🇵🇹PORTUGALDouro Valley


DURIENSE IG.   DOC.4    @Oporto

  • BRANCO= Arinto, Alvaraca, Alvarinho, Bataca, Bical, Branco Especial, Branco Sem Nome, Branco Valente, Bual, Caramela, Carrega Branco, Cercial, Codega, Diagalves, Donzelinho, Folgasao, Formosa, Gouveio, Listrao, Pe Comprido, Pinheira, Praca, Rabigato, Rabo de Ovelha, Samarrinho, Sarigo, Sercial, Siria, Tamarez, Valente, Viosinho, Vital
    • International– Malvasia Fina, Muscat Blanc a Petit Grain AKA=Moscatel Galego Branco, Verdelho
  • TINTO= Alvarelhao, Aramont, Baga, Bastardo, Casculho, Castelao, Cidadehe, Conciera, Corcieira, Donzelinho Tinto, Engomada, Goncalo Pires, Grangeal, Jean, Malandra, Melra, Mondet, Mourisco, Moreto, Nevoeira, Roseira, Rufete, Santarena, Sevihao, Souzao AKA=Vinhao, Tinta Amarela, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Bastardinha, Tinta Coa, Tinta Fontes, Tinta Francisca, Tinto Martins, Tinta Penajoia, Tinta Tabuaco, Touriga Franco, Touriga Nacional, Valdosa, Varejoa
    • International– Tinto Roriz AKA=Tempranillo

GEOGRAPHY REGION-Iberian Peninsula, COUNTRY-Portugal(North), IG.-Duriense, In Douro River Valley(East)

  • LATITUDE: Porto: 41.1° ‘N’   |    Douro River Valley: 41.2° ‘N’

TOPOGRAPHY “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced/ Valley(Douro)”

  • SLOPES/ Serra do Marao Range, +Alt. 100mt. – 900mt.
    • On~Douro~River~(40 Tributaries Run Into the Douro From Port to Spainsh Border)
    • Douro River is Now Actually a Series of Lakes Since 5 Dams Were Constructed In an Effort to Control the River For the production of Electricity.

SOILSMetamorphic, Predominantly Schistous, Pre-Cambian Schist Surround by Granite

  • Top Soil is Shallow and Low In Nutrients, To Plant New Rootstock In the Hard Shist Soils Dynamite is Used.
  • The Bedrock Fractured Vertically Allowing Roots to Venture Deep In Search of Water and Nutrients.

CLIMATE Continental“,   Summers– Hot, Dry   |   Winters– Cold, Wet

  • RAIN SHADOW/ Serra do Marao Mountains

VITICULTURE  Labeled– “DURIENSE” Refers to Wines Non-Conforming to a DOC.

  • CHALLENGES– Drought, Rain During Fruitset
  • Harvest Takes Place Between the Months of August and October.
  • Traditional Walled Terraces– Terraces Supported by Dry Stone Walls, Built by Hand and On Steep Hillsides Some 5 Meters High. Most Terraces Are Narrow, Just Supporting 2 or 3 Rows.
  • Patamares– Modern Terraces That Stand Without Walls Cut Into the Banks and Mountainsides Using Earth Moving Equipment Such as Bulldozers and Catepiilars. Patamares Create Wider Terraces and Replace Narrow Tradional Walled Terraces Increasing Vine Density.
  • Vinha Ao Alto– Where It’s Not Too Steep Terracing are Planted In Vertical Rows of Vines Running Down the Hillside Instead of Across it. Vinha Ao Alto’s Are Modern and Allow For Drainage and Good Erosion Control, and Better Canopy Exposure.
  • Quinta– Meaning Farm, Are Grape Growing and Wine Producing Estate. In Port Terms These Quinta Are Located In Douro River Valley and Are Where the New Wine Stays After Harvest Until Spring When the Wine is Shipped Down the Port Lodges In Villa Nova de Gaia For Aging and Storage.
  • OLD VINES– From “1857”

VINICULTURE Still,  Rose,  Fortified

  • Reserva WineWhite +11.5%Abv., +AGED/ 6mo.      Red +12%Abv., +AGED/ 12mo.
  • Espumanto do Douro– (Sparkling)
  • Colheita Tartia- (Late Harvest)
  • The Best Vineyards For the Production of Port Wines Are Not the Best Vineyards For the Production of Still/ Dry Red Wines.

HISTORY Douro Valley- Region Legally Demarcated In 1756

  • Phylloxera Came to the Douro Valley In 1868 Effect a Portion of Vineyards.
  • Douro Valley Railway The Railway Which Was Built In. Was a Catalist In the Port Wine Trade. Running From Porto at the Coast Inland to the Douro Valley to Pocinho and Beyond To the “Spainish Frontier. Its Service Linked Small Communities Along the River and Make the Movment of Port Wine Modern.
  • PIONEERS~ ~Baron Forrester~ Port Shipper, Visionary of the Early 1800’s Who Mapped the Valley In Detail.

CULTURE Generally 30% of Wine Produced is Cellared For Historical Purposes

  • UNESCO. WORLD HERITAGE SIGHT~  ~Alto Duoro~ (Cultural, Landscape, Vineyards)
  • GASTRONOMY Pork, Smoked Sausages, Olive, Chestnuts, Figs
    • CHEESE
  • WINE BARRELS~  ~Port Pipe/ Pipa~ 550 Liters
    • Tonel– 3,000 to 10,000 Liters   |   Balseiro– 8,000 to 100,000 Liters
  • Barcos Rabelo- Traditional Boat Used to Transport 12-19 Pipe Barrel Down the Duoro River 120km. From Vineyards of Duoro Valley to Cellars In the City of Port
    • Boats Were Flat Bottom With Tails, and Long Stearing Paddle Off the Stern
    • Modern Day- After Crushing and Fermentation In Duoro Valley Wine is Shipped the Following Spring by Tanker Truck the City of Villa Nova de Gaia For Blending and Aging.
    • Today the Barcos Rabelos Are Used Solely For Advertisment, Natalgia and Tourism Purposes.
  • Monks & Monasteries  ~Salzedas~     ~Soa Joao de Tarouca~    ~Soa Pedro das Aguias~
    • Numerous Temples Were Built In the 12,000’s After Cistercian Monks Settled The Douro Valley.  It Become Know as the Land of Cisteros (Temples).  Later There Became A Cister Wine Route That Connects the Cisteros and Wine Areas.

GOING THERE Stay In City of Porto(One of Best “Wine City” In World)

  • Take Day Trip On 2 Hour Train to Douro Valley Vineyard/ Terraces.
  • RIVER CRUISE~ Take a Duoro River Cruise to See and Better Understand the Geography and Topography.
  • WORLD OF WINE~ Museum Themed Wine Exhibition In Porto

**Porto & Douro Images Courtesy of “Delong Maps”, Purchase These Maps at Delong Maps.com


DOURO DOC.      @

  • BRANCO= Codega, Gouveia, Rabigato, Viosinho
  • TINTO= Touriga Franca 25%, Tinta Roriz 15%, Touriga Nacional 10%, Tinta Barroca 8%, Tinta Amarela 3%…Plus Others
  • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Duriense IG., “Multi-Appellation”
    • Sub-Zones/ DO.’s- Baixo Corgo DO., Cima Corgo DO., Douro Superiore DO.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced/ Valley(Douro)”
    • On~Douro~River~(Straddles), A Series of Dams Were Installed In the 1960’s Creating a Navagatable Series of Locks and Lakes.
  • SOILS=Metamorphic, Schist, Granite
  • CLIMATE= Continental“, Gradually Hotter From East to West
    • +WIND/ During the Summer a Early Evening Wind Blows Up the Duoro River From the Atlantic Ocean Cooling Ventilating and Cooling the Valley.
  • VITICULTURE- 250,000/ 42,025 Planted, OLD VINES– From “1857”
  • VINICULTUREFortified,  Still(DO. For Still Wine Approved In 1986)
    • Estates/ Producers– Agri-Roncao(Quinta da Levandeira(45ha.), Alquimista, Callabriga, luis Seabra, Macanita Tinto, Manoella, Maritavora(Nat.Pro.), Secretum
    • Vineyards– Vinha da Capela(Canais)

BAIXO CORGO DOC.     @Piso da Regua

  • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Duriense IG., In Douro DOC.(West)
    • VILLAGES– Aramar, Lamegao, Peso da Reguua, Villa Real
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced”, SLOPES/ Marao Mountains
    • Topographic Feature– Carrapatelo, Dam
    • On~Balsemao/ Ceira/ Corgo/ Tedo/ Teixeira~Tributaries to~Douro~River~
  • CLIMATE= Continental,  Summers– Hot, Dry   |   Winters– Wet, Cold
    • Mildest, Most Precipitation, RAIN SHADOW/ Serra Marao Mountains
  • VITICULTURE– 14,000ha. Planted
  • SUB-REGIONS Of BAIXO CORGO
    • CORGO RIVER VALLEY
      • -Estates/ ProducersQuinta Do…Bairro, Gaivosa, Goncalo, Romarigo
    • TANHA RIVER VALLEY
      • -Estates/ ProducersQuinta Do…Currais, Devesas, Peso
    • VAROSA RIVER VALLEY
      • -Estates/ ProducersQuinta Do…Gavoisa, Garcia, Sta Barbara
    • OTHER AREAS
      • Estates/ ProducersQuinta Do…Cotto, Malho, Murganheira, Pacheca, Vallado, Vista Alegre

CIMA CORGO DOC.    @Pinhao

  • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Duriense IG., In Douro DOC.(North-West)
    • VILLAGES– Alijo, Sabrosa, Sabrosa, Sao Joao, Pesqueira, Pnhoao, Tabuaco
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced”
    • On~Tua/ Torto/ Tavora/ Pinhoa~Tributary~Douro~River~
  • CLIMATE= Continental,   Summers– Hot, Dry   |   Winters– Cold
  • VITICULTURE– 19,000ha. Planted
  • SUB-REGIONS Of CIMA CORGO
    • PINHOA RIVER VALLEY
      • Estates/ ProducersQuinta Do… Bragao, Bomfim(Dow), Cavadinha(Warre), Celeiros, Costa, Cruzeiro, Fojo, Junco(Taylor Fladgate), Manuelas, Mendiz, Novas, Paradelinha, Passadouro, Ribeira, Terra Feita(Taylor Fladgate)
    • TORTO RIVER VALLEY
      • Estates/ ProducersQuinta Do…Bom Retiro(Ramos-Pinot), Charondo, Chavalheira, Christia, Das Lajes, Pedrog, Seixo*, Vale Dona Maria
    • TAVORA RIVER VALLEY
      • Estates/ ProducersQuinta Do…Espinho, Panascal, Pego*
    • OTHER AREAS
      • -Estates/ Producers- Quinta Do…Crasto, Popa, Roeda(Croft), La Rosa, Santa Eufemia, Tedo, Ventozelo(200ha.)

DOURO SUPERIORE DOC.    @Pocinho

  • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Duriense IG., In Douro DOC.(East)
    • BORDERS: Spain(East)
    • VILLAGES– Carrazeda Ansiaes, Foz Coa, Vila Flor, Torre Moncorve, Freixo Espada a Cinta
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced”
    • TOPOGRAPHIC FEATUREPocinho Dam
    • On~Aguiar/ Coa/ Sabor/Slilva/ Uceira~Tributary~Douro~River~
  • CLIMATE= Continental,   Summers– Hot, Dry, Hottest/ Duoro   |   Winters– Cold, Wet
  • VITICULTURE– 8,700ha. Planted, Some Vineyards Planted On North Facing Slopes
    • -Estates/ ProducersQuinta Do…Arnozelo, Baleira, Cabreira, Canais, Farão, Ferradosa, Fontainhas, Foral dos Quatro Ventos, Granja, Mina, Malvedos(Graham’s), (89ha.), Orgal, Porto de Bois, Ribeira, Telhada, Val de Malhadas, Malvedos(Graham’s), Vale Meao, Melhor, Vargellas(Taylor Fladgate), Vesuvio(400ha.)
    • Vineyards– Abandonado
  • CULTUREFESTIVALS~ ~Festival do Viho do Douro Superior~ (May)

MOSCATEL De DOURO DOC.     @Duriense

  • WHITE– Moscatel Galego Branco AKA=Muscat Blanc a Petit Grain
  • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Duriense IG.(Greater)
  • VITIFICATION
  • VINIFICATIONNon-Fortified Versions & Fortified(+Abv.16%-17%)
    • Estate/ Producers– Adega da Favaios(Co.-Op.), Fraguilo, Real Campanhia Velha

AGUARDENTE De DOURO DOC.     @Duriense

  • WHITE– Moscatel Galego Branco AKA=Muscat Blanc a Petit Grain
  • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Duriense IG.(Greater)
  • VITIFICATION– Generic Term For Alcoholic Beverages That Contains Between 29%- 60% Abv.
  • VINIFICATION
    • Estate/ Producers– Ramos Pinto

QUINTA CLASSIFICATION Of PORT VINEYARDS

  • INSITIUTO Dos VINHO DO DOURO E DO PORTO IVDP.
  • Numerical Rating In Categories by Cadastro/ Register Based On: Altitude, Aspect, Gradient,  Age of Vines, Vine Density, Gradient, Soil/ Granite Content, Soil/ Schist Content, Grape Varieties, Vineyard Location, Microclimate, Yields
    • A RATING- 1,200 +Points
    • B RATING- 1,101-1,199+Points
    • C RATING- 801-1,000 +Points
    • D RATING- 601-800+Points
    • E RATING- 400-600 +Points
    • F RATING- 399 and Below
  • Benefico/ Benefit or Perk- Amount of Grapes Each Vineyard May Harvest For Port Production Each Year.
    • Vineyards With Higher Cadastro Ranking Can Harvest More Grapes
    • Extra Grapes Can Be Used For Still Wine Production

The CITY Of PORT & VILLA NOVA De GAIA

  • GEOGRAPHY– Mouth of Douro River Cities of Oporto(North), Villa Nova de Gaia(South)
  • HISTORY– 2,000 Year Wine History, Romans Played Major Role In Portugal Economy
    • During One of the Many No Trade Periods Between France and Britain Led Them to Seek Out Wine Sources Elsewhere. This Lead to a Relationship Between the British and Portuguese That Become the Port-Trade.
    • Fortified Perverse Wine On Voyage to England 1600’s +Abv.17%-19%
  • PORT LODGES– Long Narrow Building Used For Port Shipping Warehouses, Storing and Aging Young Port Wine After It is Transported Down the Duoro River.
    • Lodges Are Temperature and Humidity Controlled and Can Also Hold the Offices, Blending Rooms and Tasting Room For Tourists.
    • ~Etymology~ Derived From the Word Loja, Meaning Shop or Warhouse. AKA=Armzem
    • Lodges- Have Floors Are Made of  Six Inch Black Produced From Old Oak Barrels. The Oak Helps Absorbe the Humidity.
  • FACTORY HOUSES- Meeting Place For British Business Men That Controlled Port Trade
    • History– –Wednesday Lunch– 300 Year Tradition of Weekly Meetings to Disgust, Exchange Information and Make Deals. In the Port Trade.
  • CULTURE
    • UNESCO. WORLD HERITAGE SIGHT~ ~Oporto~ (Cultural, Landscape, Vineyards)
    • FESTIVALS~ Celebration of All Things Port In Honor of St. John the Patron Saint to the City of Porto.
    • BOTTLE SHAPES~ ~Port Onions~ (1600‘s) Round, Deep Indention Point, Tapered Neck, Pronounced Collar to Tie Stopper or Cork.
    • PORTO’S RABELO REGATTA~  Yearly Race From the Mouth of the Atlantic to the Eiffel Bridge With Refubished Barcos Rabelo.
    • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Association of Port Companies~

PORT PRODUCERS

  • CRU
  • SYMINGTON– Cockburn, Corbinis, Dow’s, W. & J. Grahm’s, Gould Campbell, Harris, Martinez, Smith Woodhouse, Quarles, Quinta do Vesuvio, Warre’s
  • FLADGATE PARTNERSHIP– Croft, Delaforce, Fonseca, Taylor’s Flaggate
  • OTHERS– Barros, Burmester, A. A. Calem, Churchhill’s, Crasto, Dalva, Espaco Porto Cruz, Ferreira, Gerpeira, Grahams, C. N. Kopke, Krohn, Niepoort, Noble & Murat, Noval, Offley Forrester, Poca Junior, Presidential, Ramos Pinot, Real Companhia Velha, Rozes, Sandeman
  • PIONEERS~  ~Paul Symington~ British, Port Ambassador and President/ Custodian  of Symington Family Estate, the Worlds Largest Port Group.

PORT

  • BRANCO=  |    TINTO= **Refer to Durienes IG. For Variety Information %
    • 82 Grape Varietals Permitted, 30 Recommended, 6 Usually Used
    • Tinta Amarela, Tinta Barroca, Tinto Cao, Tinto Roriz, Touriga Franca, Touriga National
  • VINICULTURE
    • Grapes Fortified During Fermentation With Grape Spirit(+Abv.77%), Maderized, Oxidized, +AGED/ In City of Port, Abv.,        LABEL: Vinho DO. Porto Garntia
    • Fermentation Generally Take 24-36 Hours to Complete
    • Fortification Done Around +Abv.6%/ Fortified to 19%-22%. The Fermenting Wine is Added to the Nuetral Grape Spirit(77%Abv.). As it is Added the Spirit Kills Off the Yeasts and Fermentation is Arrested.
    • Douro Bake- Term For the Aging of Port Up In the Hotter Douro Valley as Opposed to the Cooler the Vila Nova da Gaia.  Ports Will Undertakes a More Rapid Maturation With Higher Evaporation Rate and Leads to a More Powerful Wine.  The. Reasons For This is the Difference In Proximity to the Atlandtic Ocean, the Humidity Levels and Altitude Discrapency.  Generally Small Producers Age Thier Wine In the Douro Valley and Bigger Wine Houses Age Thier Port In Vila Nova da Gaia.  It’s a Personal Preferance But to the Advanced Port Drinker the Douro Bake Can Be a Positive Attribute.
    • Grown and Fermented In Douro Valley Barreled and Cellared In Port to Be True Port.
    • Fortification: (4-1 Ratio) 440 Liters Wine Added to 110 Liters Spirit.
      • 20% of Port Volume is Distilled Alcohol.
    • Aguardente- Distilled Local Grape Spirit, Used to Fortify Port, Maximum +ABV.77%.
      • Some Aguardente is Being Produced From White Bordeaux Grapes.
    • Classic Douro Blend- Touriga Franca, Touriga Nacional, Tinta Roriz
    • Wine-Maker Should Be Focused and Determined On Extracting Color and Tannins From Skins Before the Start of Fermentation. You Have to Remove the Skins Before Adding the Grape Spirit, Adding the Grape Spirit Prior to Fermentation Would Strip or Compromise the Skins. Also the Fermentation is Fast, Only Fermenting to +Abv.7%-9%, and There is No Post Fermentation Maceration So There’s No Other Opportunity to Extract Color and Tannins From the Skins.
    • Aging Ports Generally Tawny Ports Are Aged In 225 Liter Barrels With Thin Staves and Ruby Ports Are Aged In Huge Barrels With Thick Staves.
      • Averaging the Age of the Ports
    • Stainless Steal Vats All Lodges Have Enormous Stainless Steal Tanks For Receiving, Storing Port Wines.

Great Port Has Always Been Harvested by Hand and Press Under Foot.

CRUSHING PORT GRAPES

  • Lagar- Stone/ Granite Trough Used For Foot Treading of Grapes In Duoro Valley, Crushing by Foot In a Lagar is the Best Way to Crush Grapes Without Compromising Skin or Breaking Seed Which Would Release Unwanted Bitter Tannins
    • Corte– Row of Treader Linked Together Preform Initial Crush of Grape
    • Liberdade– Treader Roam Freely Around Lagar, Trying to Avoid Cap From Forming
  • Robotic Plunger and Treader- Low-Sided, Square, Stainless-Steel Tank (Similar Dimensions and Proportions to Traditional Stone Lagar. Four Rectangle Block or Feet Are Suspended From a Ceiling and Can Be Programmed to Move Across.
  • Auto Vinification/ Algerian Ducellier System Automated Pump Over, Uses Co2 That’s Released Naturally During Fermentation to Crush Grape
    • Able to Pump Over Multiple Times an Hour During Peak Fermentation

PORT BARRELS/ AGING CONTAINERS

  • Pipe– 138 Gallons
  • Vats ”Upright”, Varies In Size 225 Liters to 73,000 Liters
    • Designed to Float, Prior to the Building of the Dams the Once Mighty Douro River Use to Overflow Couple Times a Decade Inindating the Cellars With Water.
  • Vats ”Sideways”


Styles of Port

Port Styes Differs by Aging Vessel, Size and Duration of Aging.

WHITE

  • BRANCO= Bual, Donzelinho, Gouveio, Malvasia Fina, Rabigato, Sercial, Viosinho
  • VINICULTURE- +AGED/ 2-3 Years, Old 60 Gallon Barrels
    • Maceration Time is Short or Not at All
    • Styles and Sweetness Level Determined by Winemaker From Dry to Sweet.
      • Labeled: Extra Dry, Semi Sweet Lagrima(Nector)
      • 10 Year/ 20 Year/ 30 Year/ 40 Year/ +
  • Estate/ Producers– Lamelas, Noal, Vieira de Sousa
  • WHITE PORT EVALUATION
    • Sight: Hazy, Yellow
    • Aroma: Citrus, Nutty, Dried White Tropical Friut
    • Palate: Dry to Sweet/ +BODY
    • Structure: Medi-Tannins, +Abv.17%-22%, Medi Acid
      • SERVE…Chilled, Apéritif, Length of Life After Uncorking: 4-6 Days
        • CLOSURE: Driven-Cork, COCKTAILS: Mix White Port With Lemonade and Ice
      • PAIRING…(Sweet) Light Meats With Cream Sauce    |  CHEESE…Stilton
        •  (Dry) Chickens, Salads

RUBY

  • VINICULTURE- +AGED/ 2-3 Years In Large Format Barrels(Tonel), Fined & Cold Filtered, Then Bottle Aged.
    • *Generally– Non-Vintage *Drink Young(Doesn’t Benefit From Additional Aging, No Decanting Needed)
  • RUBY PORT EVALUATION
    • Sight: Full, Ruby
    • Aroma: Overripe Fruit/ Red Plum, Nutty, Clove, Pepper
    • Palate: Sweet/ +BODY, Ripe Blackberry, Cherry
    • Structure: Medi Tannins, +Abv.19%-22%Medi Acid
      • SERVE…Cold, Length of Life After Uncorking: 4-6 Days
        • CLOSURE: Reusable Stopper
      • PAIRING…Chocolate Mousse, Cherry, Pepper Steak
      • CHEESE…Stilton

Styles of Ruby Port

  • RESERVE RUBY
    • VINICULTURE+AGED/ 4-6 Year Old Ruby
  • LATE BOTTLED VINTAGE (LBV.)
    • VINICULTURE+AGED/ 4-6 Years In Barrel Before Bottled,  From Single Vintage
      • *Generally– Vintage, Single Vineyard
      • Style That Emerged In the Early 1970’s
      • Modern LBV.- Filtered & Fined/ No Sediment
      • Traditional LBV.- Not Filtered & Fined/ Needs Decanting
      • LBV. Cann’t Be Considered Vintage if Not Bottled Within 2 Years
      • SERVE…Chilled, Length of Life After Uncorking: 3-4 Week
  • VINTAGE
    • VINICULTURE– +Single Year, Bottled Within 2 Years, +AGED 5-50 Years “White” “Pink”
      • Not Filtered & Fined/ Needs Decanting
      • Single Quinta– Vintage Port From One Quality Estate, Qunita
    • VINTAGE PORT EVALUATION
      • Sight: Full, Garnet
      • Aroma: Prune, Leather, Coffee
      • Palate: Semi-Sweet/ +BODY
      • Structure: Medi Tannins, +Abv.19%-22%, Medi Acid
        • PAIRING…      | CHEESE…Stilton
        • SERVE…Cold, DECANT, Length of Life After Uncorking: 3-5 Days
          • CLOSURE: Driven-Cork
  • CRUSTED
    • VINICULTURE– +BLENDED/ +2 Vintages, +AGED/ 4 Years/ Cast & 3 Years/ Bottle
      • Not Filtered, Not Fined/ Needs Decanting…“Crust/ Sediment”, CLOSURE: Cork
      • Crust- Molecules That Have Bound and Become Too Heavy and Fell Out of Solution.

Ruby Ports Starts Aging the Moment They Are Bottled, Tawny Ports Stop Aging the Moment They Are Bottled.

TAWNY

  • VINICULTURE+AGED/ 2-3 Years In Smaller Format Barrels, Able to Evolve More Rapidly Than Bigger Vats
  • Average Age of Multiple Vintages, +BLENDED/
    • *Generally– Filtered & Fined, CLOSURE: Stopper-Cork
    • Douro Bake– Wine That is Matured In the Hotter Douro Valley Rather Than Near the Coast In Vila Nova de Gaia.
    • With the Effects of Evaporation Two Bottles of Port Are Needed to Make 1 Bottle of Aged Tawny Port
  • TAWNY PORT EVALUATION
    • Sight: Murky/ Tawny
    • Aroma: Spice, Nutty, Milk Chocolate, Honey
    • Palate: Semi-Sweet to Dry/ Body, White Raisins, Vanilla, Caramel
    • Structure: Medi Tannins, +Abv.19%-22%, Medi Acid
      • SERVE…Chilled, As Digestif, Prior to Ruby Ports In Tastings
        • CLOSURE- Stopper    |   Length of Life After Uncorking: 4-6 Months
      • PAIRING…Chocolate, Butterscotch, Cigars, Cherry
      • CHEESE…Stilton

Styles of Tawny Port

  • RESERVE TAWNY
    • VINICULTURE+AGED/ +6 Years, Pips Barrels
  • COLHEITA TAWNY
    • VINICULTURE– Vintage Dated Tawny Port, +AGED/ +7 Years In Barrel Before Bottling, +Natural Acidity, Sweetness, (Colheita=Harvest/ Crop)
    • Estate/ Producers– Dalva, Kopke
  • 10 YEAR TAWNY
    • VINICULTURE– +AGED/ 10 Years
    • Estate/ Producers– Barao de Vilar, Burmester, Cesar Sequeira, Dixon’s, Ferreira, Sandeman, Sogevinus, Quinta do Vallado
  • 20 YEAR TAWNY
    • VINICULTURE– +AGED/ 20 Years
    • -Estate/ Producers– Calem, Churchill’s, Delaforce, Fonseca, Manoel D Pocas, Ramos Pinto, Sogevinus, Quinta do Noval
  • 30/ 40 YEAR TAWNY
    • VINICULTURE– +AGED/ 30 /40 Years, Richer In Style
    • Bottled In Small Quantities/ On Demand From Buyers
    • 50 YEAR TAWNY PORT EVALUATION

      • Sight: Murky/ Tawny
      • Aroma: Spice, Nutty, Milk Chocolate
      • Palate: Dry, Vanilla, Caramel, Less Fruity
      • Structure: Medi-Tannins, +Abv.19%-22%, Medi Acid
        • SERVE…Chilled, CLOSURE- Stopper | Length of Life After Uncorking: 4-6 Months
        • PAIRING
        • CHEESE…Stilton
  • +50 YEAR TAWNY
    • After 40 Years Bottles Are Labeled by Vintage Date
  • GARRAFEIRA
    • VINICULTURE– Single Year/ Vintage, +AGED/ Wood & Glass/ Demi-John
    • Estate/ Producers– Ferreira, Niepoort

The Older White Port Gets the Darker It Will Become, The Older Red Ports Get the Lighter They Will Become.


DECLARE DATE/ VINTAGE PORT In Order For a Port to Be Vintage It Must Be Declared by the Winemaker by April 23 of the Following Year or About 18 Months, Generally 3 Vintages Out of 10 Are Declared to Be Vintage. If a Producer Want to Declare a Vintage a Sample is Given For Approval by the Port Wine Institute.

  • Recently There Isn’t Any Universal Vintage Date So It’s Up the Quinta to Decide to “Declare a Vintage.”
  • Universal Vintage Date- When the Vintage is So Spectacular That the Entire Region Declared a “Vintage Year”.
  • Port Wine Institute– Governing Body the Oversees Port Production and Trade.
  • Declared Vintages– “17,  ’16, ’11, ’09, ’08, ’07, ’03, ’00,’ 97, ’94, ’92, ’91, ’85, ’83, ’82, ’80, ’77, “75, ’70, ’67, ’66, ’63, ’60, ’58,’55, ’50, ’48, ’47, ’45, ’35, ’34 ’27, ’24, ’20, ’12, ’04, 1873,  1872
  • Split Vintages– 1991/ 1992, 1982/ 1983, 1966/ 1967
  • PHILOSOPHY Does Certain Quinta Calling Their Port Vintage Every Year Diminish Vintage Port Dating During Truly Vintage Years?
    • In the Absence of Binding Vintage Regulation, Lessor Integrity Quinta’s Always Calling Their Port Vintage Lessons the Years When a Harvest is Truly Vintage.

VINHO DO PORTO GARANTIA Statement Stamped On Ribbon Around Neck of Bottles

Extreme Qualities Needed In Port In Order to Declare Vintage.


TONGING- Heated Red-Hot Tongs Applied to Neck Bottles In Which Cork Has Become Degenerated and Too Fragile to Remove With a Cork-Screw.

  • Process- Tongs Applied to Neck of Bottle Followed by Ice and Minor Force to Cleanly Break Neck With No Disturbance to the Sediment or Cork Issues.

COOKING WITH PORT

  • White Ports Are Used For Sauces.
  • Ruby Ports Are Used For Marinating Meats (Goats, Wild Boar) 1-3 Days.
  • Sediments From Ports Are Used as Rubs Prior to Grilling.


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced