🇵🇹PORTUGALIslands


TERRAS MADIRENSES IG.   DOC.- 2     @Funchal

  • BRANCO= Gual AKA=Bual,  20%, Malmsey AKA=Malvasia 19%, Sercial AKA=Esgana Cao 13%, Verdelho 12%, Carao de Moca, Listrao
  • TINTO= Tinta Negra Mole 29% AKA=Negramoll, Terrantez AKA=Folgasao 4%, Bastardo, Canica, Moscatel

GEOGRAPHY Portugal, REGION– Portugal Islands, LATITUDE: 32° ‘N’

  • Archipelago of Islands, South-West of Portugal(1,000km.)
  • West of African Coast/ Morocco/ Casablanca(200km.), North of Canary Islands(100km.)
  • SUB-ZONES/ CITIES Of MADIERA
    • PORTO MONIZ 17 ha. Planted
      • Geography– Madeira Island(North-West)
    • SAO VICENTE  126 ha. Planted
      • Geography– Madeira Island(North-Central), “Non-Contiguous”
    • SANTANA 42 ha. Planted
      • Geography– Madeira Island(North-Central)
    • SANTA CRUZ .5 ha. Planted
      • Geography– Madeira Island(East)
    • MACHICO .8 ha. Planted
      • Geography– Madeira Island(East)
    • FUNCHAL 1.5 ha. Planted
      • Geography– Madeira Island(South)
    • CAMARA De LOBOS 185 ha. Planted
      • Geography– Madeira Island(South)
    • PONTA Do SOL  .5 ha. Planted
      • Geography– Madeira Island(South-West)
    • RIBEIRA BRAVA 10 ha. Planted
      • Geography– Madeira Island(South-West)
    • CALHETA 14 ha. Planted
      • Geography– Madeira Island(West)

TOPOGRAPHY FEATURES Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraces, Island, (57km. Long & 22km. Wide)

  • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTSVolcanic Hot-Spot, Result of Continental Drift Over a Active Mantle Plume.

SOILS VolcanicClay

  • Andosols– Vitric
  • Cambisols– Chromic, Distric, Eutric, Humic, Vertic
  • Rocky Soils– Eutric, Dystric
  • Haplic– Calcisols, Phaeozes

CLIMATE  Sub-Tropical With Atlantic/ Maritime Influences

  • Summers– +Humidity, Hot, Moist   |   Winters– Wet, Cold, Windy

VITICULTURE Wines Labeled TERRAS MADIRENSES Refers to Non-Conforming to DO.

  • WINE BARRELS– ~Madeira Drum~ 650 Liters (Portugal)
  • CHALLENGE– Humidity is High Throughout the Year (80%), Constant Disease and Mildew Pressure, Torrential Rains
  • Fortified Wine Produced Under Madeira DOC., Table Wines Under Terraas Madirenses IGP..
  • The Portuguese Would Sent Their Wine to the West Indies For Trade. During a Trip Some Barrels Didn’t Get Sold/ Traded and Had to Make the Long, Hot Return Trip Back to the Madeira Islands Through Tropical and Sub-Tropical Seas. It Was Know That Fortifying Wine With Distilled Grape Spirit Helped Preserve it On Voyages But What Wasn’t Known Was the Remarkable Transformation as the Barrel of Wine Warmed and Moved In the Bowels of the Ship From the Excessive Movement. The Already Full Bodied Wine Became Oxidize, Darker, Richer and Balanced With Mellowed Acidity. In Time Sending Madeira Wine On Oceanic Voyages as a Process to Improve Quality Became a Coveted Style.
  • Madeira Historically Was Popular In America. With the Increasing Trade With the New Country of USA. Madeira Became On of the Drinks of Choice For the “Founding Fathers”.
  • In Order to Sail to the New World From Europe Ships Had to Go South Until the Winds and Canary Current Off the Morocco Coast Pushed Them Into the North Equatorial Current and Across the Atlantic Ocean. This Took Ships Past the Madeira Islands Where Merchants Would Get Supplies.
    • Vinho da Roda- Wine That Had Made the Trip In a Ships Hull On a Long Voyage.

HISTORY 600 Year Wine History

  • 1,400 @Madeira– Islands Discovered by Portugal.
  • 1,425  @Madeira– Islands Colonized by Portugal.
  • 1452  @Madeira– Became Vital Center For Portuguese Sugar Cane Production.
  • 1,700’s @Madeira– Started Fortifying their Wine
  • 1821 @Portugal/ Spain– Island Swap
    • The Portuguese Gave Up Canary Islands to Spain In Exchange For Spain Leaving Madeira, the Azores and Cape Verde Islands.

CULTURE  ~Etymology~ Named Ilha da Madeira- The Island of Wood, Referring to the Abundance of Wood.

  • POLITICS~ Because of a Loophole In Taxation Wines From Madeira Weren’t Subject to Tax From England to the Colonies In America. This Along With the Ongoing Resentment Towards England Regarding Disputes In the Colonization of America Made the Colonies the Largest Export of Wine From Madeira. After the Signing of the Declaration of Independence In 1776, 500 Bottles of Madeira Were Consumed During the Celebration. During the Height of the Colonial Era, a Quarter of the Islands Production of Madeira Were Exported to the USA.
  • GASTRONOMY Sugar Cane, Bananas, Mango, Avocado   |   CHEESE


**Madeira Island Images Courtesy of “Delong Maps”, Purchase Maps at Delongwine.com


MADEIRA DOC.     @Funchal

  • BRANCO= Sercial AKA=Esgana Cao, Bual AKA=Boal, Malmsey AKA=Malvasia, Verdelho
  • TINTO= Tinta Negra, Terrantez AKA=Folgasao, Bastardo, Moscatel
  • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Islands of Madeira
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraces”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.+1,800mt.
  • SOILS=Volcanic
  • CLIMATE= Sub-Tropical With Atlantic/ Maritime Influences
    • RAIN SHADOW EFFECT/ Island of Madeira
  • VITICULTURE– 500 ha. Planted,  Series of Irrigation Canals Called Levadas Water Island
  • VINICULTURE– Fortified Wine Under Madeira DOC., Unfortified Wines Produced Under Terraas Madirenses IGP.
    • -Wine Exporters- Vinhos Barbeito, Henriques & Henriques, Justinho Henriques, Pereira d’Oliveira, H.M. Borges, J. Faria & Filhos, P.E. Gonçalves, Madeira Wine Company
    • Estate/ Producers– Quinta Bela Vista, Quinta de Bela Vista, Quinta Casa Branca, Quinta Casa Velada Palheiro, Quinta do Furao, Quinta Grande, Quinta Serra Golf

MADEIRENSE DOC.     @

  • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Islands of Madeira
  • SOILS=Volcanic
  • VINICULTURE
    • MADEIRA– Grapes Fortified During Fermentation with Grape Spirit, Heated, Oxidized, and Carmel Sweetener Added.
      • BRANCO= Sercial, Bual, Malmsey, Verdelho
    • Starts as a Still Wine, Usually Fermented In Stainless Steel Then Racked to Barrels.
    • The Wine is Fortified With Grape Spirit(96% Abv.), to a Abv. of 77%.
    • In 1600’s Fortified With Cane Spirit, 1800 to Present With Brandy(Grape Spirit).
    • Long Sea Voyages Had the Effect of Maderization, This Along With Heat, Oxygen and Time Resulting In a Wine That Was Something Else Altogether.
    • Madeira Wasn’t Originally Fortified, It Was Naturally High In Sugar and Alcohol and Could Withstand Travel Better Than Most Wines. Not Until the 1700’s After Wines Like Sherry and Port Saw the Benefits of Fortifications For Travel Did the Practice Take Place On the Island.
    • Estufagem/ Stove/ Hothouse- Practice of Mimicking the Long Over Sea Voyage by Heating Wines.
      • (Heating Wine In Bulk to a Maximum of 55°C For a Minimum of 90 Days)
    • Cuba de Calor– Inexpensive Way to Directly Heat and Cool Wine In Large Stainless Steel Vessels at Temperatures as High as 130° For 3-12 Months
    • Armazemde Calor- Tanks of Wine Are Placed In a Large Steam-Heated Room With a Boiler Furnace With Connected Coils On Walls That Heats Room to 115°,  +AGED/ 6 Month to 1 Year
    • Canteiro- Wine is Aged Long-Term In Warehoused Heated Only by the Sun. Canteiro is a More Natural But Longer Process For Maderization Wine. It Takes 3 Year In a Canteiro System Compared to 1 Year In the Estufagem System.
    • Reason For Indefinite Aging Potential of Madeira
      • High Levels of Natural Acidity-       -Fertile Volcanic Soils-
      • High Levels of Residual Sugars-     -Fortification-

Styles of Madeira

  • SERCIAL
    • BRANCO= Sercial AKA=Esgana Cao
    • VITICULTURE- Grown at Cooler/ Higher Elevations 1,000mt.
    • VINICULTURE- (+85% Sercial), Pressed Before Fermentation, +AGED/
      • Estate/ Producers- Barbeito, Broadbent, Cossart Gordon, Leacock’s, D’Oliveiras, Rare Wine Co., Veiga Franca
    • SERCIAL WINE EVALUATION 
      • Sight:
      • Aroma: Lemon, Almond
      • Palate: Dry/ -Body, Briny, Nutty
      • Structure: High Acid
    • PAIRING Aperitif, Mushroom Soup, Jamon Iberico   |   CHEESE
    • AGING to 10 Years+                               |   SERVING TEMP
  • VERDELHO
    • BRANCO= Verdelho
    • VINICULTURE- (+85% Verdelho), Pressed Before Fermentation, Fortified, Oxidized, +AGED
      • Estate/ Producers- Barbeito Frasqueira, Blandy’s, D’Oliveira, Henriques & Henriques, Justino’s, Rare Wine Co.
    • VERDELHO WINE EVALUATION
      • Sight:
      • Aroma: Smokey, Almond, Caramel, Spice, Nutmeg
      • Palate: Off-Dry/ BODY, Pepper
      • Structure: Medi+Acid
    • PAIRING…Cream Based Soups    |   CHEESE…Blue Cheese
    • AGING…to 10 Years+                      |   SERVING…55° – 60°
  • BUAL
    • BRANCO= Bual AKA=Boal, Gual
    • VITICULTURE- Requires More Heat to Ripen, Grown In Warmer Locations.
    • VINICULTURE- (+85% Bual), Pressed After Fermentation, Fortified, Oxidized, +AGED
      • Estate/ Producers- Barbeito, Blandy’s, Broadbent, Cossart Gordon, Henriques & Henriques
    • BUAL WINE EVALUATION
      • Sight: Dark
      • Aroma: Prune, Caramel, Chocolate, Nutty
      • Palate: Sweet/ +BODY
      • Structure: High Acid
    • PAIRING Pecan Pie, Foie Gras, Fruit Pudding
    • CHEESE Blue, Strong Cheese
    • AGING to 10 Years+               SERVING TEMP Chilled 55° – 60°
  • MALMSEY
    • BRANCO= Malmsey AKA=Malvasia
    • VINICULTURE- (+85% Malmsey), Pressed After Fermentation
      • Estate/ Producers- Borges & Borges, Broadbent, Favilla Viera, Rutherford & Miles
    • MALMSEY WINE EVALUATION
      • Sight:
      • Aroma: Honey, Clove, Nutmeg
      • Palate: Sweet/ +BODY, Peach, Molasses
      • Structure: Medi-Tannins, +ABV., High Acid
    • PAIRING Desert, Dried Fruits, Dark Chocolate   |   CHEESE
    • AGING to 10 Years+                        SERVING TEMP
  • TINTA NEGRA MOLE
    • TINTO=  Tinta Negra Mole AKA=Negramoll
    • VITICULTURE- Acounts For 70% of Islands Vineyard
    • VINICULTURE- (+85% Tinta Negra Mole)
      • Estate/ Producers- Barbeito, Berry Bros. & Rudd, Henriques & Henriques, Miles
    • TINTA NEGRA MOLE WINE EVALUATION
      • Sight:
      • Aroma: Raisins, Fig Cake, Dates
      • Palate: Off-Dry/ +BODY, Butter Scotch, Smoky
      • Structure: High Acid
    • PAIRING…     CHEESE
      AGING…          SERVING
  • TERRONTEZ
    • TINTO= Terrantez AKA=Folgasao
    • VITICULTURE- A High Quailty, -Yields
    • VINICULTURE- (+85% Terrontez)
      • Estate/ Producers– Barbeito, Blandy’s, D’Oliveiras, H.M. Borges, Henrique & Henriques
    • TERRONTEZ WINE EVALUATION
      • Sight: Dark/ Ink
      • Aroma: Vanilla
      • Palate: Caramel, Fig Walnut
      • Structure: Low Acid
    • PAIRING…         CHEESE
    • AGING…            SERVING
  • BASTARDO
    • TINTO= Bastardo
      • VINTAGE– Frasquira
    • VINICULTURE-  (+85% Bastardo) +AGED/ In Wood of Quality, 1 yr., 3 yr., 5 yr.
      • Reserve(10 yr.),   Special Reserve(20 yr.)
      • Estate/ Producers-
    • BASTARDO WINE EVALUATION
      • Sight: Dark/ Ink
      • Aroma: Vanilla
      • Palate: Caramel, Fig Walnut
      • Structure: Low Acid
    • PAIRING…         CHEESE
    • AGING…            SERVING
  • COLHEITA
    • VINICULTURE- Early-Bottled Single Vintage Wines That Have Spent at Least Five Years In Wood, A Shorter Period Than a True Madeira.
      • Estate/ Producers-
    • COLHEITA WINE EVALUATION
      • Sight
      • Aroma: 
      • Palate
      • Structure:
    • PAIRING…         CHEESE
    • AGING…            SERVING
  • RAIN WATER
    • VINICULTURE- From Vineyards That Were Very Steep and Inaccessible and Difficult to Irrigate, and In Need of Rainwater For Moisture.
      • Myth 1) A Barrel of Madeira Was Left Out In the Rain and the Barrel Absorbed the Rain Water and Diluted the Madeira and People Liked the Style.
      • Myth 2) Named In the 1700’s Because it Seems as Soft as Rainwater On the Palate.
      • The Slopes Are So Steep That Irrigation is Impossible and the Only Water They Recieve is Rain Water.
      • Estate/ Producers– Sandeman
    • RAIN WATER WINE EVALUATION
      • Sight: Clear/ Straw
      • Aroma:
      • Palate:        / -Body
      • Structure:
    • PAIRING…               CHEESE
    • AGING… to 1 Year            SERVING… 55° – 60°
  • BOTTLE LABELING– Wines Aged For a Certain Period of Time & Single Vintage.
    • Madeiras Labeled by Varietal Usually Don’t See Estufa.
    • Madeiras That Don’t Have Stated Varietal is Usually Tinta Negra.
    • Madeiras That Haven’t Been Aged for Over 5 Years Usually Have Seen a Estufa.
  • SERVING– Madeira Life Span- (Debated…Best In First Week, Then Loses Its Acidity, Then Morphs Into Something Indefinite)
    • Combination of Heating and Fortification Means That Madeiras Are Almost Impervious to Spoilage Once Opened.
  • QUALITY LEVELS
    • 3 Year Old “Finest
      • VINICULTURE– Estufagem/ Tinta Negra
    • 5 Year Old “Reserve”
      • VINICULTURE– Estufagem or Canteiro Tinta Negra/ Noble
    • 10 Year Old “Special Reserve”
      • VINICULTURE– Canteiro Noble Varieties
    • Colheita “Harvest”
      • VINICULTURE– Single Havest/ +AGED/ 5 yr.
    • Frasqueira “Vintate”
      • VINICULTURE– Single Havest/ +AGED/ 20 yr.


ACORES ISLANDS IG.    DOC.-     @

  • BRANCO= Arinto dos Acores AKA=Terrantez da Terceira, Bical, Bual, Fernao Pires, Galego Dourado, Malmsey AKA=Malvasia, Maria Gomes AKA=Fernao Pires, Seara Nova, Rio Grande, Sercial AKA=Esgana Cao, Talia, Terrantez do Pico, Verdelho, Viosinho

    • International– Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, Moscatel Graudo AKA=Muscat of Alexandria, Riesling
  • TINTO= Agronomica, Aragones AKA=Tempranillo, Castelao AKA=Periquita, Cibelle, Saborinho AKA=Negramoll, Tinta Barroca, Touriga Franca, Touriga Nacional, Vinhao
    • International– Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Isabella, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Rufete, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Azores Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean
    • East of Lisbon-City(1,475km.),  LATITUDE: 38.2° ‘N’
    • Islands In Azores Arcapelico-(9) Corvo, Faial, Flores, Graciosa, Pico, San Jorge, Santa Maria, Sao Miguel, Terceira
  • TOPOGRAPHYFEATURES– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”
    • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS– “Volcanic Rifting Zone” Along Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Azores Triple Junction(North American, Eurasian and African Plates)
    • AZORE VOLCANO’S-  ~Sao Miguel~(Peak/    )
      • ~Monte de Pico~ (Peak/ 2,351mt.), Portugal’s Highest Mountain
  • SOILS= Volcanic
  • CLIMATE=Sub-Tropical WithAtlantic/ Maritime Influences
    • Summers– +Humidity, Hot, Moist  |   Winters– Wet, Cold, Windy
  • VITICULTURE–  Vines Are Planted In Holes and Cracks of Lava Flows
    •  Jeiroes– Vineyard Blocks Are Situated Into Plots Called Jeiroes, and Suquecaly a Jeiroes Contains 4 Smaller Plots Smaller Called Canada, Which Contain 2 Smaller Plots Called Currais.
    • Currais– Dry Stonewall Enclosure Made of Black Volcanic Rock (9mt. x 12mt.) Walls Protect the Vines From Winds and Salt Spray and Also to Provide Heat Retentition to Aid In Ripening, Each Square or “Curral” is Planted With Three Vines.
    • Wines Labeled In “ACORES”  Are Non-Conforming to DOC.
    • Most of Vineyards Planted 50 mt. to 350 mt. From Ocean.
    • CHALLENGES– ~Maritime Mist~ Favors Fungal Disease/ Anti-Fungal Spray Needed
  • VINICULTURE– Fortified
    • Vinho Licorosos– Dry-Fruity, Nutty, Honeyed, Liqueur Wines(Unfortified)
    • Vinho de Consumo/ Vinho de Cheiro– Table Wine Made From International Grapes
    • Wine Produced In Azores Islands Are Said to Possess Salinity.
  • HISTORY– Viticulture Since 1500’s
    • 1400 @Azoers– Island Archipelago Discovered by Portuguese Explorers
    • 1500 @Azores– Viticulture Begins
    • 1821  @Portugal/ Azores– The Portuguese Gave Up Canary Islands to Spain In Exchange For Spain Leaving Madeira, the Azores and Cape Verde Islands.
  • CULTURE- AKA=Azores
    • PIONEERS– ~Henry the Navigator~ First Brought Vines to the Azores In 1500’s
    • Monks & Monistaries  ~Franciscan & Carmelite Monks~
    • UNESCO. WORLD HERITAGE SIGHT~ ~Pico Island~ Landscape, Vineyard, Currais
    • GASTRONOMY Carne de Vaca, Atum(Tuna), Ananas(Pineapple), Torresmos
      • CHEESE Queijo do Pico, Queijo de Sao Jorge
  • PORTUGAL WINE CLASSIFICATION
    • Indicacao de Proviniencia Regulamentada IPR.-  Indicated Provence Regulation

**Acores Islands Images Courtesy of Delong Maps, Purchase These Maps at Delongwine.com


ACORES IGP.     @Entire Island

  • VITICULTUREWine Labeled  “ACORES” Non-Conforming to IPR.
    • Covers the Nine Islands That Make Up the Azores.

PICO ISLAND DO.     @Madalena

  • BRANCO= Arinto, Terrantez, Verdelho
  • TINTO= Agronomica, Aragones AKA=Tempranillo, Saborinho AKA=Negramoll, Touriga Nacional
  • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Azores Archipelago(North-West), “Pico Islands”
    • (42 km. Long & 15 km. Wide)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”
    • VOLCANISM~ ~Mount Pico~(Peak/ 2,351 mt.)
  • SOILS= Volcanic
  • VITICULTURE– 50 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Antonio Macanita, Azores Wine Company, Fitapreta, Lajido, Vitivinicola do Pico(Co.-Op.)
  • CULTUREAKA=King Dinis Island

GRACIOSA ISLAND IPR.      @Santa Cruz

  • BRANCO= Arinto, Verdelho, Terrantez do Pico
  • TINTO= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Azores Archipelago(North), “Graciosa Island”
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”
  • SOILS= Volcanic
  • VITICULTURE– 50 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers

BISCOITOS IPR.     @Angra do Heroismo

  • BRANCO= Arinto, Verdelho, Terrantez
  • TINTO= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Azores Archipelago(Central), “Terceira Island”
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly”
  • SOILS= Volcanic
  • VITICULTURE–  50 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Adega dos Biscoitos (Co.Op.)

Other Azores Islands

  • FAIAL ISLAND     @Horta
    • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Azores Archipelago(West), “Faial Island”
  • SAN MIGUEL ISLAND       @Ponta Delgada
    • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Azores Archipelago(East), “San Miguel Island”
      • AZORE VOLCANO’S-  ~Sao Miguel~(Peak/    )
  • SANTA MARIA ISLAND       @Vila do Porto
    • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Azores Archipelago(South-East), “Santa Maria Island”
  • SAO JORGE ISLAND         @Velas
    • GEOGRAPHY– Portugal, REGION-Azores Archipelago(Central), “Sao Jorge Island”


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced