🇫🇷FRANCE


FRANCE IS  Regions20    AOC.- 480      IGP.- 145       @Paris

  • BLANC= Chardonnay 5%, Sauvignon Blanc 2%, Colombard 1%, Chenin Blanc 1%, Marsanne -1%, Pinot Gri 1%, Pinot Blanc 1%, Roussanne -1%, Ahumat, Aligote, Altesse, Aranel, Arbane, Arriloba, Arrufiac, Aubin Blanc, Aubin Vert, Aurore, Auxerrois, Baco Blanc, Balzac Blanc, Baroque, Berdomenel, Biancu Gentile, Blanc Dame, Blanqueiro, Bourboulenc, Cacboue, Clairette, Claverie, Codivarta, Colombaud, Courbu Blanc, Crouchen, Golignan, Folle Blanche, Goldriesling, Gouais Blanc, Graisse, Gringet, Gros Manseng, Jacquere, Jurancon Blanc, Knipperle, Lauzet, Len de l’El, Liliorila, Madeleine Angevine, Marsanne, Mauzac Melon, Menu Pineau, Meslier Saint-Francois, Molette, Monbadon, Mondeuse, Montils, Muscadelle, Muscat Ottonel, Ondenc, Pascal Blanc, Petit Courbu, Petit Manseng, Petit Meslier, Peurion, Picardan, Piquepoul, Precoce de Malingre, Prunelard AKA=Bouysselet, Raffiat de Moncade, Ravat Blanc, Rayon d’Or, Romorantin, Rose du Var, Rosette, Roublot, Sacy, Savagnin, Seibel 10868, Semillon, Servant, Seyval Blanc, Tardif, Verdanel Blanc, Verdesse, Vidal, Vignoles, Villard Blanc, Viognier
    • International Ugni Blanc 10%, Alvarinho, Liliorila, Muscat, Petit Manseng, Riesling
  • ROUGE= Merlot 13%, Syrah 8%, Cabernet Sauvignon 7%, Pinot Noir 3%, Gamay 3%, Cot AKA=Malbec 1%, Carmenere -1%, Cinsaut AKA=Oeillade -1%, Counoise -1%, Petit Verdot -1%, Tannat -1%…..Albouriou, Alicante Bouschet, Aramon Noir, Arinarnoa, Arrouya, Aspiran Bouschet, Aubun, Bachet Noir, Baco Noir, Barbaroux, Beaunoir, Beclan, Bequignol Noir, Bourrisquou, Bouteillan Noir, Braquet Noir, Brun Argente, Brun Fourca, Caladoc, Calitor Noir, Camaraou Noir, Camari Noir, Carmenere, Cascade, Castet, Cesar, Chambourcin, Chancellor, Chasan, Chatus, Chelois, Chenanson, Chichaud, Chouchillon, Colobel, Couderc Noir, Courbu Noir, Chaunac, Douce Noire, Duras, Dureza, Durif, Ederena, Egiodola, Ekigaina, Enfarine Noir, Etraire de L’Adui, Fer, Florental, Ganson, Gascon, Genouillet, Gouget Noir, Gramon, Grolleau Noir, Gros Verdot, Gueuche Noir, Joubertin AKA=Jaubertin Landal, Landot Noir, Leon Millot, Mancin des Palus, Mandregue, Manseng Noir, Marechal Foch, Marselan, Mauzac Noir, Mecle Bourgoin, Merille AKA=Grapput, Mezy, Milgranet, Mollard, Mondeuse Noire, Monerac, Mornen Noir, Mouyssagues, Muscardin, Negret Banhars, Negrette, Noir Fleurien, Oeillade Noire, Onchette, Peloursin, Persan, Pineau d’Aunis, Plant Droit, Plantet, Portan, Poulsard, Prunelard, Rivairenc, Saint-Macaire, Salvador, Segalin, Serenelle, Sereneze, Servanin, Seyval Noir, Teoulier Noir, Terret, Tibouren Tressot, Triomphe, Trousseau, Valdiquie
    • -International Grenache AKA=Garnacha 11%, Carignan 7%, Arinarnoa, Castets, Marselan, Touriga Nacional

GEOGRAPHY REGION-Western Europe(East), COUNTRY-France, LATITUDE: 41.59° – 51.03° N

  • BORDERS: Belgium(North-East), Germany(East), Switzerland(South-East), Italy(South-East)
  • REGIONS– Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Brittany, Burgundy, Centre-Val de Loire, Champagne-Ardenne, Corsica, Franche-Comte, Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillion, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Normandy(Lower & Upper), Pays de La Loire, Picardy, Phone-Alpes, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d’Azur
  • Sub-Zones- Loire Valley, South-West, Bordeaux, Burgundy, Champagne, Alsace, Jura/ Savoie/ Bugey, Northern Rhone, Southern Rhone, Provence, Languedoc, Roussillon, Massif Central, Corsica

TOPOGRAPHY– FEATURESFlat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Valley/ Terraced

    • On~Coast/ Bay of Biscay/ English Channel/ Mediterranean~Sea~
    • Most of France Is Formed by the Breaking Apart of Pangea “The Super Continent” and Different Tectonic Events Happening  Across the Country.
  • PARIS BASIN
    • Geography– France(North)
    • Formation– Geologic Sedimentary Basin Formed by Varican Orogeny
      • Jurassic Period(200 Million Year Ago), Rifting Area Caused by the Breaking Up of Pangea Was Filled With Warm Shallow Water.  This Area Lead to the Formation of the Limestone We See In This Area of France.
    • Wine-Regions– Champagne, Chablis(Northern Burgundy), Sancerre(Western Loire)
  • MASSIF AMORICAN
    • Geography– France(North-West), 
    • Formation– Formed by the Assemble of Pangea(The Super-Continent), The Region Was Uplifted When the Bay of Biscay Opened During the Cretaceous Period.
    • Wine-Region– Western Loire Valley, Brittany and Normandy
  • ARDENNES-BRAHANT
    • Geography– France(North)
  • MASSIF Des VOSGES
    • Geography– France(East)
    • Formation– Geologic Area Consisting of Low Mountains of the Vosges Mountains.
    • Wine-Regions– Alsace
  • MASSIF CENTRAL
    • Geography– France(South-Central)
    • Formation– Formed by the Assemble of Pangea(The Super-Continent), Elevated Region of Mountains and Plateaus.
    • Wine-Regions
  • KIMMERIDGIAN RIDGE
    • Geography– France(North-East/ Central)
    • “Limestone Ridge/ Basin“, A “Crescent Shape”, That Runs From Southern England and Curves Down Into France/ Outer Rim of Paris Basin Through the Regions of Champagne and Burgundy and Continues to Curve Into the Region of Loire Valley.
    • Wine Regions– Champagne, Burgundy(North/ Chablis), Loire Valley(East/ Sancerre)
  • ALPINE OROGENY
    • Geography– France(East), Foothills of Alps
    • Formation– Formed by Continents of Africa and India and the Cimmerian Plate Colliding With Eurasia Plate.
    • Wine Region– Jura, Bugey, Savoie
  • AQUITAINE BASIN
    • Geography– France(South-West)
    • Formation– From Pyrenees Mountains
    • Wine Region– Bordeaux, South-West France, Languedoc
  • RIVERS–  Play a Major Roll In Modern Viticulture as Well as Historically
    • On~Rhone~River~Tributaries~Doubs/ Saone/ Ain/ Isere/ Durance~
      • (Headwaters: Rhone Glacier/ Oberwald, Switzerland~to~Mediterranean~Sea~
    • On~Seine~River~Tributaries~Yonne/ Marne/ Oise/ Aisne/ Eure/ to
    • On~Loire~River~Tributaries~Allier/ Cher/ Indre/ Creuse/ Vienne/ Mayenne/ Sarthe~
    • On~Garonne~River~Tributaries~Triege/ Tarn/ Gers/ Lot~to~Atlantic Ocean~
    • On~Dordogne~River~Tributaries~Vezere/ Isle/ Laurence~
    • On~Moselle~River~
    • On~Charente~River~
  • OCEANS/ SEAS– On~Atlantic~Ocean/ Mediterranean~Sea~

SOILS  Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Volcanic, Refer to Regions for Details

  • Kimmeridgian RidgeContiguous-Limestone Basin, That Runs From Southern England to France.
  • **Refer to “FRANCE/ Sub-Chapters’ For Detailed Information ON Soils.
  • **Refer to “TERROIR/ Geology & Soil” For Detailed Information On Soils.

CLIMATE Continental(Central) Mediterranean(South), Maritime(West)

VITICULTURE  872,000ha. Planted,  #1 In Grape Production & #1 In Wine Consumption In World.

  • BURGUNDY
    • Grand Cru– Highest Classified Vineyard
    • Premier Cru– Second Highest Classified Vineyard
  • BORDEAUX
    • Premier Cru- Highest Level of Vineyard Classification

  • LIEU-DIT-(Literal Translation is French For a “Said Location”)- Plot of Land That is Recognized For Its Own Topographic or Historical Specificities. Lieu-Dit Are Small Geographic Areas Bearing a Traditional Name Having to Do With the Environment or Local Heritage. The Name of the Lieu-Dit Usually Refers to Some Characteristic of the Place(a Tree, Hill, River), Its Former Use or a Past Event.
  • CLIMATS- A Delineated Plot of Land That Has a Specific Geological or Climatic Condition.  Climats Confer Their Own Unique Terroir or Organoleptic Qualities Onto the Wine.
  • MONOPOLE- A Grape Growing Area Controlled by a Single Winery. It Can Be as Small as a Vineyard or as Large as an Entire Appellation.
    • IMPORTANT MONOPOLES Of FRANCE
      • Les Ruelies, La Mission (Premier Cru)   @Mercurey AOC.
      • La Tache, La Grande Rue (Grand Cru)   @Vosne-Romanee AOC.
      • Clos Marechaudes, Clos Corton Faiveley (Grand Cru)   @Aloxe-Corton AOC.
      • Clos de la Marechale, Clos de Thorey (Premier Cru)  @Nuits St.-Georges AOC.
      • Clos de L’ecu, Clos des Ursule (Premier Cru)  @Beaune AOC.
      • Clos des Ducs, Clos de la Bousse d’Or (Premier Cru)  @Volnay AOC.

VINICULTURE

  • WINE BARRELS~ ~Bordelaise225 Liters(Bordeaux)   ~Burgundy~ 288 Liters
    • ~Feuillette~ 132 Liters (Chablis)    ~Champagne~ 205 Liters (Champagne)
    • ~Foudre~ 1,000 Liters (Alsace)    ~Tonneau~ 900 Liters (Bordeaux)
    • ~Demi-Mudi~ 600 Liters (Chateaneuf-du-Pape)
  • FRENCH OAK
    • Species…Quercus Sessilis, Quercus Robur ECONOMY- $1,000/ Barrel
    • Exhibit– Subtle Tannins of Sweetness, Structure, Complexity
    • Qualities– Slow Growing, Tight Grained, Brown In Color, Tree 100-125 Years Growth Before Oak Can Be Used In Production.
    • Oak Forest of France– Argonne, Allier, Bertranges, Bourgogne, Centers, Limousin, Nevers, Troncais,Vosges

HISTORY 1,800 Year History of Viticulture

  • 500 BC. @Rhone Valley Viticulture,Introduced to Region by Greeks.
  • 500 BC. @Roussillon Romans Planted First Organized Grapes/ Vineyards.
  • 600 BC. @France ViticultureIntroduced to Region by Greeks/ Roman Empire.
  • 600 BC. @Province Wine Culture Influence by Romans, Gauls, Catalans.
  • 200 BC. @France Roman Empire, Mastered Viniculture.
  • 150 BC. @Rhone Valley Romans Establish Quality Vineyards and Reputation For Wine.
  • 00 @Alsace ViticultureIntroduced to Region by Romans.
  • 52 @BurgundyArea Occupied by Romans.
  • 379 @Bordeaux First Vineyards Planted In Region.
  • 400 @Bordeaux ViticultureIntroduced to Region by Romans.
  • 436 @BurgundyArea Occupied by Burgundian(People of Germanic Origins)
  • 500 – 1200’s @Europe During the Middle Ages South-West France Was Ruled by England.
  • 500 @Champagne  Viticulture, Introduced to Region by Romans.
  • 534 @BurgundyArea Occupied by Franks(People of Germanic Origins)
  • 910 @BurgundyDuring “Dark Ages” Monks/ Churches Took Over Wine Production.
  • 1152-1453 @Bordeaux The English ConnectionArea Was Ruled by England.
  • 1200’s – 1700’s @Corsica– Ruled by Republic of Genoa.
  • 1200’s @France Languedoc Region Has Belonged to France.
  • 1363-1792 @BurgundyArea Occupied by Dukes
  • 1600’s @Medoc– Dutch Built Dikes and Drained Marsh In Estuary.
  • 1650 @Bordeaux– Cabernet Sauvignon is Born.
  • 1659 @Roussillon Was Part of Spain Until the Treaty of the Pyrenees.
  • 1663 @Bordeaux– Haut-Brion Became the First Estate to Be Referenced, Rather Than a General Region.
  • 1670 @Pauillac Vineyard Planted at Lafite-Rothschild.
  • 1750 @Burgundy Wine Where Considered Inferior, Seen as Light Wines For Early Drinking.
  • 1769 @Corsica The Island Was Annexed to France.
  • 1789 @France After Revolution Land From Church Split Into Parcels, Sold.
  • 1792 @Burgundy Over-Through of Elites, Led by Napoleon.
  • 1800’s @French The ModernizationTook  Place Across French Regions.
  • 1855 @BurgundyArea Occupied by Jules Lavelle
  • 1864 @France Proof Fermentation is Carried Out by Living Yeast Cells.
  • 1871 @Alsace Germany Took Over Region.
  • 1875- 92 @France PhylloxeraLouse Destroys 75% of French Vineyard.
  • 1910- 11 @Champagne Champagne Riots, Protest/ Riots Take Place.
  • 1919 @Alsace Alsace Annexed Back to France After World War I.
  • 1930 @BurgundyArea of Burgundy Defined.
  • 1936 @BurgundyAOC. Laws Defined
  • 1936 @Chateauneuf-du-Pape AOC. Established as First Official French Wine Appellation.
  • 1940- 45 @Alsace Germany Occupied Alsace During World War II.
  • 1970’s @Roussillon/ LanguedocWine BankBulk Wine Surplus That Plagued the Industry.
  • 1975 @AlsaceGrand Cru, Vineyard Delimitation Takes Place.
  • 1980’s @Roussillon/ Languedoc Vine Pull Scheme, Government Plays Grower to Pull Vineyards.
  • 2000 @Bordeaux– Rise of the Asian Market

CULTURE

  • Industrial Alcohol Production– 70% of  Goes to the French Government to Distill Down to Produce Industrial Alcohol For a Variety of Purposes.  The Remaining 30% Generally Put Back In the Vineyard as Fertilizer.
  • Law– 70% of a Winery’s Must is Claimed by the Government Who Distilles It Down For Industrial Alcohol Purposes. The Other 30% is Generally Spread Back Into the Vineyard as Compost.
  • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Institut Francois de la Vigne et du Vin~ IFV.
    • ~Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique~ ANRA.
    • ~Haute Valeur Environnementale~ HVE. (France)
      • French Environmental Certification For Grape Growers.
  • GASTRONOMY… CHEESE
    • Abondance AOC.(Cow/ Hard),  Banon AOC.(Goat/ Fresh to Aged),  Beaufort, Bleu d’Auvergne(Cow/ Blue),  Bleu des Causses(Cow/ Blue),  Bleu de Gex Haut-Jura AOC.(Cow/ Blue),  Bri(Cow/ Soft),  Brin d’Amour(Sheep/ Hard),  Camembert(Cow/ Soft), Cantal(Cow/ Hard),  Chevres(Goat),  Chaource(Cow/ Soft),  Comte(Cow/ Hard),  Epoisses(Cow/ Semi-Soft),  Fleur du Maquis(Ewe/ Semi-Soft),  Fourme d’Ambert(Cow/ Semi-Soft),  Mimolette,  Morbier,  Moulis(Cow/ Sheep/ Semi-Hard),  Muenster(Cow/ Semi-Soft),  Ossau-Iraty(Ewe/ Hard),  Persille de Rambouillet(Goat/ Blue),  Raclette,  Reblochon,  Roquefort AOC.(Ewe/ Blue),  Rigotte de Condrieu(Goat/ Fresh),  Tomme de Savoie
    • Classic Regional Pairing– Chevre & Sancerre, Munster & Gewurztraminer(Dry)
      • Epoisses & Burgundy(Pinot Noir)   |   Roquefort & Sauternes
  • Monks & Monasteries” 
    • Monks of Burgundy Get Credit For Pain Laboriously Defining the Every Foot of Every Parcel of the Cote D’or.
    • **Refer to “RELIGION & “THE VINE/ Monks and Monasteries” For Additional Information 
  • BURGUNDY
    • ~Benedictine Abbey of Cluny~
      • History-The Famous Abbey and Ruling Center of the Europe Great Monasteries and Head Quarters of 10,000 Monks That Followed the Teaching of St. Benedict. The Abbey of Cluny Started a Network of 1,000 Monasteries From Rome to Scotland With the Common Thread of Bringing Christianity to Modern Europe.
    • Cistercian of Clos de Vougeot~    @Vougeot                    ~Cistercian of Chablis~     @Chablis
    • ~Benedictine of Saint-Vivant~    @Vosne-Romanee.          ~Benedictine of Aloxe-Corton~     @Aloxe-Corton         
    • ~Cistercians of Macon~     @Macon             Cistercians of Musigny~     @Musigny
    • ~Monastery of Cluny~     @Saone-et-Loire(Gevrey Chambertin)
  • LOIRE VALLEY
    • ~Cistercian of Sancerre~                            ~Benedictine of Muscatdet~
    • ~Benedictine of Pouilly Fume~                   ~Benedictine of Bourgueil~
    • ~Cistercian of Orleans~                             ~Cistercian of Quincy~
    • ~Cistercian Monastery In Coulee de Serrant~
      • Vines Planted Vineyards In 1130 and Vineyards Are Still Cultivated Today.
  • RHONE VALLEY
    • ~Benedictine of Cornas/ St. Peray~                   ~Benedictine of Gigondas~
    • ~Carthusian of Chateauneuf-du-Pape~              ~Cistercian of Vacqueyras~
  • CHAMPAGNE
    • ~Abbey of Clauvaux~     @Champagne           ~Abbey of St. Vanne~     @Champagne
    • ~Abbey of Hautvillers~     @Epernay
  • OTHER FRANCE
    • ~Benedictine Abbey of Chateau Cholon~       @Jura
      • Nuns Responsible For Vin Jaune & Vin de Paille
    • ~Carthusian of Chartreuse~                             ~Templiers of Banyul~

FRENCH WINE LAW & CLASSIFICATION

  • GOVERNING BODY Institut National des Appellation d’Origine INAO.
  • LAWS GOVERNING Geographic Boundaries, Topography,
    • Label Requirement Varietals, +Abv. Levels, Vinification Methods

NEW EU. WINE LAW CLASSIFICATION (As of 2012)

  • APPELLATION D’ORIGINE PROTEGEE AOP. (Protected Designation of Origin)
    • New Classification For Appellation d’Origine Controlee AOC.
    • Few Producers Have Put the “New” DOP. Indication On Their Bottles. Producers That Where Using Old System Have Been “Grand-Fathered” and Allowed to Continue to Use AOC. On Their Bottles.
  • INDICATION GEOGRAPHIQUE PROTEGEEIGP. (Protected Geographic Indication)
  • AOC., AOP. Are Equal/  IGP., VDP. Are Equal
  • New Classification For -Vin de Pays- VDP.
    • Category For Wine Lacking AOC. Strict Standard Conditions In One or More Ways…Geography, Stylistically, Not Classical Varietals, Quality.
  • VIN De FRANCE- (Wine of France)
    • Catch-All Category That’s Different and Superior to Table Wine. Vin de France Isn’t Restricted to Geographic Boundaries and Are Flexible to Blend Wines From Different Regions Across France. Allows for Type of Grape to Be Printed On Label.
  • VIN De TABLE- (Table Wine)
    • Table Wine Doesn’t Need Place, Grape or Vintage On Label
    • **General Appellation For Wine Produced in “FRANCE” Non-Conforming to AOP./ IGP.
  • VIN METHODE NATURE-(Natural Method Wine) Classification For Natural/ Low Intervention Wines.
      • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Syndicat de Defense des Vins Nature’l~
        • Mission~ To Legally Defend the Idea of the Vin Methode Nature, to Communicate Its Charter and to Build a Community of Like-Minded People. They Cover 12 Points that Must Be Respected to Claim the Label.
    • Grapes Come From Certified Organic Vineyard.
    • No Additives Used During Vinification.
    • Grapes Must Be Hand Harvested.
    • Native Yeast/ Spontaneous Fermentations.
    • No Flash Pasteurization
    • No Cross-Flow Filtration
    • No Acidification.
    • No Thermo Vinification
    • No Reverse Osmosis
    • Two Distinctive Logos…1) No Added Sulfite.
      • 2) Sulfite Added Post Fermentation (Less Than 30 Mg./ L.)

OLD CLASSIFICATION LAW

  • APPELLATION D’ORIGINE CONTROLEEAOC. (Controlled Appellation of Origin)
  • VIN DELIMITE De QUALITE SUPERIEUREVDQS.
  • VIN De PAYS VDP. (Country Wine)
    • (Created 1979 to Recognize Wines Distinctly Superior to “Vin de Table”)
      • Vin de Pays de la Loire (Loire Valley)
      • Vin de Pays d’Oc (Languedoc-Roussillon)
      • Vin de Pays du Comte Tolosan (South-West)
      • Vin de Pays Mediterranee (South-East, Provence, Corsica)
      • Vin de Pays des Comtes Rhodaniens (Rhone Valley, Beaujolais, Savoie)
      • Vin de Pays de l’Atlantique (Bordeaux, Charentes)
      • Vin de Table- VDT. Table Wine

TYPES Of WINE PRODUCERS

  • Recoltant– (Grower) Grows Grapes For Purpose of Selling to Negociants.
  • Recoltant-ManipulantRM. (Grower-Manipulator) Producer Who Grows Grape and Produces Wine For Himself as Well as Sell Surplus to Other.
    • Grower Champagne– Although the Same as RM., Grower Champagne is a New Term For Small Producers Who Grow Grapes and Produce Thier Own Cuvées But With Reflects Their Distinct Single Vineyards and Champagne Style.
  • Recoltant-CooperateurRC. (Grower-Co-Operative) Grows Grapes For Local Co.-Op. Who Producers the Wine and Gives Portion of Bottles Back to Grower Who Sells Under His Own Label.
  • Negociant– (Producer)  Wine Maker That Produces, Bottles and Markets Wine Using Grapes Purchased From Other Growers.
  • Negociant-ManipulantNM. (Producer-Manipulator) House That Grows Grapes, Produces Wine and is Marketed by Same Company.
  • Cooperateur-ManipulantCM. (Co-Operative-Manipulator) Group of Growers That Pool Grapes to Produce and Sell Wine Under One or More Brands of Its Own.
  • Negociant DistributeurND. (Producer-Distributor) Middleman Company That Distributes Champagne it Did Not Produce.
  • Marque d’AcheteurMA. (Buyer Brand) A Buyers Own Brand, Often a Supermarket Chain or Restaurant That Buys Champagne and Sells It Under Its Own Label.
  • **Refer to “WINE STYLES/ Sparkling” For Detailed Information On Sparkling Wine

FORTIFIED WINES Of FRANCE

  • CULTURE  France Has a Long History of Fortifying/ Mutage Its Wine.
  • VIN DE LIQUEUR-  +FORTIFIED/ Before Fermentation With Local Grape Spirit.
  • VIN DOUX NATUREL- +FORTIFIED/ During Fermentation With Local Grape Spirit.
  • **Refer to “WINE STYLES/ Fortified” For Detailed Information.

IMPORTANT FRENCH WINE WORD

  • Le Vignoble- Vineyard
  • La Vigne- Vine
  • Un Verre de Rouge/ Blanc- Glass of Red/ White
  • Les Vendanges- Harvest
  • Le Terroir- Land/ Soil
  • Chateau- Estate That Produces Wine

GEOGRAPHIC DISCLAIMERTo Understand the Wine World and Benefit From DtheV.com a Understanding of France’s Geography is Needed and the Ability to Visualize Its Wine Regions Topography.  France is Organized In a North to South / East to West Orientation and Intended to Be Researched and Memorized as So.



  • SUB-CHAPTERS Of FRANCE
    • Loire Valley
    • South-West
    • Bordeaux
    • Burgundy
    • Champagne
    • Alsace
    • Jura/ Savoie/ Bugey
    • Northern Rhone
    • Southern Rhone
    • Provence
    • Languedoc
    • Roussillon
    • Massif Central
    • Corsica
  • **Refer to These Proceeding Sub-Chapters For Detailed Information


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.