🇫🇷FRANCEChampagne


CHAMPAGNE IS  Villages- 321    Houses- 110     Growers- 15,000      @Reims

    • ~Grand Cru17    ~Premiers Cru41     
  • BLANC= Chardonnay 29%, Petite Arbane, Fromenteau AKA=Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, Petite Meslier
  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir 38%, Pinot Meunier 35%
  • OTHER= (Un-Official/ Grown In Past) Chasselas, Gamay, Morillon, Pinot de Juillet, Pinot Rose, Sacy AKA=Tressallier, Savagnin Blanc, Troyen

GEOGRAPHY France(North-Central), REGION-Champagne,  LATITUDE: 48°-49° N

  • DEPARTMENTS– Ardennes, Aube, Marne, Haute-Marne, North-East of Paris(130km.)
  • Champagne Triangle– Consist of Reims, Epernay, Chalons Sur Marme
  • SUB-REGIONS– Aube, Cote de Blancs, Cote de SezanneMontagne de Reims, Vallee de la Marne

TOPOGRAPHY “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Marne)

  • On~Aube/ Marne/ Velse~Tributary~Seine~River~English Channel~

VITICULTURE  33,500 ha. Planted

  • CHALLENGES– Champagne’s Northern Latitude Makes Ripening Difficult
    • SUSCEPTIBLE/ Frost, Rain, Fungal Pressure, Hail, Cold Weather, Climate Change
  • ECONOMIC CHALLENGESErratic Global Economy
    • Grower Revolution– Modern Movement Away From Big Champagne Houses and Smaller Growers and Landowners Wanting to Produce Their Own Champagne Instead of Selling Their Harvest.  These “Grower Champagnes” and Personal Labels Are Changing the Champagne Market.
  • Some Producers Are Specific to a Region, Village or Vineyard, While Some Producers Producer Their Champagne Across All of the Region.
  • In the Greatest Growing Years Champagne Houses Produce Vintages Champagnes.
  • Harvest-  Before a Grape Grower In Champagne Can Harvest He Check to See When the Date Has Been Set Which is the Earliest He is Allowed to Pick the Grapes.
  • The Region of Champagne Contain 480 Distinct Block and Harvest Usually Takes 30 Days For the Region to Begin and Complete Harvest.
  • Great Vintages In Champagne– 1990, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2002
  • **Refer to “WINE STYLES/ Sparkling” For Detailed Information On Growing Grapes For Champagne.

VINICULTURE

  • Chef de Cave- A Cellar Master Who is In Charge of the Champagne Producing Process.  The Responsibilities of the Chef de Cave Isn’t Exactly “Hands On” But More of a Champagne Producrs Manager or Like a Maestro/ Conductor Overseeing a Orchestra.
  • There is an Urgency to Process the Grapes as Soon as Possible and as Near as Possible to Where They Where Picked.
  • Pressing Houses/ Centers– Field Stations In Close Proximity to Vineyards Where Grape Pressing Takes Place. In Champagne They Truck Juice Rather Than Grapes In an Effort to Avoid Any Oxidation and Color Transfer.
  • Grapes Must Be Harvested Whole Cluster.
  • Rules That Regulation– Grape Presses Have When and How Much Pressure to Use.
    • Vin de Cuvée– First 70% of Juice Content of Grape
      • Generally Has Higher Acidity and Lower PH.
    • Vin de Taille– Last 30-10% of the Juice Content of Grape, Central Zone of Grape.
      • Generally Has Lower Acidity and Greater Phenolic, Greater Pigment and Tannin.
    • Rebeche– Late 10%, Required by Law, But is Used For Distilling, Not Champagne.
  • After Pressing and a day of Settling (Debourbage) and Racking of Juice Off the Gross Lees(Bourbes), It’s Trucked to Winery
  • In the Winery the Juice is Put Through Fermentation and Although a Stylistic Decision is Put Through Malolactic Conversation. This is Followed by Clarification by Fining, Filtering or Centrifuge.
  • House Style/ Blend- Champagne is Usually a Blend of Up to Six Years to Ensure Consistent Quality and Style and Lessen Vintage Variation From Year to Year.
  • Champagne is a Very Style Driven Wine With the Producer Choosing to Ferment In Concrete, Stainless Steel, or Barrels. Wild Yeast and Native Yeast Are Both Used to Bring Out Conveyed Characteristics. The Length of Time Aging and the Contact Level With the Lees Also Come Into Play With the Finished Wine.
    • Reserve Wine– Early Base Wine
    • Non-Vintage– Wine In Which They Choose to Blend
    • +BLENDING…After Clarification Wine Remains In Storage Until Following Spring. Classic Champagne is a Blend of Vintages, Grapes and Appellation. It’s the Duty of the Champagne Producer “The House” to Blend Together Base Wines to Come Up With The “House Style”.
    • Tete de Cuvee– Producers Best Champagne, Produced From First Press.
    • WINE BARRELS~ ~Champagne~ 205 Liters (Champagne)
  • Until 1750’s Little Champagne Was Sold In Bottles, Most Was Exported to England In Barrels as Still Wine. Once In England it Was Put Into Bottles For the Second Fermentation That Gave it the Foam that Elevated it Above Other Wines.
  • Starting In the Early 1800’s Champagne Was Seen as a Rarity Which Made it Both Desirable and Expensive and Soon Became a Sign of  Luxury and Wealth In England.
  • **Refer to “WINE STYLES/ Sparkling” For Detailed Information On Producing Champange.
  • CLASSIFICATION Of CHAMPAGNE
    • Classification (1900’s)  Done as a Means of Setting Price of Grapes Grown Throughout the Villages of Champagne.
    • Classification of Champagne 1945, Establish Order In Region.
    • Echelle de Crus– System In Which Villages, Crus and Appellation Are Rated, Each of the 321 Champagne Villages Are Classified and  Ranked In the Between an 80 – 100 Point Scale.
      • ~Grand Cru~  (17) Have a Perfect Rating of  100 Points
        • Is Awarded to Entire Villages In Champagne Not Just a Vineyard.
      • ~Premier Cru~ (44) Have Rating Between 90- 99 Points.
      • (The Rest  (257) Have Rating Between 80-89 and Have No Special Designation.
    • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Comite Interprofessionnel du Vin de Champagne~ CIVC.
      • Mission~ Regulatory Body In Champagne Responsible For Mediating Relationships Between Grape Growers and Champagne Producers.
  • ATTRIBUTES Of The CHAMPAGNE BLEND
    • ChardonnayBrings…Pomaceous Fruit, Finesse, Floral, Minerality
    • Pinot Noir- Brings…Red Fruits, Structure, Elegance, Perfume
    • Pinot Meunier- Brings…Body, Fruit
      • Experience- 300 Year the Champenoise Have Made Sparkling Wine.
      • Aging- Cold, Cellars Dug into Chalk Hills(Many Kilometers Deep) Temperature- 40°-55°
      • +Aged/ +15 mo. to 2 yr.-3 yr. to +6 yr., +Complexity, +Character, Creamy
      • +Blended/ More Than 50 Different Wine, From Multiple Villages.
  • CHAMPAGNE LEVELS Of SWEETNESS
    • Doux (50+ G./L.)           |   Demi-Sec (33-50 G./L.)
    • Sec (17-32 G./L.)             |   Extra Sec (12-20 G./L.)
    • Brut (0-12 G./L.)           |   Extra Brut (0-6 G./L.)
    • Brut Nature/ Zero (0-3 G./L.)
  • CHAMPAGNE STYLES
    • VINETAGE
      • VINICULTURE– One Vintage, Aged/ +3 Years
    • NON-VINETAGE
      • VINICULTURE– (Multi-Vintage, Classic) 85%-90% Champagne Production, +Aged/ +18 Months
      • Historically Non-Vintage Were Produced In an Effort to Off-Set the Yearly Variability In Ripeness. Because of It’s Extreme Northern Latitude Blending Multiple Vintages Help the Challenge of Growing Conditions and Erratic Harvest. This Was Also Done In an Effort to Help Champagne Producers Blend Between Vintages to Maintain Consistency  and Produce a Wine That Was Recognizable Year After Year.
    • PRESTIGE Traditionally the Best, Vintage-Dated Blends of a House.
      • VINICULTURE– 1 Vintage, 1 Estate, Grand Cru, +AGED/ 6 yr.
        • Only Free Run Juice and First Press Juice Used for Prestige Champagne
      • -Estate/ Producers- Roederer Cristal, Billecart-Salmon Cuvée Nicolas Francois, Henriot Cuve 38 Perpetuelle, Krug Clos Du Mesnil, Pol Roger Cuvée Sir Winton Churchill, Taittinger Comtes
    • BLANC De BLANC Champagne Produced From White Grape.
    • BLANC De NOIR Champagne Produced From Black Grapes.
    • ROSE Rose Des Richey (Pinot Noir 100%)
    • MARC De CHAMPAGNE -Eaux-de-Vei
      • -Estate/ Producers- Drappeir Tres Vieux, Gosset, Jean Goyard Vieux, Lanson, Moet & Chandon
  • CHAMPAGNE GROUPS Conglomerates Dominate the Industry…6 Largest
    • LVMH-(58) Lousis Vuitton-Moet Hennessy, Producers of– Dom Perignon, Krug, Mercier, Moet & Chandon, Pommery, Ruinart, Veuve Clicquot
    • Lanson-(24) Producers of– Bessserat, Boizel, Montoy
    • Seagram GroupProducers of– G.H. Mumm, Perrier-Jouet
    • Uranken-MonopoleProducers of– Barancourt, Charles Lafitte, Demoiselle
    • Remy-Cointreau-(9) Producers of– Charles, Heidsieck, Piper-Heidsieck Heidsieck
    • Laurent-Perrier-(14) Producers of– Castellane, Delamotte, Laurent-P, Lemoine, Salon
    • Thienot- Producers of– Canard-Duchene, Joseph Perrier, Marie Stuart
  • TYPES Of WINE PRODUCERS
    • Recoltant– (Grower) Grows Grapes For Purpose of Selling to Negociants.
    • Recoltant-ManipulantRM. (Grower-Manipulator) Producer Who Grows Grape and Produces Wine For Himself as Well as Sell Surplus to Other.
      • Grower Champagne– Although the Same as RM., Grower Champagne is a New Term For Small Producers Who Grow Grapes and Produce Thier Own Cuvées But With Reflects Their Distinct Single Vineyards and Champagne Style.
    • Recoltant-CooperateurRC. (Grower-Co-Operative) Grows Grapes For Local Co.-Op. Who Producers the Wine and Gives Portion of Bottles Back to Grower Who Sells Under His Own Label.
    • Negociant– (Producer)  Wine Maker That Produces, Bottles and Markets Wine Using Grapes Purchased From Other Growers.
    • Negociant-ManipulantNM. (Producer-Manipulator) House That Grows Grapes, Produces Wine and is Marketed by Same Company.
    • Cooperateur-ManipulantCM. (Co-Operative-Manipulator) Group of Growers That Pool Grapes to Produce and Sell Wine Under One or More Brands of Its Own.
    • Negociant DistributeurND. (Producer-Distributor) Middleman Company That Distributes Champagne it Did Not Produce.
    • Marque d’AcheteurMA. (Buyer Brand) A Buyers Own Brand, Often a Supermarket Chain or Restaurant That Buys Champagne and Sells It Under Its Own Label.
    • **Refer to “WINE STYLES/ Sparkling” For Detailed Information On Sparkling Wine. 

SOILSMetamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Marl, Loam

  • The Region of Champagne is Located On Ancient Former Oceans-Beds That Recede From the Area 70 Million Years Ago.
    Belemnite- Chalk Derived From Fossilized Cephalopods, and Sea-Shells From Prehistoric Oceans.
  • Kimmeridgian Ridge– “Contiguous-Limestone Basin, That Runs From Southern England to France.

CLIMATE AtlanticSummers– Cool, Long   |   Winters– Cold, Wet, Frost

  • Champagne Sits Close to the 50th. Latitude and is Considered One of the Most Northernly Wine Growing Areas of the World.
  • Champagnes Climate at 48°-49° Latitude is Poor For Grape Growing and Take the Grapes to the Fringes of Ripeness Most Years. Viticulture is Generally Thrives Here For the Fact Growers Grow Cool Climate Grapes For the Production of Champagne. Grapes Produced For Champagne Need Only to Be Marginally Ripe With High Acidity.

HISTORY 2,000 Year Wine History

  • 500 @Champagne  ~Introduced to Viticulture by the Romans~
  • 400 @Champagne  Crayeres AKA=Caves/ Wine Cellers, Ancient Chalk/ Limestone Cellars
    • During the 4th. Century Romans (Their Gallo-Roman Slaves)  Dug Into the Hillsides and Under the City of Reims at the Time Was Know as the Roman City of Durocortorum. The Soft Limestone and Chalk Was Needed as Building Materials For Producing Roads For Their Expanding Empire. This Left a Labyrinth of Tunnel Hundred of Kilometers Long. One Thousand Years Later the Producers In Champagne Started Reform Them For Aging and Storage of the Champagne. The Temperate and Varied Very Little Throughout the Year and the Humidity is Always Constant.
  • 1700’s @Champagne ~Trouble With Bubbles~
    •  In Late Fall the Cold Temperature of Champagnes Northern Climate Halted the Fermentation Process Prematurely Leaving Doormat Yeast That Was Activated as the Wine Caves Warmed Up In Spring. As Fermentation Completed it Left Unwanted Carbon Dioxide In the Bottle In the Form of Bubbles. Seen as a Fault, Monks Tried For Centuries to Prohibit This From Happening.
    • Royal Family of England Developed a Taste For Champagne and it Soon Became In Vogue to Drink During Celebrations. Over the Years the Name Champagne Became Synonymous With Any Sparkling Wine Regardless of Source of Style.
  • 1910/ 1911 @Champagne ~The Champagne Riots~
    • The Result of a Series of Problems That Faces the Grape Growers and Wine Producers In Champagne.  With the Combination of Several Bad Crop Years Resulting From Frost and Rain and Phylloxera Some Producers Where Using Grapes From Outside the Champagne Region.  Violence and Riots Broke Out When Champagne Producers Intercepted Trucks With Grape From the Loire Valley Region and Pushed Them Into the Marne River.  Then the Wineries Who Where Accepting and Using  These Grapes Where Set On Fire.
    • These Riots Put In Motion the Start of the AOC. System That is So Important Then and Now.
  • MONKS & MONASTERIES–  ~Champagne~
    • ~Abbey of Clauvaux~      @Champagne          ~Abbey of St. Vanne~    @Champagne
    • ~Abbey of Hautvillers~      @Epernay             Carthusian Monks     @Chartreuse
    • Catholic Church & Abbey Monks From 6th.-18th. Century Maintained Vineyards and Found Best Sites, Planted Appropriate Grape Varieties.
    • Credit For 1st. Sparkling Wine Go to Monks In Limoux(South France) 1531

CULTURE  Champagne Could Be Most Important Wine Brand In World

  • POLITICS~ ~Champagne as a Brand~
    • Champagne is a Brand and After Going to the World Trade Commission Became a Legally Controlled and Restricted Name.
  • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~General Union of Champagne Vine Growers~
    • Mission~ Created In 1919 the Syndicate Brings Together More Than 99% of Champagne Vintners and Nearly 20,000 Members. Its Vocation is to Defend and Preserve the Interest of the Champagne Vineyards, While Accompanying the Winemakers in the Complexity of the Management of Their Farms.
  • UNESCO. WORLD HERITAGE SIGHT~  ~Norte-Dame de Reims Cathedral~
    • ~Champagne~ (Cultural, Landscape, Vineyards/ Hillsides)
    • ~Norte-Dame de Reims Cathedral~
  • PIONEERS~ ~Dom Perignon~ “Champagne” 1670’s Cellar Master In Hatvillers- Credit For;
      • Blending Different Villages, Grapes & Years
      • Producing Blanc de Noir
      • Pioneer of Aging Wine In Cold, Dark Cellars
      • Use of Cork as Stoppers
      • Cellar Master In Hatvillers
    • ~Jean-Claude Rouzaud~ President of Champagne Louis Roederer
  • WINE & WAR~
    • The Vineyards of Champagne Were the “Front Line” of Battle and Wars of World War I and World War II and Were Destroyed During Nazi Germany’s March to the French Capital of Paris.
      • During These Wars the Entire Champagne Industry Was Forced to More the Production Operation Into the Wine Cellars
    • World War I–  AKA= “The Great War”, 1914-1919
      • Champagne Was the Frontlines Between the German & Allied Armies.
        • During the Trench Warfare 40% of the Vineyards Were Distroyed.
        • German Army Invaded Epernay On September 4th. 1914.
      • First Battle of the Marne– September 6th. – 12th.
        • Harvested Grapes Under Shell Fire.
  • ARCHEOLOGY & WINE~ ~Champagne Cellar Discovery
    • 19 Champagne Bottles Were Discovered at Pol Rogers Cellars In Epernay While Reinforcing and Old Wine Cellar.  The Bottles Were From 1887 to 1898 and Said to Be Lost When the Cellar Collapsed On February 23rd., 1990.  The Recovered Bottles Were In Drinkable Condition With Lees and Co2 Present.

GOING THERE

  • TIPS FOR VISITINGThe Champagne Region is a 60 Minute Train Ride From Paris.
    • Always Make an Appointment(Well In Advance), Avoid Weekends/ Holidays.
      • Allow Plenty of Time For Each Appointment.
      • No More Than 3/ 4  Appointments a Day.
      • Arrive to Appointments On time/ Early.
    • Book Accommodation and Restaurants Months In Advance.
    • Dress Up. Going to Champagne Houses is a Grand/ Stylistic Experience.
  • WINE TRAILS~ ~Avenue Champagne~
    • Located In City of Epernay, Major Attraction For People Visiting Champagne.
    • Champagne Houses on Avenue Champagne– De Castellane, Lafond, Mercier, Moet & Chandon, Perrier-Jouet, Pol Roger
  • GASTRONOMY Reims Ham, Mustard, Truffles(Forest Floors of Marne), Pink Biscuit
    • CHOCOLATES Bouchons de Champagne(Filled With Marc de Champagne Liqueur)
    • CHEESE Bri(Cows/ Soft),  Chaource(Cows/ Soft)


**Champagne Images Courtesy of Delong Maps, Purchase These Maps at Delongwine.com

Districts of Champagne Region

VALLEE De La VESLE     @Branscourt

  • BLANC= Chardonnay   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier
  • GEOGRAPHY France, REGION-Champagne(North), DEPARTMENT-Marne
    • North-West of Reims-City(10km.), VILLAGES
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Vesle)”, On~Vasle~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Marl, Loam
  • VITICULTURE– ? haPlanted
    • Sub-Zones-  Branscourt  30 ha.
  • PRODUCERS IN VALLEE De La VESLE

VALLEE De l’ARDRE    @

  • BLANC= Chardonnay    |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier
  • GEOGRAPHY France, REGION-Champagne(North), DEPARTMENT
    • West of Reims-City(20 km.), VILLAGES
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Ardre)”
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Marl, Loam
  • VITICULTURE-haPlanted
  • PRODUCERS IN VALLEE De l’ARDRE

MONTAGNE De REIMS   ~Grand Cru~ 9      @Reims

  • BLANC= Chardonnay   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier
  • GEOGRAPHY France, REGION-Champagne(North), DEPARTMENT-Marne
    • South of Reims-City(15 km.)
    • VILLAGES– Ambonnay, Beaumont-sur-Vesle, Bouzy, Chigny-les-Roses, Gueux, Jouy-les-Reims, Ludes, Puisieulx, Rilly-la-Montagne, Sillery, Tauxieres-Mutry, Trepail, Ville-Dommange, Villers-Allerand, Villers-Marmery, Vrigny
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”, ON PLATEAU/ ?,  On~Vesle~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Marl, Loam
  • VITICULTURE-  ? haPlanted
    • Sillery ~Grand Cru~ 92 ha. Planted    @Sillery
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 57%   |   ROUGE=Pinot Noir 33%, Pinot Meunier 9%
    • Mailly Champagne ~Grand Cru~ 286 ha.     @
      • BLANC= Chardonnay   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir 88%, Pinot Meunier
    • Verzenay ~Grand Cru~ 418 ha. Planted     @
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 14%   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir 86%, Pinot Meunier 1%
    • Beaumont-Sur-Vesle ~Grand Cru~ 28 ha. Planted     @Beaumont-sur-Vesle
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 15%   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir 84%, Pinot Meunier 1%
    • Verzy ~Grand Cru~ 408 ha. Planted     @
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 22%   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir 77%, Pinot Meunier 1%
    • Louvois ~Grand Cru~ 41 ha. Planted    @
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 18%   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir 82%
    • Bouzy ~Grand Cru~ 388 ha. Planted     @Bouzy
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 12%   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir 87%, Pinot Meunier 1%
    • Ambonnay ~Grand Cru~ 385 ha. Planted     @Ambonnay
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 19%   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir 81%
    • Chigny-les-Roses ~Grand Cru~     @Chigny-les-Rose
      • BLANC= Chardonnay        |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir
    • Puisieulx ~Grand Cru~ 19 ha. Planted    @Puisieulz
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 32%   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir 53%
    • ~Premier Cru~ Avenay-Val-d’Or,  Bezannes,  Billy-Le-Grand,  Chamery, Clingy-les-Roses,  Cormontreuil,  Coulommes-la-Montagne,  Ecueil,  Jody-les-Reims,  Ludes Les Mesneux,  Monbre,  Pargny-les-Reims,  Reilly-la-Monagne,  Sacy,  Sermiers,  Taissy, Tauxieres-Mutry,  Trepail,  Trois-Puits,  Vaudemange,  Villers-Allerand,  Villers-aux-Noeuds,  Ville-Dommange,  Villers-Marmery,  Vrigny
    • Vineyards– Les Plantelles
  • PRODUCERS IN RHIEMS
    • Barons de Rothschild (Negociant-Manipulant) 70 ha.     @Reims
    • Bernard Tornay (Recoltant-Manipulant) 20 ha.     @Bouzy
    • Bonnet-Ponson (Recoltant-Manipulant) 10.5 ha.     @Chamery
    • Canard-Duchene  Founded– 1859     @Rheims
      • Tete de Cuvee– Charles VII
    • Cattier  Style– Medi-Body, Rich, Elegant     @Chigny-Rose
    • Chanoine Freres            @Rheims
      • Tete de Cuvee– Tsarine
    • Egly-Ouriet  (Recoltant-Manipulant)  10.5 ha.     @Ambonnay
    • Charles Heidsieck  Founded– 1851     @Rheims
      • Style– Medi-Body, Biscuity, Complexity     Tete de Cuvee– Charlie
    • Gonet-Medeville            @
      • Tete de Cuvee– Le Grande Ruelle
    • Henriot (Negociant-Manipulant)  Founded– 1808,   35 ha.     @Reims
      • Tete de Cuvee– Des Enchanteleurs, Hemera
    • Jacquart
    • Jean Vesselle (Recoltant-Manipulant) 15 ha.     @Bouzy
    • J Lassalle (Recoltant-Manipulant) 15 ha.     @Chigny-les-Roses
    • Krug (Negociant-Manipulant)  21 ha.    @Rheims
      • Style (+BODY, Bone-Dry, +Age)     Tete de Cuvee– Clos du Mesnil, Clos d’Ambonnay
    • Lanson (Negociant-Manipulant) 125 ha.     @Rheims
      • Tete de Cuvee– Gold Label, Noble Cuvee
    • Louis Roederer  (Negociant-Manipulant)  214 ha.     @Rheims
      • Style-(+BODY, Rich, Fruity)     Tete de Cuvee– Cristal
    • Mumms (Recoltant-Manipulant)   218 ha.      @Rheims
      • Style-(Medi-Body, Soft, Fresh, Fruity) 218 ha.     Tete de Cuvee– Grand Cru
    • Piper Heidsieck   (Recoltant-Manipulant)      @Rheims
      • Tete de Cuvee– Rare
    • Pommery  (Recoltant-Manipulant) 230 ha.     @Rhiems
      • Style-(-Body, Floral, Elegant)     Tete de Cuvee– Louise, Clos Pompadour
    • Paul Bara  (Recoltant-Manipulant) 10.9 ha.     @Bouzy
    • R.H. Coutier (Recolant-Cooperateur)   9 ha.  @Ambonnay
    • Ruinart (Negociant-Manipulant) 20 ha.     @Rheims
      • Style-(-Body, Elegant, Toasty)     Tete de Cuvee– Dom Ruinart
    • Soutiran (Negociant-Manipulant) 6 ha.     @Ambonnay
    • Tattinger (Negociant-Manipulant) 288 ha.     @Rheims
      • Style-(-Body, Elegant, Soft, Floral)   Tete de Cuvee– Contes de Champagne
    • Thienot (Negociant-Manipulant) 30 ha.    @Reims
      • Tete de Cuvee– Garance, T Selection
    • Veuve Clicquot (Recoltant-Manipulant)@Rheims
      • Style-(+BODY, Rich, Biscuity) 515 ha.     Tete de Cuvee– La Grande Dame
    • OTHER PRODUCERS IN MONTAGNE De RIEMS
      • Andre Clouet, Benoit Lahaye, Egly-Ouriet, Emmanuel Brochet, Fred Savart, Georges Laval, Jacques Selosse, Jerome Prevost, Larmandier-Bernier, Marie-Noelle Ledru

VALLEE De La MARNE      ~Grand Cru~ 3      @Epernay

  • BLANC=  Chardonnay       |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Champagne(Central), DEPARTMENT-Marne
    • North & East of Epernay-City(    km.)
    • VILLAGE– Avenay-Val-d’or, Azy-sur-Marne, Ay, Charly, Chateau-Thierry, Chatillon-sur-Marne, Connigis, Cumieres, Daniery, Dizy, Dormans, Epernay, Hautvillers, Mareuil-le-Port, Mardeuil, Mezy-Moulins, Mutigny, Orbais-l’Abbaye, Pierey, Verneuil
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Marne)”, On~Sarmelin~River~Tributary~Marne~River~
  • VITICULTURE- ?  haPlanted
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Marl, Loam
    • Ay ~Grand Cru~ 367 ha. Planted      @Ay
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 8%   |    ROUGE= Pinot Noir 89%, Pinot Meunier 3%
    • Tours-sur-Marne ~Grand Cru~ 52 ha. Planted     @
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 28%   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir 72%
    • Champagne ~Grand Cru~
    • ~Premier Cru~ Champillon, Cumieres, Bisseuil, Dizy, Hautvillers, Mareuil-sur-Ay,  Mutigny, Le Remissonne
  • PRODUCERS IN MARNE
    • Augustin (Recoltant-Manipulant) 9.5 ha. Planted   @Avenay-Val-d’Or
    • Ayala (Negoiant-Manipulant) ?  ha. Planted     @Ay
    • Baron Fuente (Negociant-Manipulant) 37 ha.
    • Billecart-Salmon- Founded 1818,  11 ha. Planted     @Mareuil-sur-Ay
      • Style– (-Body, Fresh, Elegant)      Tete de Cuvee– Le Clos St.-Hilaire
    • Boizel (Negociant-Manipulant) 7 ha.    @Epernay
    • Bollinger (Negoiant-Manipulant) 174 ha. Planted     @Ay
      • Style– (+Body, Very Dry, Toasty, Biscuity)     Tete de Cuvee– Le Grande Annee, Edition Limitee
    • Boude Baudin (Recoltant-Manipulant)  @Cormoyeux
    • Collet (Cooperative-Manipulant)     @Ay
    • DeutzStyle– (Medi-Body, Fruity) 37 ha. Planted     @Ay
      • Tete de Cuvee– Amour
    • Gosset (Negociant-Manipulant) Founded 1584,  0 ha. Planted    @Ay
      • Style-(+Body, Bone-Dry, +Ages)     Tete de Cuvee– Celebris
    • Francoise Bedel (Recoltant-Manipulant)  9 ha.      @Crouttes-sur-Marme
    • Henri Giraud (Recoltant-Manipulant)   ha.      @Ay
      • Tete de Cuvee– Fut de Chene, MV14
    • Jacquesson– Style-(Medi-Body, Bone-Dry, Elegant)       @Dizy
      • Tete de Cuvee– 742
    • Jean-Marc Seleque (Recoltant-Manipulant) 9 ha.     @Eperany
    • Joseph Perrier (Recoltant-Manipulant) 21 ha.     @Eperany
      • Tete de Cuvee– Josephine
    • Laherte Freres     @Epernay
    • Laurent-PerrierStyle-(-Body, Fresh, Elegant, Fruity)      @Tours-Marne
      • Tete de Cuvee– Grand Siecle
    • Moet & Chandon (Negociant-Manipulant) 1,214 ha. Planted   @Epernay
      • Style– (Medi-Body, Fresh, Biscuity)    Tete de Cuvee– Dom Perignon, MCIII
    • Perrier-Jouet (Negociant-Manipulant)  65 ha. Planted     @Epernay
      • Style– (-Body, Elegant, Fruity)      Tete de Cuvee– Belle Epoque
    • Philipponnat (Nogociant-Manipulant) 17 ha.     @Mareuil-sur-Ay
      • Tete de Cuvee– Clos des Goisses
    • Pol Roger (Recoltant-Manipulant)  91 ha. Planted      @Epernay
      • Style– (Medi-Body, Floral, Dry)     Tete de Cuvee– Sir Winston Churchill
    • De Venoge (Negociant-Manipulant) ? ha.   @Epernay
    • OTHER PRODUCERS IN VALLE De La MARNE
      • Chartogne-Taillet, Gaston Chiquet, Georges Laval, Hebrart, R. Pouillon & Fils

COTE De BLANC    ~Grand Cru~ 6      @Cramant

  • BLANC= Chardonnay 97%  |   ROUGE= Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Champagne(South), DEPARTMENT-Marne
    • South-East of Epernay-City(5 km.),
    • VILLAGES– Avize, Bergeres-les-Vertus, Chouilly, Cramant, Cuis, Etoges, Grauves, Le Mesnil-sur-Oger, Oger, Talus-St.-Prix, Vertus, Villevenard
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling”, SLOPES/ Ridge/ Plateau of Eroding Limestone , +Alt.250 mt.
    • Butte de Saran– Free Standing Hill, Eroded From the Area Over Time.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Clay, Marl, Loam, Fossilized Cuttlefish, Belemnite Chalk, Shells
  • VITICULTURE-  ? ha. Planted
  • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ “Blancs” Refers to Consistent White Slopes or the Predominate Chardonnay Production.
    • Chouilly ~Grand Cru~     @Chouilly
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 99%   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir 1%
      • Vineyards– Montaigu
    • Le Mesnil-sur-Oger ~Grand Cru~ 433 ha. Planted      @Le Mesnil sur Oger
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 100%
      • Vineyards– Close du Mesnil
    • Oiry ~Grand Cru~ 88 ha. Planted     @
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 99%   |   ROUGE= Pinot Meunier 1%
    • Cramant ~Grand Cru~ 351 ha. Planted     @Cramant
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 100%
      • VITICULTURE
        • -Estate/ Producers- Diebolt-Vallois, GH. Mumm(17 ha.), Guiborat Fils(8ha.), J Vignier, Lancelot-Pienne, Lilbert-Fils(3.5ha.), Perrier-Jouet, Philippe Glavier, Philippe Lancelot, Suenen
        • Vineyards– Les Bionnes, Les Bouron Leroi, Bouron du Midi, Gouttes d’Or, Les Fromattes, Les Vignes de Mardu
      • CULTURE– ~Etymology~ Cramant Meaning Chalk Mount
    • Avize ~Grand Cru~ 267 ha. Planted     @Avize
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 100%
    • Oger ~Grand Cru~ 401 ha. Planted       @Oger
      • BLANC= Chardonnay 100%
    • ~Premier Cru~ Bergeres-les-Vertus,  Cuis,  Etrechy,  Grauves Pierry,  Val-des-Marais Vertus Voipreux,  Villeneuve-Renneville-Chevigny
  • PRODUCERS IN COTE De BLANC
    • Bruno Paillard (Negociant-Manipulant)  34 ha.   @Mesnil-sur-Oger
      • Tete de Cuvees– Nec Plus Ultra
    • Delamotte (Negociant-Manipulant)  10ha.   @Mesnil-sur-Oger
    • Duval Leroy (Recoltant-Manipulant) 19 ha.     @Vertus
      • Tete de Cuvees– Femme de Champagne
    • Larmandier-Bernier (Recoltant-Manipulant) 19 ha.     @Vertus
      • Tete de Cuvees– Les Chemins d’Avize
    • Nicolas Feuillatte (Cooperative-Manipulant)   2,099 ha.  @Chouilly
      • 4,500 Members Growers     Tete de Cuvees– Palmes d’Or
    • Phillippe Gonet– (Recoltant-Manipulant) ? ha.     @Mesil-sur-Oger
      • Tete de Cuvees– Belemnita
    • Pierre Gimonnet– (Recoltant-Manipulant) 28 ha.     @Cuis
      • Tete de Cuvees– Oenophile
    • Pierre Peters– (Recoltant-Manipulant) 19 ha.     @Mesnil-sur-Oger
      • Tete de Cuvees– Les Chetillons
    • Salon– (Negociant-Manipulant) 1 ha.       @Mesnil-sur-Oger
      • Style-(+Body, Complex, Nutty)     Tete de Cuvees– Le Mesnil
    • Valentin Leflaive (Negociant-Manipulant)  10ha.   @Avize
    • OTHER PRODUCERS IN COTE De BLANC
      • Agrapart, Diebolt-Vallois, J. Vignier, Jacques Selosse, Jean Milan, Larmandier-Berniers, Lancelot-Pienne, Lilbert-Fils, Perrier-Jouet, Phillippe Glavier, Pierre Gerbais, Suenen, Voirin-Jumel

COTE De SEZANNE     @Sezanne

  • BLANC= Chardonnay
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Champagne(South), DEPARTMENT
    • South-West 0f Epernay-City(30 km.)
    • VILLAGES-Allemant, Barbonne-Fayel, Bethon, Saudoy, Sezanne, Villenauxe-la-Grande
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling”, On~La Grand Marin~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Marl, Loam, Clay, Silex
  • VITICULTURE-haPlanted
    • Vineyards- Les Plantelles
  • CULTURE- AKA=Sezannais
  • PRODUCERS IN COTE De SEZANNE
    • Breton Fils
    • Collet-Champagne
    • Daniel Collin
    • Ulysse Collin-
    • Yveline Prat
    • Bethon
    • Villenauxe la-Grande

VITRY-Le-FRANCOIS      @Vitry-le-Francois

  • BLANC= Chardonnay   |    ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Champagne(East-Central), DEPARTMENT-Marne
    • South-East of Epernay-City(40 km.), VILLAGES
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Marl, Loam
  • VITICULTURE-haPlanted
  • PRODUCERS IN VITRY-Le-FRANCOIS

TYOYES     @Troyes

  • BLANC= Chardonnay    |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Champagne(South), DEPARTMENT-Aube
    • South of Epernay-City(50 km.), VILLAGES
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Seine~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Marl, Loam
  • VITICULTURE-haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers
  • CULTURE- Tyoyes AKA=Montegueux
  • PRODUCERS IN TYOYES

COTE De BAR/ AUBE     @Bar-sur-Aube

  • BLANC= Chardonnay   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Champagne(South), South-East of Epernay-City(85km.)
    • DEPARTMENT-                VILLAGES
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling”, On~Seine/ Aube~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Marl, Loam
    • Kimmeridgian Era Formation– High In Clay and Limestone(Exogyra Virgula Fossels)
  • VITICULUTRE- ? haPlanted
  • PRODUCERS IN COTE De BAR/ AUBE
    • Alexandre Bonnet (Negociant-Manipulant)  46 ha.   @Les Riceys
    • Albert Beerens
    • Dosnon & Lepage-
    • Drappier
    • Jean Laurent- (Recoltant-Manipulant) 15 ha.    @Celles-sur Ource
    • Marie Courtin-
    • Pierre Gerbais- (Reoltant-Manipulant) 18 ha.     @Celles-sur-Ource
    • OTHER PRODUCERS IN COTE De BAR/ AUBE
      • Cedric Bouchard, Gremillet, Gruet, Jacques Lassaigne, Vouette et Sorbeem

ROSE Des RICEYS AOC.     @Riceys

  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Champagne(South), DEPARTMENT-Aube
    • COMMUNES-Riceys, Les Riceys, Avirey-Lingey
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Marl, Loam
  • VITICULTURE- 30 haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producer– Alexandre Bonnet, Mosel Pere et Fils, Serge et Olivier
    • -Vineyards- En Barmont, La Foret(4.2ha.), La Geande(1.5ha.), En Valingrain
  • VINICULTURE- Whole Cluster Pressed, Semi-Carbonic Maceration
    • Fermented In Stainless Steel Tanks For Early Consumption or Oak Barrels For Aging.
  • PRODUCERS IN ROSE Des RICEYS
    • Olivier Horiot-

COTEAUX CHAMPENOIS AOC.    @Champagne

  • BLANC= Chardonnay, Arbane, Petit Meslier, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris
  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Champagne(Greater), South-East of Reims-City
    • DEPARTMENTS: Ainse, Aube, Haute-Marne, Marne, Seine-et-Marne
    • COMMUNES– 635
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling”
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Marl, Loam
  • VINICULTURE- General Appellation For Champagne Producers Making Still Wine.
    • Still Wine, Single Varietal, White, Red, Rose
    • Estate/ Producers-


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced