhein, Mosel, Nahe, Pfalz, Rheingau, Rheinhessen, Saale Unstrut, Sachsen, Württemberg
  • Bereiche-(40) District or Sub Region of Anbaugebiet…(Appellation)
  • Glosslage-(163) Group of Adjacent Vineyards In Specific Area…(Sub-Appellation)
    • Always Appear With a Village Name…Village Name +er +Glosslage Name
  • Einzellage-(2,650) Individual Vineyard, Minimum Size of 5 Hectares.
    • Always Appear With a Village Name…Village Name +er +Einzellage Name

TOPOGRAPHY FEATURES–  “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced/ Valley”

  • Valleys- (Ahr/ Mosel/ Nahe/ Rhone/ Rhine/ Saale/ Unstruct)”
  • Rivers- On~Ahr/Mosel/Nahe/Neckar/Saale/Unstruct~Rivers~Tributaries~Rhine~River~(Headwater In Switzerland/ Lake Constance to North Sea)
    • For Millennia the Rhine River Has Been a Major Route For European Trade, Transportation and Development. Its Importance In the History and Growth of Germany and Europe Can’t be Understated.

SOILS Metamorphic, Primary Rock,  Volcanic, Tuff, Sedimentary, Shell Limestone

  • Greywacke, Keuper(Colored Marl, Gypsum Marl), Loess, Slate(Weathered Slate)
  • Buntsandstein– Red Slate/ Iron Rich/ Devonian Slate
  • Blauen Schiefer– Blue Slate, Loam, Loess, Marl, Shell, Clay
  • Kalkstein– Limestone
  • **Refer to “GERMANY/ Sub-Chapters” For Detailed Information On Soils.
  • **Refer to “TERROIR/ Geology & Soil” For Detailed Information On Soils.

CLIMATE Continental/Cool, Influenced by Warmth of Gulf-Stream

  • Summers– Warm, Periodic Rain   |   Winters– Wet, Cold

VITICULTURE 102,000 ha. Planted,  (White 64%/ Red 36%)

  • Germany is #10 In Grape Production In World & #8 In Wine Consumption
  • CHALLENGES– Spring Frost, Hail, Erosion, Shallow Soils, Fungal Infections
    • Near 50* Latitude is Generally Poor For Grape Growing. Viticulture is Successful In Germany Because of Multiple Factors. Cool Climate Grapes Are Used For Wine Production. Germany Vineyards Are Generally Planted On Slopes or Steep Hills Protected by Forests That Keep Out the Wind. Germany is Always Dependent On Sun-Reflecting Rivers and Tributaries. The Soils Here Are Predominantly Slate Which Absorbs and Reflects Heat Which Helps Ripening.
  • Over Millions of Years Rivers In Germany Have Cut Into Valleys So Dramatically the Resulting Terraces Are Some of the Most Dramatic In the World. These Steep Terraces Protect Vines From Extreme Cold In the Winter and Moderates Heat In the Summer. These Bends In Rivers Act as Amphitheater to Collect Sun and Warmth.
  • No Irrigation is Aloud In Germany. (For the Most Part Non is Needed.)
  • Flurbereinigung– Wholesale Restructuring to Most of Germanys Vineyards After the 1950’s.
    • This “Campaign” to Consolidate Parcels of Land That Was Divided by Successive Generations of Inheritance.
    • The Re-Planting of Vines Up Slopes In Vertical Rows Up and Down Rather Than Horizontally Across Terraces.
  • Vine Training System/ Single Post System– Due to the Abundance of Steep Slopes Throughout German Wine Regions, Germany Grape Growers Use the Single-Post System. Growers Train Vines Upright, Without Trellising Wires, Using a Vertical Cordon or Two Canes Wrapped In a Heart-Shaped Bow.

VINICULTURE

  • WINE BARRELS~ Larger Barrels Used to Control and Implement Oak Use In Germany
    • ~Fuder~ 1,000 Liters(Mosel)
    • ~Stuck~ 1,200 Liters(Rhine)
    • ~Halbstuck~ 600 Liters(Rhine)
    • ~Halbfuder~ 500 Liters(Mosel)
    • ~Viertelstuck~ 300 Liters(Rhine)
  • Sussreserve Unfermented Grape Must That’s Used After Fermentation to Sweeten a Wine Without the Use of Sugar.
  • Chapitalization Addition of Sugar to Must to Raise Potential Alcohol Level of a Finished Wine.
  • Liebfraumilch- Qualitatswein Quality Wine From Nahe, Pfalz, Rheingau or Rheinhessen That Contains at Least 70% Riesling, Silvaner, Kerner or Muller-Thurgau. (Liebfraumilch is A Sweeter Style Wine With a Minimum 18G./ L. or Residual Sugar or Halbtrocken, Usually Bulk Wine Produced For Export.
  • Rotling- Wine Made From White & Red Grapes Macerated and Fermented Together.  wine is Pale to Light In Color.
    • Badisch Rotgold– Rotling of Qualitativ and Pradikatswein Quality From Baden Region.
    • Schillerwein– Rotling of Qualitativ and Pradikatswein Quality From Wurttemberg Region.
    • Schieler– Rotling of Qualitativ and Pradikatswein Quality From Sachsen Region.
  • Weissherbst- Rose Produced In Germany, Must Be a Single Grape Variety and of Qualitatswein Quality.
  • Federweisser- Freshly Fermented Wine
    • Low In Alcohol and Cloudy With the Appearance of Suspended Yeast.  Federweisser is Meant to Be Consumed Shortly After Harvest.
    • ~Etymology~ Feder…Meaning Feather, Weiss….Meaning White
  • Blue Nun- Brand Launched In 1920’s. The Wine Became Extremely Popular From the 1950’s-1980’s Helped With a Series of Add Campaigns Which Are Considered to Be the First Global Mass Marketing of a Wine Brand. This Was Also Helped by Ex-Military Personal Who Came Home From Being Stationed In Germany After World War II With a Taste For Sweet Wine.
  • Hock- Refers to Wine Produced In Hockheim In Rheingau Region.
    • Now It’s a Popular General Term Use by Outside German to Describe German Riesling Produced In a Tall “Flute” Style Bottle. Some of the General Names For German Wines Liebfraumilch, Piesporter, Blue Nun.

HISTORY

  • 50 BC @Germany–  Romans Conquer Germania, Introduced Viticulture to Germany.
  • 276 @Germany–  Emperor Probus AKA=The Wine Emperor, Promulgate Wine North of Alps.
  • 748 @Germany– Charlemagne
  • 826 @Wurttemberg– First German Sparkling Wines Produced.
  • 884 @Germany– First Spatburgunder Vines Planted In Germany.
  • 1100-1600 @Germany– “Golden Years”
  • 1100 @Rheingau– First Vines Planted at Would Become Schloss Johannesburg.
  • 1618-1648 @Germany30 Year War
  • 1789 @Germany– French Revolution War.
  • 1800-1900 @Germany Rise of Modern Viticulture
  • 1826 @Wurttemberg– First Sekt House Founded By Georg Kessler
  • 1830 @Germany– First Eiswein Harvest Takes Place In Rheinhessen.
  • 1877 @Germany– Phylloxera Epidemic
  • 1892 @Germany– Natural Wine Laws, Revised ’09, ’30, ’71
  • 1902 @Germany– Sekt Tax- 1 Euro per Bottle, In 1902 to Finance the Germany Navy.
  • 1914-1918 @Germany– World War I, Trade Blockage With the Rest of Europe.
  • 1940’s @Germany– World War II, Ruined the Vineyards and Wine Trade Economy.
  • 1971 @Germany– German Wine Law.
  • 2009 @Germany– German Wine Law “Shaped” to European Union Standards.

WINE & WAR~

  • 30 Years War– 1618-1648
    • Religious Conflict Fought In Central Europe Between Catholic and Protestant States That Formed the Holy Roman Empire.  The War However Became Less About Religion and More About the Which Group Would Ultimately Govern Europe.
  • WWI-
  • WWll- Germany’s Wine Regions Were Subject to Reoccurring Aireal Bombardment. The Vineyards Were Not Specifically Targeted but Allied Air Forces Would Once Completing a Mission Over Germany Would Routinely Jettison Remaining Munitions On Their Way Back to England to Conserve Fuel.
    • 1942- August 12th. Schloss Johannisberg and the Surrounding Vineyards Were a Secondary Target of an Air Raid On Mainz With a Third of the Vineyards Destroyed.

CULTURE +2,000 Year of Wine Culture

  • Monks & Monasteries ~Johannisberg~
    • Benedictine and Cistercians at Kloster Eberbach. Monks From Vougeot Brought Viticulture/ Pinot Noir From Burgundy to Rheingau In the Year 1107.
  • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~German Wine Institute/ Deutsches Weininstitut DWI.~
    • Mission~ Located In Mainz and State Affiliated Since 2,000.  Industry’s Marketing Organization Responsible For the Generic Promotion of the Quality and Sales of German Wine Domestically and Abroad.
  • ACADEME~ ~Geisenheim Grape Breeding Institute~      @Geinenheim, Rheingau
        • Specialization~ Grape Research For the Practical Advancement of Wine.
    • ~Geilweilerhof AKA=Julius-Kuhn-Institute~     @Siebeldingen, Pfalz
      • Specialization~ BreedingVine Varieties Which Combine Resistance to Fungal Disease With  Quality.
  • PIONEERS~ ~Peter Max F. Sichel~ German/ American Wine Merchant, Who Created the Success of Blue Nun Wine Brand.
  • FESTIVALS~ ~Prowein~ (March/ Dusseldorf)
  • GASTRONOMY... Potato, Cabbage, Sausage, Cherry, Pig, Apple, Schnapps
    • CHEESE... Butterkase(Cow/ Semi-Soft),  Handkase PDO.(Cow/ Semi-Soft),  Limburger(Cow/ Semi-Soft),  Rauchkase, Tilsit(Cow/ Semi-Hard)
  • GERMAN WINE AUCTIONS~  (For Charity and Profit)
    • A Number of Wine Auctions are Held Each Year Throughout Germany Where Wine Producers Sell of Some of Their Best Young Wines and Some Older Wines.

GOING THERE

  • RIVER CRUISE~  On~Rhine/ Mosel~River~ All Provide River Cruises of Wine Area

GERMAN WINE LAW

  • GOVERNING BODY= Germany/ European Union
    • Regional Wein
    • Geschutzte Geogrphische Angabe GGA…Protected Geographic Indikation…PGI.
    • Geschutzte Ursprungs-Bezeichnung GU…Protected designation of Origin…PDO.
  • LAWS GOVERNING= Founded In 1971 & Updated In 2009
    • Fermentation Methods
    • Label Requirements Chaptization            Tested & Tasted
      • Yield/ Per Hector                                        Location
  • 1971 GERMAN WINE-LAW CATEGORIES
    • History- In 1971 There Where 30,000 Single Vineyard Sights In Germany, With Partial Regard to Terroir. The Glosslage Where Grouped of Smaller Vineyard Sites For Administrative Units/ Purposes.
    • Germany’s 5th. Series of Wine Law “Revamped” the Old Law In an Attempted to Impose New Standards of Quality and to Simplify Label Language.
  • GERMAN WINE LABEL
    • 3 Categories of Terms and Descriptions
      • Mandatory Declarations
      • Optional Declarations That Are Precisely Defined
      • “Other Optional Declarations That Can Be Verified
    • MANDATORY DECLARATION
      • Country of Origin: “Deutscher Qualitatswein” or Qualitatswein Aus Deutschland”
      • Region of Origin: 1 of 13 Anbaugebiet
      • Grape/ Variety (Up to 3 Can Be Named
      • Vinetage   |   Style
      • Quality Category   |   Producer/ Bottler
      • ABV. %   |   Quality Control Test Number: A.P.Nr.
      • Contains Sulfites, Contains Milk or Eggs Products, (Albumin, Casein, Lysozyme)
    • OPTIONAL DECLARATIONS 
      • Recommended Drinking Temperature   |   Food Pairing   |   Aging Potential
      • Analytical Data (Residual Sugar Content/ Acidity Level)
      • Descriptive Information About Wine (Aromas/ Flavors)
      • Information About Producer   |   Awards Given
      • Information About Viticulture or Viniculture
  • AMTLICHE PRUGUNG SNUMMER APNR.
    • 10-12 Digit Number On Every German Bottle.
    • Official Test #- Past Standards Test On Official Testing Procedure.
    • First Numbers- The Location of the Countries Control Center Testing Station.
    • Next Number- Location of the Vineyard, Bottler Location.
    • Next 2 Numbers- Bottler’s Code-Identification of the Particular Lot.
    • Last 2 Numbers- States the Year In Which Wine Was Tested.
    • “Testing Stations”
      • Koblenz           Bernkastel         Trier
      • Alzey                Neustadt            Bad Kreuznach
    • Expression Index– Line On Back of Bottle Stating Sweetness, Acidity
    • Bundesweinppamierung– Official German Federal Wine Award

GERMAN WINE LEVELS

  • LANDWEIN/ WEIN/ TAFELWEIN
    • VITICULTURE– Table Wine Produced In Germany, Equivalent of IGP.
    • GEOGRAPHY- 26 Landweingebiete Throughout the 13 Anbaugebiete
      • **Refer to Anbaugebiete For List of Landweingebiete
    • VINICULTURE- Can Be Chaptized, Little Restriction, +BLENDED/ Often
      • Must Be Trocken or Halbtrocken
      • Maximun Alcohol Abv. 15%
      • Deutscher Wein- Wine Labeled With No Geographic Indication
  • QUALITATS-WEIN BESTIMMTER ANBAUGEBIETE  QBA.
    • GEOGRAPHY- Must Came From 1 of 13 regions
    • VITICULTURE- Quality Wine From Specific Growing Area
      • Equivalent of AOP./ AOC./ DOC.
    • VINICULTURE- No Blending, Label Must Indicate Region and Style, Can Be Chaptized
      • Maximun Alcohol Abv. 15%
  • QUALITATS-WEIN MIT PRADIKAT (Pradikatswein) QMP.
    • VITICULTURE– Wine With Perticular Attributes
      • Equivalent of AOP./ AOC./ DOC.
      • Potential Alcohol at Time of Harvest…6 Degrees of Ripeness
      • Minimum Starting Must Weight 70*-154* Oechsle
      • Grapes Must Come From a Single Bereich
      • Wines Must Not Have Their Musts Enriched/ No Chapatizaiton
      • Maximun Alcohol Abv. 15%
    • HISTORY– 1800‘s System of Merit Based On Degree of Ripeness at Harvest

GERMAN HARVEST and GRAPE SELECTION PROCESS

  • Harvest and Selection of Grapes is Slow and by Hand But is Key to Producing Germanys Different Wine Styles. What Makes it Harder is That Steep Vineyards Are Difficult to Work and an Extremely Labor Intensive Harvesting Selection Process. Harvesting Pickers Immediately Separate Grapes and Have Two Buckets That Grapes are Put In Depending On Ripeness and Condition. The “Black” Bucket For Completely Healthy Grapes That Will Be Used For Dry Wines or Fruitier Kabinett or Spatlese Styles Wines. The “Red” Bucket is For Grapes Effected by Botrytis, a Naturally Occurring Fungus That Grow On Grapes Skins and Slowly Draws Water Out While Concentrating the Juice Inside the Grape.

Don’t Think of the Different Prädikat Level as “Better”, But Enjoy Them for Being Stylistically Different.

  • RIPENESS LEVEL (Literal Translation)
  • KABINETT  (Cabinet) 70*-85* Ochsle
    • Bunches Are Fully Ripened, Harvested From the Main/ Normal Harvest.
    • VINICULTURE– Dry/ Potential Abv. 10%, Sweet Styles Typically 8%-9%Abv.
      • Kabinett Can Be Fermented Dry if Left to Ferment Completly.
  • SPATLESE  (Late Harvest) 80*-95* Ochsle
    • Bunches Are Picked a Least 7 Days After Normal Harvest.
    • VINICULTURE– Dry/ Potential Abv. 12%, Higher Abv. Than Kabinet
      • Spatlese Can Be Fermented Dry if Left to Ferment Completely.
      • WINE– Riper Fruit, More Body Concentration
  • AUSLESE  (Selected Harvest) 88*-105* Ochsle
    • Grapes Are Picked From Selected Very Ripe Bunches.
    • VINICULTURE– Dry/ Potential Abv. 14%, Higher Abv. Than Spatlese
      • Auslese Can Be Fermented Dry if Left to Ferment Completely.
      • WINE– Riper Fruit, More Body Concentration, the Greatest Range of Styles For Riesling
  • BEERENAUSLESE  (Selected Harvest of Berries) 110*-128* Ochsle
    • Grapes Selected Individually Usually Partially Affected by Botrytis.
    • VINICULTURE
      • Will Always Contain Some Residual Sugar, For Its Unable to Ferment Completely Dry.
  • TROCKENBEERENAUSLESE TBA. (Dried Selected Harvest of Berries) 150*-154*
    • Grapes Individually Selected, Fully Affected and Shriveled by Botrytis.
    • WEIS= Riesling, Scheurebe, Ortega, Welschriesling, Gewurztraminer
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Germany, Mosel/ Johannisberg
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Hilly”, On~Mosel~River~
    • VINICULTURE– After Fermentation, TBA.’s Rarely Have More Than 8% Abv.
      • Will Always Contain Some Residual Sugar, For Its Unable to Ferment Completely Dry.
      • Edelfaule– German Term of Botrytis
      • **Refer to “WINE STYLES/ Botrytis” For Detailed Information.
  • EISWEIN  (Ice-Wine) 110*-128* Ochsle
    • Grapes That Have Been Frozen While Still On the Vine.
    • GEOGRAPHY– Mosel, Rheingau
    • VITICULTURECHALLENGE–  In Great Year Producers Make All Styles In Same Vineyard From Multiple Passes/ Tries.
    • VINICULTURE– Grapes Left On Vine Until Weather is Below 7* C/ 19* F and Sugar Between 110*-128* Oechsle.
      • The Best Eiswein is Intentionally Produced, From Pristine Grapes Not Effected by Botrytis.
      • CHALLENGE– If Weather Doesn’t Freeze Fast Enough Grapes Rot and There’s a Chance for a Lost Harvest. Grapes Shouldn’t Be Effected by Botrytis Prior to Freezing, Only Healthy Grapes Stand Up to Freezing Temperatures.
      • In Late Fall Nets Have to Be Placed Over Vine For Protection of Birds, Boars and Deer.
      • When Grapes Are Pressed the Frozen Water Remains to Create a Highly Concentrated Must. When Fermented the Wine is Intensely Concentrated With High Acidity.
      • Will Always Contain Some Residual Sugar, For Its Unable to Ferment Completely Dry.
      • Not Artificial Freezing/ Cryoextraction is Permitted.
      • Estate/ Producers- Dr. Loosen , Dr. Paul Bergweiller, Maximin Grunhauser, Schloss Vollrads, Schloss Saarstein
    • HISTORY– Purposely Produced Since 1800’s, Commercial Production In 1960’s.
    • **Refer to “WINE STYLES/ Ice Wine” For Detailed Information.
    • EISWEIN EVALUATION
      • Sight: Hazy/ Golden
      • Aroma: Bruised Apricot
      • Palate: Sweet/ +BODY, Carmel
      • Structure: Low Tanins, +ABV., Medi Acid
        • PAIRING…Anchovy Appetizers             CHEESE…Blue(Gorgonzola)
  • SEKTAKA= Schaumwein,  SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional & Charmat
    • WEIS= Chardonnay, Gewurtraminer, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Scheurebe, Weissburgunder
    • ROT= Grauburgunder, Pinot Meunier, Spatburgunder
    • VITICULTURE– German Grades of Sekt…
      • DEUTSCHER/ GERMAN SEKT– Produced In Germany, May be Produced From Grapes Grown Outside of Germany. (A lot of German Sekt is Produced From Imported Grapes)
      • SEKT BA.- Produced In German, From Only Grapes Grown In Single Anbaugebiete.
      • WINZERSEKT– Estate-Bottled, Single Vinter-Produced Made In Traditional Method. (Vintage, Varietal and Producer’s Name Must Appear On the Label.
      • CREMANTMay Be Used In Conjunction With the Name of the Anbaugebiete if the Following Criteria is Made.
        • +AGED/ +9 Months   |   Produced In Traditional Method
        • Whole Cluster Fermentation   |   -50 G./ L. Residual Sugar
      • VDP. Sekt.- From VDP. Producer
    • VINICULTURERieslingsekt– Produced From 100% Riesling
      • -Estate/ Producers– Barth, Henkell, Sohnlein-Brillant, Reichsrat Von Buhl, Rotkappchen, Schloss Wachenheim, Schloss Vaux, Seckthaus Solter, Volker Raumland
    • HISTORY
      • 826 @Wurttemberg– First German Sparkling Wines Produced.
      • 1826 @Wurttemberg– First Sekt House Founded By Georg Kessler.
      • 1902 @Germany– Sekt Tax- 1 Euro per Bottle, In 1902 to Finance the Germany Navy.
    • **Refer to “WINE STYLES/ Sparkling” For Detailed Information.
    • SEKT EVALUATION
      • Sight: Pale/ Yellow
      • Aroma: Yeasty, Apple
      • Palate: Dry/ Thin
      • Structure: Low Tannins, -Abv., High Acid
        • PAIRING…           CHEESE

OECHSLE SCALE Hydrometer Scale Measuring the Density of Grape Must, Which is an Indication of Grape Ripeness and Sugar Content Used In Wine Making.

  • One Degree Oechsle Corresponds to One Gram of the Difference Between the Mass of One Liter of Must.
  • The Mass Difference Between Equivalent Volumes of Must and Water is Mostly Due to the Dissolved Sugar In the Must.
  • Oechsle Scale Forms the Basis of the German Wine Classification.
  • Sugar Content Indicated by the Oechsle Scale Only Refers to the Unfermented Grape Must and Never to the Finished Wine.
    • KABINETT– 70*-85* Ochsle     |   SPATLESE– 80*-95* Ochsle
    • AUSLESE– 80*-95* Ochsle       |   BEERENAUSLESE 110*-128* Ochsle
    • EISWEIN– 110*-128* Ochsle     |   TROCKENBEERENAUSLESE-150*-154* Ochsle
  • PIONEERS~ ~Ferdinand Oechsle~ Invented the Oechsle Scale
  • SWEETNESS STYLES
    • Trocken– Bone-Dry Less 9 G./L. Residual Sugar
    • Feinherb– Semi Dry, Off-Dry Not Legally Defined
    • Halbtrocken– Off-Dry 9-18 G./L. Residual Sugar
    • Lieblich– Sweet Less 45 G./L. Residual Sugar
    • Suss– Sweeter More 45 G./L. Residual Sugar
    • Edeluss– Desert Not Legally Defined


VERBAND DEUTSCHER PRADIKATSWEINGUTER VDP.

  • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Verband Deutscher Pradikatsweinguter~ VDP.
    • Association of German Pradikats (and Quality) Wine Esates
    • Mission~ German Vintners Who Are Committed to Terroir-Driven Viticulture at the Highest Level.

VDP. Is Not a Government Body or Agency, They Started as a Group That Took Initiative and Created Its Own Associations and Self Governing Culture.

HISTORY– Founded In 1910

  • Originally 4 Regional Winegrowers Associations That Came Together to Promote the Sale of Natur (Naturally Sweet/ Unchaptalized Wines) at Auction. Membership of Growers by Invite.
  • Not Officially Recognized by the Government.
  • Prestigious Growing Associated of Germany’s Best Wine Estates With 200+ Members, All of Which Are Entered Voluntary, and Managed by the Estate Producers.
  • Wines Are Subject to a Yearly Tasting Panal.
  • VDP. Produce Only 4% of German Wines, 60% of Which is the Riesling Grape.
  • VDP. Has Own Set of Rules Apart and Above German Wine Law.
  • New VDP. Members Can Always Apply and Existing Members Can Always Be Kicked Out For Cheating/ Not Following Strict Quality Guid Lines.
  • Distinguish by Traubernadler/ Emblem of Stylized Eagle Bearing a Cluster of Grapes Capsule On Bottle of VDP. Wines.
  • VDP. Committed to Terroir Driven Viticulture at the Highest Level, In Association of German Pradikit Wine Estates. Guarantees Wines of the Highest Quality. VDP. is Only Binding to VDP. Members Estates.
  • Goldkapsel/ Gold Capsule/ & Lange Goldkapsule/ Long Gold Capsule Are Mainly Used In the Mosel, Rheingau and Rheinhessen to Indicate a Wine With a Higher Sweetness and to Signify Botrytis In a Auslese Wine.
  • “German VDP./ Grand Cru System”
  • **VDP. Members Can Produce Wines In 4 Different Categories of Origin.
  • GROSSE LAGE “Great Growth/ Grand Cru Vineyards”
    • Designates Very Best Vineyards Are Planted With Traditional Varieties Best Suited For Each Potential Growing Sights.
    • Special Bottle Embossed With G.G. Logo.
    • WHITE Capsule Indicates Wine Released Following Year.
    • RED Capsule Indicates Wine Released Year After.
    • VITICULTURE– -Low Yields (50 hl./ha.)
      • Much Stricter Regulations Than QMP. Wines.
      • Hand Harvested, At Least Spatlese Ripeness Levels.
      • Traditional Wine Making Techniques.
      • Extensive Testing In Vineyards, and In Winery.
      • Labeled With Vineyard Name.
    • Grosses Gewachs/ Grosse Gewachse(Plural)- Ultra Premium Dry Wine From a Grosse Lage Vineyard.
        • Vineyards Site Must be Classified as Erste Lage.
        • Grape Varieties Must be Traditional For the Region.
        • Yields Lower Than 50 hl./ha.
        • Manual Harvest
        • Capsule Must Have VDP. Emblem.
        • Label Must Have Erste Lage Logo.
  • ERSTE LAGE “Premier Cru Vineyards”
    • Designation Used by VDP. to Denote Selected Sites Suitable For Erstes Gewachs.
    • VITICULTURE– Low Yields (60 hl./ha.)
      • Vineyards Preceded by Village Name.
      • Limited to Grauburgunder, Riesling, Silvaner, Spatburgunder.
    • Erstes Gewachs– A Gross Gewach From Rheingau
  • ORTSWEINE  “Village Level”
    • Grapes Typical of Area In Traditional Vineyard.
    • VITICULTURE– Low Yields (75 hl./ha.)
      • Often Indicates a Particular Soil.
      • Can Be Produced From Multiple Vineyards In a Single Village.
  • GUTSWEINE  “Regional Level”
    • Wines Produced From Estates Holding Within a Region, Entry Level That Meet General Standards VDP. Gutswein On Capsule.
    • VITICULTURE– Low Yields (75 hl./ ha.)
      • Statement of Origin/ Anbaugebiet On Label

IMPORTANT GERMAN WINE WORDS

  • Abfullung– Bottling
  • Absetzen– Process of Settling of Solids On Bottom of Vat
  • Alleinbesitz– Vineyard Owned by One Owner AKA=Monopole
  • Alte Reben– Old Vines
  • Amtliche Prufung– Official Quality Testing Number
  • Anbaugebiete– Growing Region
  • Anreicherung– Must Enrichment
  • Apfelsaure– Malic Acid
  • Bereiche-
  • Blauen Schiefer– Blue Slate
  • Buntsandstein– Red Slate
  • Degorger– To Remove, the Yeast Deposit From Bottle of Sparkling Wine.
  • Deutscherwein– German Wine
  • Edelfaule– Botrytis
  • Edeluss– Desert Sweetness, Not Legally Defined
  • Erste Lage– Top Sight
  • Erstes Gewachs– Literally/ First Growth, Wines From Top Sites or Parcels
  • Erzeuger Abfullung– Producer Bottled
  • Etikett– Label
  • Feinherb– Semi Dry, Off-Dry Not Legally Defined
  • Flashchengarung– Bottle Fermented
  • Flurbereinigung– Consolidation and Modernization of Viticulture
  • Fuder– Wine Barrel…265 Gallons / 1,000 Liters
  • Goldkapsel– Gold Capsal/ Producers Finest
  • Grosses Gewachs– Great Growth, Grand Cru
  • Gutsabfullung– Esate Bottled
  • Halbstuck– Wine Barrel…159 Gallons / 600 Liters
  • Halbfuder– Wine Barrel…132 Gallons / 500 Liters
  • Hock– British Term for German Wine
  • Halbtrocken– Off-Dry 9-18 G./L. Residual Sugar
  • Jahrgang– Vintage
  • Kalkstein– Limestone
  • Kloster– Abbey
  • Lage– An Appellation of Origin, a Vineyard Site
  • Lieblich– Sweet Less 45 G./L. Residual Sugar
  • Oechsle– Hydrometer Scale Measurement
  • Perlwein– A Slightly Sparkling Wine
  • Pradikat– Esate Bottled
  • Prost– Cheers
  • Sekt– Sparkling Wine
  • Schloss– Castle
  • Steillage– Steep Vineyard Sight
  • Stuck– Wine Barrel…317 Gallons / 1,200 Liters
  • Suss– Sweeter More 45 G./L. Residual Sugar
  • Trocken– Bone-Dry Less 9 G./L. Residual Sugar
  • Viertelstuck– Wine Barrel…80 Gallons / 300 Liters
  • Weingut– Winery/ Estate
  • Weinberg– Vineyard
  • Weinkellerei– A Large Commercial Winery/ Nogociant
  • Weinprobe– Wine Tasting
  • Weissherbst– Rose Wine
  • Weisswein– White Wine
  • Winzer– A Vintner or Wine-Grower


**Germany Images Courtesy of Delong Maps, Purchase These Wine Maps at Delongwine.com

  • GEOGRAPHIC DISCLAIMER~ To Benefit From “Demystifying “The Vine” and the World of Wine an Understanding of German’s Geography and Topography is Needed and the Ability to Visualize Its Wine Regions.  Sections In German Are Organized In a North to South, / East to West Orientation and Intended to Be Read and Memorized as So.

  • SUB-CHAPTERS Of GERMANY
    • Ahr
    • Mittelrhein
    • Mosel
    • Nahe
    • Rheingau
    • Rheinhessen
    • Pfalz
    • Baden
    • Franken
    • Hessische Bergstrass
    • Wurttenberg
    • Saale Unstrut
    • Sachsen
  • **Refer to Proceeding Sub-Chapters For Information On These


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.