GREECE IS  Regions- 9     Districts- 58     PGI.-    PDO.-     @Athens

  • WHITE= Savatiano, Assyriko, Aidani, Malagousia, Mavrodophne, Moscophilero, Vidiano, Areti, Asprorompola, Asproudes, Athiri, Aydani, Batiki, Cholores, Dafni, Debina, Fileri, Gaidoura, Goustolidi, Kakotrygis, Katsakoulias, Kountoura, Koutsoumpeli, Kydonitsa, Lagorthi, Malvasia, Monemvassia, Muscat Alexanderi/ Traini, Nassiakos, Opsimo Edessis, Petrokoritho, Platani, Plito, Plyto, Potamissi, Priknadi, Robola, Rhoditis, Rokaniaris, Sklava, Skyolpnichtis, Thiniatiko, Thrapsathiri, Tourkopoula, Tsaoussi, Vardea, Verjami, Vilana, Violento, Volitsa Mavri, Zoumiatiko
    • International– Chardonnay, Muscat Blanc Petits Grains, Riesling, Rousanne, Sauvignon Blanc, Trebbiano
  • RED= Agiorgitiko AKA=St. George, Xynomavro, Ariomavritiko, Araklinos, Avgoustiatis, Bekari, Chandromavro, Chidiriotiko, Fokiano, Karabraimis, Karnachalades, Kolindrino, Korinthiaki, Koriostafylo, Kotsifali, Krassato, Lesvos, Liatiko, Limnio AKA=Kalambaki, Liminiona, Mandilaria, Mavro Kalavritino, Mavro Messenikola, Moschomavro, Mouhtaro, Negoska, Nigrikiotiko, Pamii, Pamidi, Ritino, Romeiko, Sefka, Sideritis, Skopelitiko, Stavroto AKA=Amabelakiotiko, Syriki, Theiako Mavro, Thiako, Vertzami, Vlachiko, Voudomato, Vrathiano
    • InternationalCabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha, Mourvedre, Syrah

GEOGRAPHY HEMISPHERE-Northern, REGION-Balkan Peninsula, COUNTRY-Greece LATITUDE: 35°- 42° “N

  • BORDERS: Albania(North-West), Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey(East)
  • Sub-Zones Central Greece, Northern Greece(Epirus, Macedonia, Thrace, Thessalia) Peloponnese, Greek Islands

TOPOGRAPHY “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”

  • Greece is Made Up of Mainland and 4,000 Islands
  • On~Ionian Sea~(South), On~Mediterranean~Sea~(East), On~Aegean~Sea~
  • All Grape-Vines In Greece No More Than 70 km. From Water
  • In Greece Mountains +Alt. Act of a Air Conditioner, Allows Grape +Acidity
  • Some Vines Face North to Mediate Heat

SOILS Metamorphic”, “Sedimentary“, ”Volcanic

  • Mainland– Limestone
  • Islands– Volcanic
  • **Refer to “GREECE/ Sub-Chapters” For Detailed Information On Soils
  • **Refer to “TERROIR/ Geology & Soil” For Detailed Information On Soils

CLIMATE Mainland- Continental,   Islands-Mediterranean

VITICULTURE 130,000 ha., #15 In Grape Production & #15 In Wine Consumption In World

VITICULTURE PRACTICE– Promotion of Native Varietals, Basket Pruning, Terraces

  • Retsina– Resin Added During Fermentation to Savatiano, Assyriko, Rhoditis
    • Regions- Attica, Boeotia, Euboea
  • Vinliastos– Sun-Drying Grapes On Straw Mats
  • Raki– By-Product of Grape Pomace Distillation AKA=Tsikoudia, Tsipouro
  • Early Wines Flavored With Spices, Herb, Sweeteners
  • Amphorae– Clay/ Earth-Ware Container for Storage/ Transportation of Wine Gallons, 22lbs. Empty
  • Greeks Were First to Mix and Dilute Wine With Other Things Like Pine Resin, Oil and Aromatized Wines With Flowers and Botanicals.
  • Many Greek Co-Operatives
  • Prior to Barrels Wine Was Stored In Amphorae Often Lined and Sealed With Aleppo Pine Resin.  Over Time the Acquired Taste Became a Feature of Wine Rather Than Unwanted Side Effect
  • Ancient Greeks Believed Wine Was Gift From Greek God of Wine Dionysus
  • Viticulture Emerges; Parallel Rows, Spacing

HISTORY 5,000 Year Wine Culture

  • 4500-1050 BC. @Greece–  Prehistoric Times
  • 2500 BC. @Greece–  Ancient Greece
    • Crete Introduced to Viticulture by Phoenician/ Egyptians
  • 1050- 700 BC. @Greece–  Early Historic
  • 700- 480 BC. @Greece–  Archaic Period
  • 480- 323 BC. @Greece–  Classical Period
  • 323- 146 BC. @Greece–  Hellenistic Times
  • 146- 324 @Greece–  Byzantine Times
  • 1000- 500 @Greece–  Roman Period
  • 1200-1700 @Greece–  Venetian Rule
    • 1600 @Mesopotamia– Glass Making Emerges
  • 1453-1821 @Greece–  Ottoman Rule
  • 1945-1975 @Greece–  Modern Times
  • 1990’s @Greece–  Quality Wine Revolution, Investment In Modern Technology


  • GODS OF WINE~ ~DIONYSUS~ Greek God of Wine, -13th. Classical Greek God, Son of Zeus and Semele (a Mortal Women), 13 Sibling Including Hercules, Apollo, Aphrodite.  Dionysus is Known For Being Empathetic and Helpful, Held Yearly Parties In His and the Harvest Honor
    • ~Sign of Dionysus~ Wand/ Shaft of Giant Fennel Wrapped With Grape Vines and Topped With a Pine-Cone.
    • ~Cult of Dionysus~ Bringer of Wine to Reduce the Cares of Mortals.
  • GASTRONOMY Roasted Goat On Slit, Greek Salad
    • CHEESE Feta(Sheep-Got/ Fresh),  Kasseri(Goat/ Sheep/ Semi-Hard)
  • PIONEERS~  ~Homer~,   ~Plato~,    ~Aristotle~,   ~Hippocrates~,   ~Hesiod~
    • Were All Involved In Wine Culture
    • ~Theophrastus~ Philosopher and Botanist, 370-255 BC.
      •  Get Credit of Varietal, Soil Research, Meso-Climates, Propagation by Cutting.
  • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~New Wines of Greece~
  • PHILOSOPHY?  As a Sea Fairing Country the Greek Get Credit For Spreading Wine and Wine Culture Around the Mediterranean Sea/ Basin?”
    • Greece Had the Want and the Means to Push the Wine Market From Their Shores to the Shore of Other Countries.
  • PHILOSOPHY?  Did Drinking Wine Have a Profound Effect In the “Thinking of Man?”
    • Homer, Plato, Aristotle, Hippocrates, Hesiod All Use Wine as the “Lubricate” That Sprang Beginning of Western Philosophy.


  • LAWS GOVERNING– Geographic Boundaries, Topography
    • Label Requirement


    • Classification for Dry Wines
    • Equivalent to “Appellation of Origin Superior Quality”/ “Protected Designation of Origin”
    • Under Capsule is a Light Red Paper Seal Guaranteeing Bottle as OPAP.
  • ONOMASIA PROELEFSEOS ELEGHOMINI OPE. Classification for Sweet Wines
    • Equivalent to “Appellation of Controlled Origin”
    • Under Capsule is a Light Blue Paper Seal Guaranteeing Bottle as OPE.
  • TOPIKOS OINOS TO. Regional Wine
  • ONOMASIOLOGIE KATA PARADOSI OKP. Appellation to Tradition


    • Historical Wine Growing and Winemaking Area of Greece, Varietals Are Determined Strictly On the Basis of Native Greek Grape. These Bottles Have a Mandatory Characteristic Red Band On the Neck of Their Bottles, and Must Be Produced by Wineries Located Within Their Wine growing Zone
    • Comprise the Greek “Local Wine” and “Traditional Appellation” Aimed to Reinforce the Concept of Authenticity and Typicality PGI. Wines or Divided Into 3 Levels…
    • PGI. Regional Wines…Constitutes a Broader Overall Level of PGI., One That Stipulates a Overall Region
    • PGI. District Wines…Grapes Have to Originate In Areas Within the Boundaries of the
      District and Must Be Vinified Within Those Boundaries
    • PGI. Area Wines…Constitutes the Most Restrictive Designations. Boundaries are Usually From a Particular Part of a District or Community or Village


  • Archondik0– Chateau
  • Ktima– Estate
  • Monastiri– Monastery

    • Thrace
    • Thessalia
    • Macedonia
    • Central Greece
    • Epirus
    • Peloponnese
    • Greek Islands
  • **Refer to Proceeding Sub-Chapters For Information On These.

**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.