🇫🇷FRANCEBurgundy


BURGUNDY IS   Regions6     AOP.- 120     Vineyards680     @Dijon

  •  ~Grand Cru33     ~Premier Cru~635      Villages AOC.- 44    Regional AOC. 23
  • BLANC= Chardonnay 48% AKA=Morillon, Aligoté 6%, Melon de Bourgogne, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Liebault, Pinot Beurot AKA=Pinot Gris, Roublot, Sacy, Sauvignon Blanc
  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir 34%, Gamay 10%, Cesar, Tressot

GEOGRAPHY France(East-Central), REGION-Burgundy, LATITUDE: 47.81° – 46.08° N

  • DEPARTMENTS– Cote d’Or, Nievre, Saone-et-Loire, Yonne, South-East of Champagne(   km.)
  • 170 km. Long (Chablis to Lyon), 1 km. Wide(Cote d’Or) to 24 km. Wide (Macon)

TOPOGRAPHY FEATURES– “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”

  • SLOPES/ Morvan Massif(Cote d’Or Escarpment), +Alt. 200 mt.-500 mt.
  • On~Saone/ Seine/ Serein~River~Tributary~Rhone~River~Mediterranean~Sea~
  • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS –
  • Burgundy During Jurassic Period Central France Was Covered With Warm Shallow Seas. Time Produced a Fold In Sedimentary Bedding, Caused by Fault-Line to Form by the Saone Valley Dropping Away From the Now Escarpment “Cote D’Or”.
  • Paris Basin As This Basin Formed the Area Began to “Dip” Leading to the Formation of the Aube, Yonne and Loire Rivers Cutting Through and Eroding the Kimmeridgian Ridge Leading to the “Cropped Islands” Wine Areas of Champagne, Chablis, Auxerois, Tonnerre, Sancerre, Menetou-Salon Just to Name a Few.
  • Soane Rift Valley- A Type of Tectonic Valley Formed by an Elongated Trough Formed by the Subsidence of a Segment of the Earth’s Crust.
  • Alpine Orogeny- It Used to Be That Burgundy Was Continuous With the Jura Region But During the Alpine Orogeny They Got Separated. (An Area or a Block In-Between Them Dropped and Separated Them)

SOILS–  Metamorphic“,  Sedimentary, Calcareous Clay, Marl, Limestone, Chalk, Silica, Calcium

  • 140 t0 180 Million Years Old
  • Kimmeridgian Era Formation… 150 MYA.
  • Portlandian Era Formation
    Burgundy is an Old Sea Floor That Sank Beneath Shallow Seas. Shells-Skeletons of Oysters Crinoids, Ammonites, and Coils Piled On One Another and Compacted Together to Form Petrified Remains Which is Limestone.
  • Kimmeridgian Cresent– “Contiguous-Limestone Basin“, That Runs From Southern England, “The White Cliffs of Dover” Through France. (Burgundy to Sancerre)

CLIMATE–  Continental”, +RAIN/ 28 Inches/ Annually

  • Summers– Warm, Sunny   |    Winters– Cold, Rain, Frost, Hail

VITICULTURE 28,500 ha. Planted

  • BURGUNDY
    • Grand Cru– Highest Classified Vineyard
    • Premier Cru– Second Highest Classified Vineyard
  • LIEU-DIT-(Literal Translation is French For a “Said Location”)- Plot of Land That is Recognized For Its Own Topographic or Historical Specificities. Lieu-Dit Are Small Geographic Areas Bearing a Traditional Name Having to Do With the Environment or Local Heritage. The Name of the Lieu-Dit Usually Refers to Some Characteristic of the Place(a Tree, Hill, River), Its Former Use or a Past Event.
    • The Concept of Lieu-Dit/ Single Vineyard/ Cru Started In Burgundy.
    • Vineyard Quality and Price is All About Sight and Exposure.
  • CLIMATS- A Delineated Plot of Land That Has a Specific Geological or Climatic Condition.  Climats Confer Their Own Unique Terroir or Organoleptic Qualities Onto the Wine.
  • MONOPOLE- A Grape Growing Area Controlled by a Single Winery. It Can Be as Small as a Vineyard or as Large as an Entire Appellation.
    • IMPORTANT MONOPOLES Of BURGUNDY
      • Les Ruelies, La Mission (Premier Cru)   @Mercurey AOC.
      • La Tache, La Grande Rue (Grand Cru)   @Vosne-Romanee AOC.
      • Clos Marechaudes, Clos Corton Faiveley (Grand Cru)   @Aloxe-Corton AOC.
      • Clos de la Marechale, Clos de Thorey (Premier Cru)  @Nuits St.-Georges AOC.
      • Clos de L’ecu, Clos des Ursule (Premier Cru)  @Beaune AOC.
      • Clos des Ducs, Clos de la Bousse d’Or (Premier Cru)  @Volnay AOC.
  • CHALLENGE– Spring/ Fall- Rain, Frost, Hail
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY?  When Thinking of Burgundy as a Whole is it Better to Think of it as 3 Separate, Distinct Regions(Chablis, Central Burgundy, Beaujolais) Rather Than Burgundy as One?”
    • Due to Its Three Separate Area All Distinct as to Geography, Topography, Viticulture and Viniculture Practices We as Wine Professionals and Connoisseur Should Refer to Chablis and Beaujolais Separate as to the Overall Identity of Burgundy.
  • TYPES Of WINE PRODUCERS
    • Recoltant– (Grower) Grows Grapes For Purpose of Selling to Negociants.
    • Recoltant-ManipulantRM. (Grower-Manipulator) Producer Who Grows Grape and Produces Wine For Himself as Well as Sell Surplus to Other.
      • Grower Champagne– Although the Same as RM., Grower Champagne is a New Term For Small Producers Who Grow Grapes and Produce Thier Own Cuvées But With Reflects Their Distinct Single Vineyards and Champagne Style.
    • Recoltant-CooperateurRC. (Grower-Co-Operative) Grows Grapes For Local Co.-Op. Who Producers the Wine and Gives Portion of Bottles Back to Grower Who Sells Under His Own Label.
    • Negociant– (Producer)  Wine Maker That Produces, Bottles and Markets Wine Using Grapes Purchased From Other Growers.
    • Negociant-ManipulantNM. (Producer-Manipulator) House That Grows Grapes, Produces Wine and is Marketed by Same Company.
    • Cooperateur-ManipulantCM. (Co-Operative-Manipulator) Group of Growers That Pool Grapes to Produce and Sell Wine Under One or More Brands of Its Own.
    • Negociant DistributeurND. (Producer-Distributor) Middleman Company That Distributes Champagne it Did Not Produce.
    • Marque d’AcheteurMA. (Buyer Brand) A Buyers Own Brand, Often a Supermarket Chain or Restaurant That Buys Champagne and Sells It Under Its Own Label.

VINICULTURE

  • BURGUNDIAN METHOD– Specific Viticultural Practices and Vinicultural Methods That Are Traditionally Derived From the Burgundy Area of France. (Non-Interventionist)
    • Outcome- Less Fruit, More Earth, Mineral Notes
    • Chardonnay– Hand Harvest, Whole Cluster Pressed, Native Yeasts, Barrel Fermentation, Sur Lie Aged, Lee Stirring, Malolactic Conversion, Aged In Neutral Barrels, Topping Off Barrels
    • Pinot Noir Hand Harvest, Cluster Sorted, Cold Soak (3-5 Days), Native Yeast, Barrel Fermentation, Malolactic Fermentation, Aged Neutral Barrel, Topping Off Barrels, Strict Humidity and Temperature Control During Fermentation and Storage
  • WINE BARRELS~ ~Burdundy~ 288 Liters (Burgundy), ~Feuillette~ 132 Liters (Chablis)
  • LABELING– Sometimes Producers Use Name of Domaine and/ or Family Name On Label
  • Hyphenated Village Names
    • In 1847 King Louis-Philipe Granted Rights For Villages to Add Vineyards Names to Their Village Names
  • Negociant/ Producer- Wine Maker That Produces, Bottles and Markets Wine Using Grapes Purchased From Other Growers
    • 113 Negociants Sell 50% of Total Wine Produced In Burgundy, 2800 Domains Sell the Balance
    • Negociants of Burgundy
      • Bouchard Pere et Fils                          Albert Bichot
      • Louis Jodot                                           Jean-Claude Boisset
      • Joseph Drouhin                                    Louis Latour
  • PREMATURE OXIDATION
    • Premature Oxidation is AKA=”Premox” or  Just “Pox” In the Wine World
    • Flaw That Happens In White Wines When Presumably Ageworthy Wine Which Was Stored Properly and Thought to Be In Excellent Condition is Found to Be Oxidized and Undrinkable. Most Whites Are Susceptible to Oxidation and is Relatively Common From 10 Years On But This Premature Oxidation Effects Which After a Few Years.  A Greater Occurrence of Premature Oxidation is Found In  Burgundy But Other Instances Have Been Found World Wide and Are Said to Be Random and the Exact Cause Remains Unclear.
      • Hypotheses– Although There is No Definitive Explanation For Premox There is a Few Theories Going Around the Wine World.
        • Faulty Corks
        • The Modern Movement of Using Less or Insufficient Sulfur Dioxide/ So2 In Wines.

HISTORY 2,000 Year History of Wine Culture, Winemaking Since 52 BC.

  • BC. @BurgundyArea Occupied by Gauls
  • 52   @BurgundyArea Occupied by Romans.
  • 436 @BurgundyArea Occupied by Burgundian.(People of Germanic Origins)
  • 534 @BurgundyArea Occupied by Franks.(People of Germanic Origins)
  • 910 @BurgundyDuring “Dark Ages” Monks/ Churches Took Over Wine Production.
  • 1363-1792 @BurgundyArea Occupied by Dukes
  • 1395 @Burgundy Philippe the Bold/ Duke of Burgundy, Banished Gamay to Beaujolais.
  • 1750 @Burgundy Wines Where Considered Inferior Wines, Seen as Light Wines For Early Drinking.
  • 1792 @Burgundy Over-Through of Elites, Led by Napoleon.
  • 1855 @BurgundyArea Occupied by Jules Lavelle
  • 1930 @BurgundyArea of Burgundy Defined.
  • 1936 @BurgundyAOC. Laws Defined

CULTURE

  • GASTRONOMY Dijon Mustard, Cassis, Charolais(Beef)
    • Coq Au Vin(Burgundian Chicken Stew Marinated In Red Wine)
    • CHEESE Epoisses(Pungent Soft Cow-Milk(Raw or Pasteurized), Washed Rind(WithMarc de Bourgogne)
  • UNESCO. WORLD HERITAGE SIGHT~  ~Burgundy~
  • PIONEERS~ ~Becky Wasserman~Burgundy”, American Expatriate
    • Became an Ambassador For Burgundy and  French Oak Barrel For American Wine.
  • Monks & Monasteries~Burgundy~ Burgundian Monks Realized That Some of the Plots of Grapes Grew Better Than Others. Over Time Several Hundred of the Sights and Plots Have Been Designated as Superior Quality.
    •  ~Vougeot ~Monks of Citeaux Abbey~ Est. 1100’s
    • Cistercian of @Clos de Vougeot
    • Cistercian of @Chablis
    • Benedictine of @Vosne-Romanee
    • Benedictine of @Aloxe-Corton
    • Cistercians of @Macon
    • Cistercians of @Musigny
    • Monastery of Cluny @Saone-et-Loire(Gevrey Chambertin)
    • Cistercians of @Saint-Nicolas-les-Citeaux/ Cote Nuits
    • Cistercians of @Norte-Dame de Citeaux/ Cote Nuits
    • Cistercian Abbey  ~Pontigny~ -Chablis
  • There is Some Unsaid Rule In the Burgundy Wine Community…You Welcome Friends In the Vineyards But None is Allowed In the Cellar. The Way You Grow Grapes is  Communal, How You Make Your Wine Is Personal.
  • CLASSIFICATION OF BOURGOGNE
    • Burgundy  *Established-1861/ 1935,   93 Appellations
      • BLANC= 51%   |   ROSE= 1%   |   CREMANT= 19%   |   ROUGE= 30%
    • RegionalAOC. (23) 51% of Production
    • Bourgogne Cote d’Or– AOC.
      • Chardonnay & Pinot Noir From Mid-Slopes of Cote d”or
    • VillageAOC. (45) 38% of Production
      • BLANC= 76%   |   ROUGE= 24%
    • Premier Cru~ (640) 9.5% of Production
      • BLANC= 58% | ROUGE= 42%
    • Grand Cru~ (33) 1.5% of Production
      • BLANC= 42%(194ha.) | ROUGE= 58%(356ha.)
      • **Each Grand Cru is Its Own AOP.
  • INHERITANCE LAWS-Most Vineyards Belonged to Church or Nobility Until French Revolution When They Were Split and Redistributed.
    • Before Napoleonic Code Inheritance Laws Vineyard Were Operating Under Roman Law of Primogeniture, the Oldest Son Inherited the Entire Family Estate.
    • After Napoleonic Code Inheritance Laws, Vineyards Divided Equally Among All Male Off-Spring Regardless of Age and Later it Included Female Off-Spring.
    • As a Result Over Hundreds of Years Vineyards Were Divided Among a Greater Number of Descendants and Parcels of Land Have become Smaller and Small. The Best Example of This is the Clos de Vougeot Grand Cru Vineyard Which is Divided Between 80 Owners.
    • Inheritance Laws Lead to the Birth and Importance of Negotiant Wine Maker.

In Burgundy Vineyards Are Classified, In Bordeaux Chateaus Are Classified.

  • Words to Discribe Appellation/ Vineyad Characteristics
    • CLIMAT– French/ Burgundy Term For Area of a French AOC., Usually a Vineyard.
    • LIEU-DUI– Refers to a Local, Traditional Name of an Area of Land, Usually Defined by Topography or History.
    • CLOS– Enclosed Vineyard, Generally by a Stone Wall.
    • COMMUNE– French/ Burgundy Term for Village or Parish.
    • CRU– Term For a Vineyard, Usually Reserved to Recognize One of Higher Quality.
    • **These Terms Are French In Origin But Started to Take Significance In Burgundy.
  • Church Inspired
    • CHAPELLE– Term For Chapel.
    • PRIEUR– Monastic Official Immediately Subordinate to an Abbot.
    • CHAPITRE– An Administrative Division of an Organization.
    • ABBAYE– Term for Abbey, or a Monastery Headed by an Abbot.
    • MOINE– Male Member of a Monastic Order.
  • Enviornment Inspired
    • COMBE/ COMBOTTE– Term For Anclinical Valley.
    • CHARMES/ CHAUMER
    • CRAS/ CRAI/ CRIOTTE
    • GARENNE
    • PERRIERE
    • MURGERS

GOING THERE

  • Organized Wine Tour~ Sign Up For One of the Many Wine Tours Leaving From the Major Cities of Dijon and Beaune.
  • Rent a Bike/ Village Tour~ The Best Way to Explore the Rolling Hills of Burgundy is by Bike.  Stop of Your Leisure at One the Villages and Pack a Lunch to Be Enjoyed On a Wall of a Grand Cru Vineyard.
  • Clos de Vougeot~ “Cultural Obligation“,  Visit the Castle and Monastery Built In 1100’s by Cistercian Monks.


Regional/ Generic Appellations of Bourgogne

  • VITICULTURE–  Wine Produced In “BURGUNDY” Non-Conforming to an AOC.

VIN DE BOURGOGNE AOC.      @Burgundy

  • VINICULTURE– Allows For the Blending of Grapes

BOURGOGNE ALIGOTE AOC.     @Burgundy

  • BLANC= Aligoté(+85%), Chardonnay
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy(From Chablis to Maconnais)
  • VITICULTURE– 1,700 ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURE– Can’t Be Labeled Village, Premier Cru or Grand Cru, Only Bourgogne.
    • Estate/ Producers– Albert Bichot, Bernard Defaix, Chevrot, Jean-Hugues Goisot, Louis Latour, Marcel Giraudon, Olivier Gard, Rollin Pere et Fils, Sylvain, Vignerons de Buxy
  • CULTURE1937 AOC. Officially Established

BOURGOGNE BLANC AOC.      @Burgundy

  • BLANC= Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gri
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy(Greater)
    • DEPARTMENTS- Yonne, Cote d’Or, Saone-et-Loire
    • COMMUNES– 300
  • TOPOGRAPHY– Lower Portion/ Slopes of Escarpment In Beaune & Nuits and Throughout Burgundy
  • VITICULTURE– 900ha.
    • Wines Produced In Burgundy Non-Conforming to Vineyards Stated as Village, Premier Cru or Grand Cru.
    • Bourgogne Blanc Should Represent the Philosophy and Style of the Producer at a Competitive Price and For Earlier Consumption.
  • VINICULTURE
    • Estate/ Producers– Ballot-Millot, Olivier Leflaive, Pascal et Thierry Matrot, Paul Pernot, Pierre Yves Colin Morey

BOURGOGNE GAMAY AOC.     @Burgundy

  • ROUGE= Gamay
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy(Greater)
    • DEPARTMENTS: Yonne, Cote d’Or, Saone-et-Loire
    • COMMUNES– 300
  • VINICULTURE
    • Estate/ Producers

BOURGOGNE ROUGE AOC.     @Burgundy

  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Cesar(Only In Yonne Department)
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy(Greater)
    • DEPARTMENTS: Yonne, Cote d’Or, Saone-et-Loire
    • COMMUNES– 300
  • TOPOGRAPHY– Lower Portion/ Slopes of Escarpment In Beaune & Nuits and Throughout Burgundy
  • VITICULTURE– 1,850 ha. Planted
    • Red Wines Produced In Burgundy Non-Conforming to Vineyards Stated as Village, Premier Cru  or Grand Cru
    • Bourgogne Blanc Should Represent the Philosophy and Style of the Producer at a Competitive Price and For Earlier Consumption.
  • VINICULTURE
    • Estate/ Producers– Arnaud Ente, Cecile Tremblay, Coche-Dury, Georges & Roumier, Leroy, Phillippe Livera, Remoissenet, Sylvain Cathiard

CREMANT De BOURGOGNE AOC.     @Burgundy

  • BLANC= Aligote, Chardonnay, Melon de Bourgogne, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gri, Sacy
  • ROUGE= Gamay, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy(Greater)
  • VITICULTURE– Manual Harvesting Mandatory
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle, +AGED/+9mo., On Lees
    • Blanc de Blancs,  Blanc de Noirs,  Rose
    • Blending After Fermentation, +AGED/ 9 mo., Prior to Degorgement
  • VINICULTURE
    • Estate/ Producers– Bailly-Lapierre, Cave de Lugny(Co.-Op.), Honore Louis, Jaffelin, Louis Bouillot, Maison Francois Martenot, Maison Parigot & Richard, Simonnet-Febvre, Francois Mikulski, Veuve Ambal, Victorine de Chastenay
  • CULTURE
    • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Union of Producers & Growers of Cremant de Brougogne~ UPECB.

MOUSSEUX De BOURGOGNE AOC.     @Burgundy

  • BLANC=        |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy(Greater)
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditional+AGED/+9 mo.
    • Estate/ Producers– Cave de Martally, Louis Boullot, Louis Picamelot, Paul Vhollet, Veuve Ambal

COTEAUX BOURGUIGNONS AOC.     @Burgundy

  • BLANC= Aligote, Chardonnay, Melon de Bourgogne, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris
  • ROUGE= Cesar, Gamay, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy(Greater/ Auxerre to Beaujolais)
  • VITICULTURE– 270 ha.
  • VINICULTUREBlanc,  Rouge,  Allows For a Blends
    • Estate/ Producers– Fargues, Fatien Pere & Fils, Jean & Gilles Lafouge, Louis Jadot

PASSE-TOUT-GRAINS AOC.      @Burgundy

  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy(Greater)
  • VITICULTURE– 230 ha.
  • VINICULTURE– Mixed/ Fermented Together, Pinto Noir(+33%), Gamay(-66%)
    • Estate/ Producers- Bernard Moreau, Coste-Caumartin, La Chapelle, Chenevieres, Digioli-Royer, Felix, Michel Fafarge, Robert Chevillon, Trapet

Indication Geographique Protégée IGP. Burgundy

  • BIANC= Any White Grapes Varieties Approved For Production In Burgundy.
  • ROUGE= Any Red Grapes Varieties Approved For Production In Burgundy.
  • VITICULTURE– Wine Produced In “BURGUNDY” Non-Conforming to AOC..

COTEAUX de L’AUXOIS IGP.

  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy, DEPARTMENT-?

SAINTE-MARIE-la-BLANCHE IGP.

  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy, DEPARTMENT-?

SAONE-Et LOIRE IGP.

  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy, Catchment For Cote Chalonnaise & Macon

YONNE IGP.

  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy, Chablis, DEPARTMENT-Yonne


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced