SOUTH-WEST FRANCE IS  AOC.- 29      IGT.- 15     @Bordeaux

  • BLANC= Aruifiac, Baco, Balzac, Baroque, Camarelet, Chardonnay, Colombard, Fer Servadou AKA=Braucol/ Pinenc, Folignan, Folle Blanche, Gros Manseng, Jurancon Blanc, Lauzet, Len de L’el, Loin de L’Oeil, Mauzac, Montils, Ondenc, Petit Courbu, Petit Manseng, Prunelard, Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Ugni Blanc
  • ROUGE= Abouriou, Cot AKA=Malbec, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Duras, Jurancon, Manseng Noir, Merlot, Negrette, Tannat, Fer Servadou AKA=Braucol, Raffiat de Moncade

GEOGRAPHY France, REGION-South-West, LATITUDE: 44.4° ‘N’

  • BORDERS: Spain(South-West)
  • Area South-East of Bordeaux, North of Pyrenees and Inland of Languedoc Roussillon
  • DEPARTMENTS– Tarn, Pyrenees Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrenees
  • Sub-Zones Garonne          Tarn Pyrenees         Bordeaux

TOPOGRAPHY FEATURES– “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Pyrenees Mountains

    • On~Dordogne/ Garonne/ Tarn~River~Atlantic~Ocean~ Headwaters: Pyrenees Mountains (500 km.)
    • Topographically Bordered  by Atlantic Ocean, Pyrenees Mountains and the Massif Central Mountian
  • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS–  ~Aquitaine Basin~
    • Predominantly Flat Area Occupying South-West France, Delineated by the Atlantic Ocean(West), Pyrenees Mountains(South) and Massif Central(East)


  • 500 – 1200’s- @Europe– During the Middle Ages South-West France Was Ruled by England.  The Region Was Called Gascony.
  • South-West France Has a Longer Wine History Than Bordeaux. The Warm Continental Climate of the Area Produced More Full Body Wines and Where More Coveted Than the Thin Wines Being Produced In the Maritime Climate of Bordeaux.


  • CHALLENGESD’Autun– Moistures, High-Speed Wind of South-West France

SOILS Metamorphic”, ”Sedimentary

CLIMATE Maritime With Mediterranean Influences


  • Importance of Rivers- With the Rivers of Dordogne, Gironde, and Tarn, South-West France Has a Complexed Hydrographical Network of Rivers That Were Instrumental In Expansive Wine Trade Over the Past 1,500 Years. Ending In the City of Bordeaux the Wine Exports to the Rest of the World Possible.
    • CHEESE… Bleu des Causses(Cow/ Blue)

Northern South-West France

COGNAC     @Cognac

  • BLANC= Ugni Blanc AKA=Saint-Emilion 55%, Colombard, Folle Blanche…Others…
    • Baco, Balzac, Folignan, Jurancon Blanc, Montils, Meslier AKA=Blanche Ramee, Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(North),  LATITUDE: 45.7° ‘N’, “Multi-Appellation”
    • North of Bordeaux(90km.)
    • CITIES: Angouleme, Cognac, Jarnac, Saintes
    • DEPARTMENTS– Charente-Maritime(Coast), Charente(Interior)
      • Parts of Deau-Sevres/ Dordogne
    • DISTRICTS– Bois Ordinaires, Bons Bois, Borderies, Fine Bois, Grande Champagne, Petite Champagne
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat, Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Charente~River~
    • *Generally- 6 Crus or “Growth Areas” Are Distinct by Soils or Micro-Climates
  • SOILS= Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Alluvial, Limestone, Sandstone, Clay
    • Calcium Carbonate From the Cretaceous Period (70-130 Million Years Ago)
  • CLIMATE= Atlantic With Continental Influences
    • Summer– Warm   |   Winters– Cold, Wet
    • 200 @South-West– Roman Emperor Probus Extended Vine Cultivation to the Region.
    • 1500’s @South-West– Huge Salt Trade, Exported to English, Dutch, Scandinavians.
    • 1500’s @Cognac– After Decline of Salt Trade Cognac Became Know For Distilling.
    • 1549 @Cognac– Earliest Documented Distilling, Cognac as a Word Began in 1617.
    • 1850 @South-West– Brandy Houses Started to Export In Bottles and Gaining More Publicity.
    • 1878 @South-West– Phylloxera Reaches Cognac, Only Lowland Vineyards On Clay Survived.
    • 1908 @Cognac– The Boundaries of Cognac Region Legally Delimited.
    • Historically Referred to as Saintonge After the Gallic Tribe of Santones Which Occupied Western France, North of Bordeaux.
    • How and Why Did the Cognac Region Switch From Producing Wine to Distilling Brandy?
      • 1) The Low Alcohol Wines That Were Produced In the Area Deteriorated to such a Degree on its Sea Voyage That the Traders From other Countries Decide to Distill it After Landing.  So the French Decided to Install Dutch Stills and Started to Distill the Wine Before the Sea Journey.
      • 2) Over Protective Vineyards Resulted In Thin, Very Light Wine, With Greater Demand Abroad For Brandy Compared to the Higher Taxed Wine, Distillation Developed.
    • ~Etymology~ Brandy Comes From Dutch Word “Brandewijn” Meaning Burnt Wine.
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Brureau National Interprofessionnel du Cognac~
      • Mission~ To Develop and Promote Cognac, Representing the Best Interests of /All Cognac Professionals Including Growers, Merchants and Members of Other Activities Related to the Cognac Trade.
    • GOING THERE~ ~Cognac Museum~,  ~St. Leger Romanesque Church~,
      • ~Gallo-Roman Amphitheater and Roman Baths~,  ~St. Peters’s Cathedral~
  • VITICULTURE– 79,000 ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURE– Fermented Must Distilled Twice In Copper Alambic Pot Still.
    • Fermented 10-20 Days (No Inoculation, or Added Sugar or Sulphur), Resulting Wine a Weak Unappealing Wine  7%-9% Abv. Which is Ideal For Distillation.
    • *Cognac Contains 486 Volatile Substances.
    • Still Wine Goes Through Malolactic Fermentation.
    • Cognac Must Be Produced From at Least 90% Colombard, Folle Blanche & Ugni Blanc.
    • FINE CHAMPAGNE= Produced Exclusively From Grapes Grown In Grande Champagne and Petite Champagne.
    • Cru- (Ugni Blanc +90%, Folle Blanche, Colombard)
    • By Regulation Three Additional Materials May Be Added to Cognac.
      • Boise(Oak Shaving), Carmel(Added to Adjust the Color), Sugar Syrup

Times Distilled, Unique Aging and Evaporation Process and is What Make Cognac & Armagnac Different.

  • DISTILLATION– Process of Separating Alcohol From Other Volatile Components.
    • Producers Must Use the Long-Eastablished Method of Double-Distillation With a Alambic Pot Still Called a “Charentais” Cooper Still.
    • Traditionally a Wood-Fired Boiler(Now Natural Gas) In a Stone Frame Held About 53-79 Gallons.
    • White Grapes That Are Used In Production of Cognac Are High In Acid, High Yield, Producing Wine That Are Thin, Dry, Acidic, and Below Average In Terms of White Wine Standards But the Outcome of Distilling and Aging These Wine Are Excellent and Adds to the Structure Quality of the Final Cognac.
    • Distillation is Started as Soon as Fermentation is Complete(Unfiltered Wine Often Still On Lee), and Distillation Must Be Completed by March 31 the Year After Harvest.
    • It Takes 9 Liters of Wine to Distill One Liter of Cognac.
    • Resulting EAU-De-VIS is Colorless and 70% Abv.
    • AU-De-VIE– Term For Spirit, Literally “Water of Life”, Colorless Fruit Brandy.
    • **Refer to “WINE STYLES/ Distillation” For Additional Information
    • Three Groups of Distllaters…
      • Co-Operatives
      • Bouilliurs de Profession(Distill For Farmers and Merchants)
      • Bouilleurs de Cru(Individual Vineyard Farmers Who Also Distills His Own Crops., Some of Which is Either Sold to Cognac Houses  or Sold Under Their Own Name.)
    • The Long Aging Process Given to Cognac is Special and Unique to Other Spirts.  This Maturation Allows the Initial Harsh Tones to Subside and Lends Itself to a Mellow Quality to Develop Through Slow Oxidation In the Cast.
    • Often Called Cellars, But the Buildings Cognac Age In Are More Like Warehouses and Are Located Above Ground.  Most of These Warehouses Are Near the Charente River and Are Damp.
    • The Oak Used For Cognac Barrel is Sourced From Troncais Forest or Limousin Forest and Are of the Species Quercus Robur and Querus Petaca.
      • The Best of These Oak Trees a Generally 80-100 Years Old.
      • The Oak is Split and Not Sawed
    • +AGED/ +2 Years In Barels But Some For 4 Years In Oak Barrel.
    • As Cognac Interacts With Oak Barrels, Alcohol and Water Evaporates at a Rate of 3% a Year, Until Cognac Eventually Become the Desired ABV..
    • Barrel Must Be at Least 92.5 Gallons But Larger Cast Are Used For Blending.
    • Tiercons– Thin-Walled 1100-150 Year Old French Old Cast Originally Designed For Maritime Transport and No Longer Being Produced
    • When Barrel Aging is Finished Cognac is Transferred to Large Glass Bonbonnes For Future Storage Until Blending.
    • Boise– Infusion of Oak Resin/ Shavings Placed In Cognac to Enhance Woody Character
    • Early Landed– Young Cognac Shipped In Bulk(Usually of Single Vinetage), Which Natures In a Bonded Warehouse.
    • Paradis– Storage Points For Oldest Cognac Reserves.
    • Rancio– Characteristic Nose and Taste of Fully Mature Cognac(Mellow Quality Found After 20-25 Years In Cast)
    • Each Cognac House Has a Master Taster/ Maitre de Chai Who’s Responsible For Blending the Spirit So That Cognac Produces is True to Its House Blend Style and Quality.
      • Cognac is Non-Vinetage, and the Master Blender Must Command Different District, Years, and Barrels Into a Finished Product.
    • Faibles– Blend of Cognac and Distilled Water, Used to Reduce Alcoholic Strength(Usually Around +Abv. 15%-18% )
    • VS. (Very Superior) +AGED/ +2 Years In Barrel
    • VSOP. (Very Special Old Pale) +AGED/ +5 Years In Barrel
    • XO. (Extra Old) +AGED/ +6 Years In Barrel/ 10 After 2018
    • HORS D’AGE (High Quality Product) +AGED/ +10 Years In Barrel
      • Mid-Tawny
    • VIEUX
    • Sight: Very Light/ Mid-Straw/ Gold/ Deep-Amber/ Mid-Tawny/ Tawny
      • Is Color From Age or Achieved by Additon of Carmel
    • Aroma: SPICE: Cinnimon, Wood/ Vanilla, NUTS: Almonds, Hazel, Walnuts
      • FLORAL: Violet,  OTHER: Fennel, Honey
      • Hold Glass a Slight Distance From Nose
      • Warm Glass With Hands to Find Preferred Temperature
    • Palate: FRUIT: Apricots, Coconut, Figs, Peaches, Pineapple, Prunes, Raisiny
      • OTHER: Soda
      • Take Small Sips(Allow Prolonged Enjoyment Without Over Consumption
    •  Structure: Smooth/ Harsh/ Fiery
      • TEXTURE– Syrupy
    • Glassware– SERVING… Serve In Glasson and Let Breath For 5 Minutes
      • Thin-Rimmed Crystal Glass, Not Too Deep or Overly Narrow.  Glass Should Narrow slightly Towards the /top to Trap The Aromas and Direct Them Towards the Nose.
      • Glass Should Fit Comfortably In Ones Hands. The Bulb of Cognac Glasses Are Meant to Be Touched or Cupped In Ones Palm and Warmed By the Hand in Order to Slowly Release the Aromas.
      • PAIRING…Dulce de Leche   |  CHEESE
    • Cognac vs. Armagnac– +BODY, More Rustic, +Fragrant
      • Dominated by Big Companies, Bigger Production
    • Cognac-Based Drink- Grand Marnier, Domaine Canton, Pineau Charentes
    • Cocktails Made From Cognac
      • Cognac With Water or Soda Water
      • Horse Neck– Cognac With Ginger Ale, Twist of Lemon Peel, Dash of Bitter
      • Cognac Sour– Cognac Mixed With Fresh Lemon Juice and Sugar Syrup
      • Side Car– Cognac, Cointreau, Lemon Jucie, Twist of Lemon Peel
    • Super “High End” Cognac
      • Louis XIII by Remy Martin
      • L’Essence de Courvoisier by Courvoisier
      • Paradis Imperial by Hennessy

All Cognac is Brandy But Not all Brandy is Cognac.

**Cognac Images Courtesy of Delong Maps, Purchase These Maps at Delongwine.com


  • BLANC= Colombard, Folle Blanche, Ugni Blanc   |    ROUGE= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West, In Cognac(Central-Interior)
    • PARISHES– 27
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Charente~River~
  • SOILS= Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Shallow Clay-Limestone, Over Friable Limestone, Chalk
  • VITICULTURE– 13,766 haPlanted
    • -Estate/ Producers– Camus(20ha./ Extra Elegance), Croizet, De Luze, Delamain, Duboigalant(20ha.), A.E. Dupuy, Jean Luc Ferrand(26ha.), Pierre Ferrand, Fillioux(23ha.), Frapin(200ha.), Paul Giraud, Goursat-Gourry de Chadeville, Guerbe(41ha.), A. Hardy, Hennessy, Martell, Menard, Menuet, Painturaud, Planat, Prunier, Ragnaud, Remy Martin, Salignac, Unicoop
    • Louis XIII– Legendary Cognac Produced by Remy Martin.  Name is a Tribute to King Louis 13th. of France. (Reigning Monarch When Remy Martin FamilySettled in Cognac Region) King Louis Was First to Recognize Cognac as a Category.
      • Final Blend is Produced From 1,200 Individual Eaux-de-Vie From the Grand Champagne Vineyards Ranging From 40 Years to 100 Years of Age.
      • As Marketing Remy Martins Started Sell Their Cognac as 100% Grande Champagne Cognac In Ornate Decanter. Decanter is a Reproduction of a Metal Flask From the Battle of Jarnac(1569).  The Replica is Hand Made by Brystal Manufactures: Baccarat, Cristallerie de Sevres or Saint-Louis.
    • PIONEERS~ ~Paul-Emile Remy~ Inherited the Business and Began Selling Cognacs Under His Family Name. He Later Broke Tradition and Began Bottling His Cognacs Rather Than Selling Them by the Barrel.


  • BLANC= Colombard, Folle Blanche, Ugni Blanc   |     ROUGE= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West, In Cognac(Central-Interior)
    • CITIES: Archiac, Barbezieus, Chateauneuf-Sur-Charente, Jonzac, PARISHES– 60
    • Forms Semicircle Around Southern Grand Champagne
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”
  • SOILSMetamorphic“,  “Sedimentary, Chalk
  • VITICULTURE– 13,171 ha. Planted
    • -Estate/ Producers– Bertrand et Fils(69ha.), Dominique Chainier et Fils, Courvoisier, A. E. Dor, Gabriel et Andreu, Lheraud, Montifaud(49ha.), Paulet, Royer


  • BLANC= Chardonnay, Colombard, Folle Blanche, Sauvignon Blanc, Ugni Blanc
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Sauvignon,  Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West, In Cognac(Central-Interior)
    • North-West of Cognac-City(5km.), PARISHES– 6
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Charente~River~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Clay, Lint Stones From Break-Down of Limestone
  • VITICULTURE– 4,300 haPlanted
    • -Estate/ Producers– Deau(104 ha.)


  • BLANC= Colombard, Folle Blanche, Ugni Blanc    |    ROUGE= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, South-West France, In Cognac
    • CITIES– Cozes, Saujon, Talmont, Tonnay-Boutonne
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Boutonne/ Seudre~River~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Clay
  • VITICULTURE– 1,171 haPlanted
    • -Estate/ Producers


  • BLANC= Colombard, Folle Blanche, Ugni Blanc   |   ROUGE= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West, In Cognac
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”
  • VITICULTURE– 1,171 haPlanted
    • -Estate/ Producers

COGNAC FINS BOIS AOC.     @Angouleme, Saintes

  • BLANC= Colombard, Folle Blanche, Montils, Ugni Blanc
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West, In Cognac(Interior), “Non-Contiguous(2)”
    • Encircles the 3 Districts of Grande Champagne, Petit Champagne & Borderies
    • CITIES: Aigre, Angouleme, Blanca, Challignac, Matha, Saintes, St. jean d’Angle, St. Savinien
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Charente~River~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Red Clay, Hard, Limestone, Stony, Clay
  • VITICULTURE– 33,300 haPlanted, 40% of Cognac Production
    • -Estate/ Producers– Balluet, Chateau de Beaulon(63ha.), Bonnin(40ha.), Fougerat, Leopold Gourmel(32ha.), Leyrat(52ha.), Maurin, Andre Petit, Renault Bisquit, Tiefen
    • Other- Estate/ Producers– A.E. Audry, Braastad, Bache-Gabrielsen, Chabasse, Delamain, Dompierre, Exshaw, Gaston de Lagrange, Fontaine La Pouyada, Hine, Gautier, Godet Freres,  Moine, Moyet, Otard

PINEAU Des CHARENTES AOC.      @Charente

  • BLANC= Colombard, Folle Blanche, Merlot Blanc, Semillon, Ugni Blanc
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Jurancon, Meslier
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West, In Cognac AOC.
  • VITICULTURE– ? haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE–  Vin de Liquerur-(Fortified Before Fermentation With Eau-de-Vie), +Abv...16%-22%
    • EAU-De-VIE– Must Be Distilled From Cognac Grapes From Charente and Charente-Maritime Departments
    • Charentes Producers Must Also Be Cognac Distillers
      • Eau-de-Vie Must Be Aged 1 Year Prior to Blending and Have +Abv. of 60%
    • +BLENDED/ Juice and Cognac Eau-de-Vie at 3 to 1 Ratio
    • +AGING-  Blanc+AGED/ 18 mo./ 12 mo. Oak
      • Rouge/ Rose- +AGED/ 12 mo./ 8 mo. Oak
      • Vieux+AGED/ +5 yr. Oak
      • Tres Vieux+AGED/ +10 yr Oak
    • -Estate/ Producers– Bache Gabrielsen, Beaulon, Bonnin, Deau, Dominique Chainier et Fils, Jean Luc Ferrand, Moine, Pierre Ferrand, Reviseur, Tessendier’s
  • HISTORY– 400 Year History of Production
    • Legend Has It a Cellar-Worker In 1589 Poured Unfermented Must In to a Presumed Empty Barrel That Had Cognac In it.  Not Wanted it to Go to Waste He Drank it.
    • IN COCKTAILS– Pineau & Tonic, Martinelle

IGP.s of North South-West France


  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West, Near Cognac


  • Bordeaux Which is a Region of South-West France Has Its Own Dedicated Page.
    • **Refer to “FRANCE/ Bordeaux” For Detailed Information On Bordeaux.

Eastern South-West France

**South-West Images Courtesy of Delong Maps, Purchase These Maps at Delongwine.com

BUZET AOC.      @Buzet Sur-Baise

  • BLANC= Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Muscadelle
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(East), DEPARTMENTS-Tarn-et-Garonne
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Garonne~River~
  • SOILS= ”Metamorphic”, ”Sedimentary”, Clay, Gravel, Boulbenes(Sand Clay)
  • VITICULTURE– 1,400 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Barond’Ardeuil, Marquis Hautevigne, Vignerons de Buzet(Co.-Op.)

BRULHOIS AOC.      @Layrac

  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Fer, Merlot, Tannat
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(East), DEPARTMENT-Tarn-et-Garonne
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Garonne~River~Tributary~Gironde Estuary~
  • CLIMATE= “Continental” With “Maritime” Influence
    • Estate/ Producers– Boiron, Labastide, Vignerons du Brulhois

SAINT SARDO AOC.      @Saint Sardo

  • BLANC=    ?       |   ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Syrah, Tannat
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(East), DEPARTMENTS-Tarn-et-Garonne
    • VILLAGES-(23) North-West of Toulouse-City(25km.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Terraces”, On~Garonne~River~
  • SOILS= Metamorphic”, ”Sedimentary”, Alluvial, Pebbly Limestone
  • CLIMATE= Mediterranean WithMaritime Influence
  • VITICULTURE–   ?   ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Tucayne

CAHORS AOC.     @Cahors

  • BLANC= Chardonnay
  • ROUGE= Cot/ Auxerrois AKA=Malbec, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Tannat
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(East), DEPARTMENT-Lot
    • VILLAGES: Cahor, Douelle, Luzech, Pamac, Prayssac, Puy-L’Eveque, Touzac, Vire Sur-Lot
    • Sub-Zones- Hills(Cote), Rocamadour, Coteaux de Glanes
      • 4 Terraces
      • 1st. Terrace- Flood Plain Near the River     |    2nd. Terrace- Sandy
      • 3rd. Terrace- Red Clay                                    |    4th. Terrace- Rocks
    • Lower Lot Valley- (30km.) BETWEEN: Fenel(West) & Cahor(East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Lot)”, +Alt.200mt.
    • On~Masse~River~Tributary~Lot~River~Tributary~Garonne~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, ”Sedimentary, Clay-Limestone, Chalk, Gravel
  • CLIMATE=Oceanic With Mediterranean Influence/ Convergence
  • VITICULTURE– 4,000 ha. Planted
  • VINICULTUREMarc de GC–  ~Eau de Vie~ From Malbec Pomace
    • Estate/ Producers– Albatros, Astrolabe, Cedre, Cenac, Chamber, Crocus(Paul Hobbs), Fabian Jouves(Nat.Pro.), Gaudou, Haute-Serre, Lagrezette, Jean-Luc Baldes(69ha.), Mas del Perie(Nat.Pro.), Mercues, Pelvillain, Saint-Sernin, Tarani
  • CULTURE– ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Union of Cahor Wine Professionals~
  • GOING THERE-  ~Villa Cahor Malbec~ Visitor Information, Tasting and Wine Center
      • CHEESE… ~Roquefort~(Cow/ Blue) From the Commune of Rouergue

COTEAUX Du QUERCY AOC.      @Montpezat-Quercy

  • BLANC=  ?
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Sauvignon, Cot, Gamay, Merlot, Tannat
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(East)
    • DEPARTMENTS-Lot/ Tarn-et-Garonne
    • South-East of Bordeaux-City(150km.),  “Non-Contiguous(3)”
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Plateau”
  • CLIMATE=Continental WithMaritime Influence
    • Estate/ Producers– Lafage, Saint Etienne

FRONTON AOC.      @Fronton

  • BLANC=  ?     |    ROUGE= Negrette
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(East), DEPARTMENT-Haute-Garonne
    • North of Toulouse-City(25km.)
  • CLIMATE=Mediterranean With Maritime Influence
  • VITICULTURE–  ? ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Arbeau, Bellevue, Plaisance, Le Roc

GAILLAC AOC.     @Gaillac

  • BLANC= Loin de L’Oeil, Muscadelle, Mauzac, Ondenc, Sauvignon Blanc, Verdanel
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvigon, Duras, Braucol AKA=Fer Servadou, Lende L’el, Prunelard, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(East), DEPARTMENT-Tarn, @Hw.#A68
    • North-East of Toulouse-City(25km.), “Non-Contiguous(2)”
    • 2 Hours to Mediterranean Sea, 2 Hours to Atlantic Ocean, 2 Hour to Pyrenees.
      • Geography– Gaillac, North of Gaillac-City(10km.)
      • Estate/ Producers– Adelaide, Barry, Bourguet, Bouscaillous, Brousse, Cailloutis, Chanade, Clos Rocailleux, Comte de Thun Gardelle, La Camba Torta, Lamothe Mandir de l’Emmeille, Mas d’Aurel, Mantels, La Combelle, Pech del Cel, Peyres Roses, Salvy Vignobles de Pech Gouyou
      • Geography– Gaillac, South/ East of Gaillac-City(2km.)
      • Estate/ Producers– Ardurels, Bois Moisset, Bonnefil, Calmet, Carcenac, Castel de Brames, Crois des Marchands, Labastdie, Rotier, Sanbatan
      • Geography– Gaillac, West/ North of Gaillac-City(2km.)
      • Estate/ Producers– Al Couderc, Arlus, Balsamine, Barreau, Borie-Vieille, Bosc Long, Brin, Cahus, Canto Perlic, Cassagnols, Clement Termes, Duffau, Fontaines de Cavalade, Gayssou, Grand Chene, Labarthe, Labastide, Lecusse, Maresque, Mas Pignou, Moulin, Moussens, Philemon, Plageoles, Ratier, Rene Rieux, Salettes, Salmes, Tauzies, Terride, Vayssette, Vigne Lourac,
      • Geography– Gaillac, South of Gaillac-City(10km.)
      • Estate/ Producers– Garibal, Vignes des Garbasses
      • Geography– Gaillac, East of Gaillac-City(15km.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Tarn/ Dadou~River~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic”, “Sedimentary, Boulbenes(Gravel), Clay, Limestone, Sand, Silex
  • CLIMATE= Mediterranean WithMaritime Influence, +WIND/ D’Autan
  • VITICULTURE– 3,300 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers(Others)- Sarrabelle
  • VINICULTURERouge,  Rose,  Blanc Sec,  Blanc Perle,  Doux,  Vendanges Tardives
    • SPARKLING– Traditional/ Methode Ancestrale
  • HISTORY– 2,000 Years of Wine Culture, Imported to Area by Phoenicians

    • BLANC= Len de L’el, Mauzac, Muscadelle, Onden, Sauvigon Blanc
    • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West, DEPARTMENT-Tarn, In Gaillac AOC.
      • VILLAGES-(11), Bernac, Broze, Cahuzac-sur-Vere, Castanet, Cestayrols, Fayssac, Gaillac, Labastide-de-Levis, Lisle-Sur-Tarn, Montels, Senouillac
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”, +Alt.500mt., On~Tarn~River~
    • SOILS= Metamorphic, Gravel Sedimentary”, Limestone Chalk, Clay
      • Estate/ Producers– Labarthe, Très Cantous
  • GAILLAC MOUSSEUX AOC.     @Gaillac
    • BLANC= Mauzac, Len de L’El, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon
    • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West, DEPARTMENT-Tarn
    • VINICULTURESPARKLING…Method/ Traditional
      • Estate/ Producers

Central South-West France

ARMAGNAC AOC.     @Gascony

  • BLANC= Ugni Blanc, Folle Blanche, Colombard, Baco, Blanc Dame, Meslier, St. Froncois, Graisse
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central), DEPARTMENT-Gascony
    • South of Bordeaux-City(120km.), LATITUDE: 43.7° ‘N’
    • DEPARTMENTS– Ger, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne
    • Sub-Zones- 3
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”, On~Adour/ Garonne~Rivers~(Between)
    • SLOPES/ Pyrenees Mountains
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, ”Sedimentary, Alluvial
  • CLIMATE=Maritime
  • VITICULTURE– 6,000 ha. Planted
    • -Blanche Armagnac Brandy-
  • VINIFICATION– Colorless Brandy Produced In Armagnac, Bottled Young With No Aging In Oak.
    • Estate/ Producers– Briat, Boingneres, Garreau, Joy, Lacquy, Laubade, Miquer, Maison Darroze, Monbe, Petita, Ognoas
    • ARMAGNAC vs. COGNAC–  -Body, Smother, -Fragrant
      • Dominated by Smaller Companies, Smaller Production
  • HISTORY– 1300’s, Oldest Distilled Spirit In Europe
    • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Bureau National Interprofessionel de L’Armagnac~ BNIA.


  • BLANC= Baco Blanc, Ugni Blanc    |   ROUGE= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central), In Armagnac AOC.
    • Estate/ Producers– Baron Gaston Legrand, Baron de Sigognac, Dartigalongue,
      Laberdolive Domaine de Jaurrey, Samelens, Vaghi


  • BLANC=   ?   |   ROUGE= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central), In Armagnac AOC.
  • SOILSMetamorphic”,  Sedimentary”, Limestone, Clay
    • Estate/ Producers– Busca, Havion-Ehny, Louis Marcellin, Pellehaut


  • BLANC=   ?      |   ROUGE= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central), In Armagnac AOC.
    • Estate/ Producers– Domaine d’Arton

FLOC De GASCOGNE AOC.     @Gascogne

  • BLANC= Baroque, Colombard, Folle Blanche, Gros Manseng, Mauzac, Petit Manseng, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Ugni Blanc
  • ROSE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Fer Servado, Gamay, Malbec, Merlot, Tannat
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central), In Armagnac AOC.
  • VINICULTUREVin de Liqueur-(Fortified Before Fermentation With Blend of Unfermented Juice With Armagnac)
    • Unfermented Grape Juice and Brandy Must Be Produced In Same Region.


  • VINICULTURE– Harvested- Varieties Picked Separetly.
    • Fermented Must, Distilled Once
    • +AGED/  6 Month to 2 Years In New Oak Barrels Sourced From Monlezun Forest In Bas Armagnac.
    • +BLENDED– to Acheive Producer Style
    • +AGED– Transferred Back to Barrel Where Homogenized and or Diluted to Achieve.
    • Desired Alcohol by Volume (40%-45% Alcohol)
    • **Refer to “WINE STULES/ Distillation” For Additional Information.
  • VS. (Very Superior) +AGED/ 3 Years/ +2 Years In Barrel
  • VSOP. (Very Special Old Pale) +AGED/ +5 Years In Barrel
  • XO. (Extra Old) +AGED/ +6 Years In Barrel
  • HORS D’AGE (High Quality Product) +AGED/+10 Years In Barrel
    • Sight: Darker
    • Aroma: Earthy
    • Palate: +BODY, Darker
    • Structure: Abv.(53%-60%)
      • PAIRING…     CHEESE

Times Distilled, Unique Aging and Evaporation Process and is What Make Armagnac & Cognac Different.

TURSAN AOC.     @L’Adour

  • BLANC= Baroque, Gros Manseng, Chenin Blanc, Petit Manseng
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Tannat, Cabernet Sauvignon, Fer, Raffiat de Moncade
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central), DEPARTMENTS-Lande
    • BORDERS: Armagnac AOC.(North-East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”, On~Adour~River~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic”, “Sedimentary, Chalk, Clay, Gravel
  • CLIMATE=Maritime
  • VITICULTURE–   ?  ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Cave des Vignerons Landais, Pentes de Barene

MADIRAN AOC.     @Madiran

  • BLANC= White Wines Produced In Madiran Labels Under Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh AOC.
  • ROUGE= Tannat 40%, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Bouchy AKA=Cabernet Franc, Fer Servadou AKA=Pinenc
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central)
    • DEPARTMENTS-Gascony, Gers, Hautes-Pyrenees, Pyreneese-Atlaniques
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Adour)”, On~Adour~River~
    • SLOPES/ Pyrenees Mountains, +Alt.?,  5 North-South Parallel Ridges
  • SOILS=Metamorphic”, ”Sedimentary”, Limestone, Clay, Galets Rouges
  • VITICULTURE– 1,300  ha. Planted
    • Micro-Oxygenation– Process Aiding the Polymerization of Tannins Replicates Benefits of Extended Wood Aging
    • Estate/ Producers– Alain Brumont, Berthoumieu, Bouscasse(80ha.), Crampilh, Famille Laplace, Gayon, Labranche Laffont(45ha.), Montus(80ha.), Moulie, Peyros(Co.-Op.), Plaimont, Poujo
    • During 1700’s Government of France Accepted Wines From Madiran For Taxes

COTES De ST. MONT AOC.    @Saint-Mont

  • BLANC= Arrufiac, Gros Manseng, Petit Corbu, Petit Manseng
  • ROUGE= Braucol, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Fer Servadou, Tannat
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central), DEPARTMENT-Gers
    • BORDERS: Bas Armagnac AOC.(North), Tursan AOC.(West), Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh AOC.(South-West)
    • Sub-Zones- Aignan, Plaisance
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hill/ Valley(Adour)”, On~Adour~River~
  • SOILSMetamorphic”, Sedimentary, Gravel, Sand
  • CLIMATE=Maritime Transitional-ZoneContinental
  • VITICULTURE– 1,200 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Bascou, Saint-Go, Plaimont(Co.-Op.)
  • CULTURE– “Monks & Monasteries”  Benedictine Monks From 1025


  • BLANC= Arrufiac, Courbu Blanc, Gros Manseng, Petit Corbu, Petit Manseng, Sauvignon Blanc
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central)
    • DEPARTMENT-Gascony, VILLAGES– (37)
    • BORDERS: Cotes de St. Mont AOC.(North)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”, SLOPES/ Pyrenees Mountains, On~Adour~River~
  • VITICULTURE– 300 ha. Planted
    • Pacherenc du Vic-Bilh AOC. Used For White Wine Produced In Madiran AOC..
  • VINICULTURE– Sweet/ Late Harvest (November/ December)
    • Estate/ Producers– Bouscasse, Brumont, D’Aydie, Montus, Laffitte-Teston

South-West South-West France

  • AKA= “Basque Country”, 25% of Which Lies In France, the Other 75% In Spain

BEARN AOC.     @Mourenx

  • BLANC= Raffiat de Moncade, Courbu, Gros Manseng, Petit Manseng, Sauvignon Blanc
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Fer, Tannat
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(South-West), @Hw.#D933 & Hw.#E80
    • DEPARTMENT-Pyrenees Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrenees, “Non-Contigouous(3)”
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Pyrénées Mountains, +Alt.?
    • On~Gavede Pau/ Oloron~River~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic, Gravelly-Clay, Sand, Sandstone
  • CLIMATE=Maritime
  • VITICULTURE– 260 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Caillabere, Cave de Gan, Gan Oh, Lapeyre, Lapuyade

BEARN BELLOCQ AOC.      @Salies-de-Bearn

  • BLANC=              |    ROUGE=
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(South-West), @Hw.#D933 & Hw.#E80
    • DEPARTMENT-Pyrenees Atlantiques, In Bearn AOC.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly, Gave de Pau(Gravel Hills and Terraces)
    • Estate/ Producers

JURANCON AOC.     @Jurancon

  • BLANC= Gros Manseng, Petit Courbu, Camaralet, Lauzet, Petite Manseng
  • ROUGE= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(South-West)
    • DEPARTMENT-Pyrenees Atlantiques, In Bearn AOC., COMMUNES-(15)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Pyrenees Mountains
  • SOILS= Metamorphic, Alluvial, Clay, Sand, Poudingues
  • VITICULTURE– 1,000 ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURE– (Dry to Sweet/ Late Harvest
    • Estate/ Producers– Domaine Cauhape, Dagueneau, Clos Uroulat

IROULEGUY AOC.    @St-Jean-Pied-de-Port

  • BLANC= Xuri Zerratia AKA=Courbu, Izkiriota Ttipia AKA=Petit Manseng Izkiriota AKA=Gros Manseng
  • ROUGE= Bordelesa Beltza AKA=Tannat, Axeria AKA=Cabernet Franc, Axeria Handia AKA=Cabernet Sauvignon
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(South-West), @Hw.#D918 & Hw.#D933
    • DEPARTMENT-Pyrenees Atlantiques, VILLAGES– (15),
    • BORDERS: Spain, South-East Atlantic Ocean(40km.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, SLOPES/ Pyrenees, +Alt.?
  • VITICULTURE–    ?   ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Arretxea, Brana, Ilarria, Mignaberry
  • CULTURE– Basque Country/ Pais Vasco, Basque Language

IGP’s IGP. of South-West France

  • VITICULTURE– Grapes/ Wines Produced In South-West Non-Conforming to a AOP.


  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(East), DEPARTMENT-Landes


  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central), DEPARTMENT– Lot-et-Garonne

COTE De GASCOGNE IGP.      @Gascogne

  • BLANC= Colombard, Gros Manseng, Len de L’El, Muscadelle, Petit Manseng, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Ungi Blanc
  • ROUGE= Abouriou, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Duras, Fer Servado, Malbec, Merlot, Negrette, Tannat
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central-Interior), DEPARTMENT-Gers
  • SOILS– “Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary“,  Clay, Sand
  • VINICULTUREBlanc,  Rose,  Rouge
    • Estate/ Producers- Duffour La Salette, Laballe, Laguille, Pellehaut, Pouy, Tariquet

GERS IGP.     @

  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central-Interior), DEPARTMENT-Gers
    • Surrounds Cotes de Gascogne, BETWEEN-Aquitaine Basin & Pyrenees


  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(North-East), DEPARTMENT-Lot


  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(North-East), DEPARTMENT-Lot
    • In Cotes du Lot IGP.(North-East)


  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central-Interior), DEPARTMENT-Lot-et-Garonne
    • BETWEEN– Agenais IGP. & Cotes du Lot IGP.


  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(Central-Interior), DEPARTMENT-Tarn-et Garonne


  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(South), DEPARTMENT-Lot-et-Garonne


  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(East-Interior), DEPARTMENT– ?
    • CUNAC


  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West(East), DEPARTMENT– ?
  • TOPOGRAPHYSLOPES/ Massif Central, On~Aveyron~


  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West,
    • DEPARTMENT-Catchment For 12 Departments
    • -Estate/ Producers- Clamens, Famille Arbeau

**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.