SPAIN IS   Regions- 17     DOCa.- 2      DO.- 54     VP.- 20     VT.- 46       @Madrid

  • BLANCO= Airen(Indigenous), Albarino(Indigenous), Alarije, Albillo Mayor, Albillo Real, Baboso Blanco, Beba, Bonicaire, Caino Blanco, Canorroyo, Cayetana, Chelva, Diego, Dominga, Dona Blanca, Forastera, Forcada, Garnacha Blanca, Godella(Indigenous)AKA=Verdelho, Gonfaus, Gual, Heben, Hondarribi Zuri, Lameiro, Loureiro, Macabeo(IndigenousAKA=Viura, Mando, Malvar, Mersquera, Mezcla, Moscatel Romano AKA=Muscat Alexandria, Naparo, Ohanes, Palomino, Pedro Ximenez, Parellada(Indigenous), Perruno, Planta Nova, Tempranillo Blanco, Torrontes, Tortosi, Trexadura, Verdejo(Indigenous), Verdil, Vijiriego, Pedro Ximenez, Xarello(Indigenous), Zalema
    • International Chardonnay, Malvasia, Malvasia de Manresa AKA=Garganega, Moscatel de Grano Menudo AKA=Muscat Blanc Petit Grain, Planta Fina de Pebalba AKA=Damaschino, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • TINTO= Tempranillo(Indigenous) 8%, Bobal(Indigenous) 4%, Garnacha(Indigenous) 4%, Monastrell(Indigenous) 3%, Almuneco, Brancellao, Boboso Negro, Caino Tinto, Callet, Castellana, Espadeiro, Ferron, Fogoneu, Forcallat Tinta, Garro, Giro, Graciano(Indigenous), Gran Negro, Juan Garcia, Listan Negro, Loureira Tinta, Mandon, Manto Negro, Mazuelo AKA=Caragnan, Mencia(Indigenous), Moravia, Miguel del Arco, Mollar, Moneu, Montalvana, Moravia Agria, Moravia Dulce, Negromoll, Pardina, Pedral, Picapoll Negro, Pirene, Planta Mula, Prieto Picudo, Rufete, Querol, Souson, Sumoll, Tintilla, Tinto de la Pampa, Tinto Velasco, Trepat, Valenci Tinoto, Verjadiego Negro
    • International Aleante AKA=Douce Noir, Alicante Boushet AKA=Garnacha Tintorera, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Merenzao AKA=Trousseau/ Carnaz, Petit Verdot, Pinot Noir, Syrah

GEOGRAPHY REGION– Europe(Western), REGION- Iberian Peninsula

  • COUNTRY-Spain, LATITUDE: 27°- 44°N
    • Green Spain- Name Given to the Lush Natural Region In North-West Spain. Green Spain Stretches Along the Atlantic Coast From the Border With Portugal to the Border With France and Includes Regions of Galicia, Ausurias, Cantabria and Pais Vasco(Basque Country).
    • North-Central Spain- Ebro River and Douro River Valleys
    • Central PlateauValencia Coast, Southern Spain, Catalonia

TOPOGRAPHY Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced

  • North- Pyrenees Mountain Range, Separated Spain From France.
  • South- Cordillera Betica/ Sierra Nevada Mountain Range Cross Southern Spain.
  • Rivers- On~Duero~River~to~Atlantic~Ocean~Headwaters…Picos de Urbion Soria
    • On~Alberche/ Alcanadre~Rivers~Tributaries~Tajo~River~Lisbon Bay/ Atlantic~
    • On~Guadiana~River~, On~Segura~River~
    • On~Ebro~Valley~Rivers~(911 Km. Long/ Longest In Spain/ Sourced Picode los Tres Mares In Cantabria Empties In Mediterranean/ Below Barcelona)
  • MESETA PLATEAU  AKA=Meseta Central Plateau (Makes Up 25% of Mainland Spain.)
    • Geography- Iberian Peninsula(North-Central), Rimmed and Dissected by Mountain Ranges.
      • Leon Mountains(West), Cordillera Cantabrian Mountains(North), Sistema Central Mountains(Sierra de Gredos/ Sierra de  Guaderrama)(South), Iberian Mountains(Sierra de la Demanda)(East)

SOILS Metamorphic, Sedimentary

  • **Refer to SPAIN/ Sub-Chapters For Detailed Information On Soils.
  • **Refer to TERROIR/ Geology & Soil For Detailed Information On Soils.

CLIMATE Mediterranean” In Coastal Areas and Continental In Inland Areas

  • *Summers– Hot, Dry   |   *Winters– Mild, Rain

VITICULTURE More Percentage of Land is Dedicated to Vine Than Any Other Country.

  • WINE BARRELS–  ~Sherry Puncheon~ 500 Liters(Andalusia)
  • WINE BARRELS–  ~Sherry Butt~ 478-500 Liters(Andalusia)
  • Porron- Traditional Glass Wine Pitcher Which Holds .75 Liters.  This Drinking Utensil Which Resembles and Watering Can Allows Multiple People Drink From the Same Communal Drinking Apparatius Without Touching Their Lips. Top of Porro is Narrow and Can Be Sealed With a Cork.
  • The Iberian Peninsula Went Through a “Viticultural Stagnation” In the 1900’s.  The Phylloxera Epidemic, Coupled With the Civil War In Spain Followed by the Franco Political Regime Left the Vineyard and Wineries In Disarray and Separated From the Rest of the Wine World.


    • Joven +AGED/ Max 1 yr./ No Barrel…Lower Quality Grapes
    • Crianza +AGED/ Min. 2 yr./ 6 mo. In Barrel…Use Barrels 2/ 3 Years
    • Reserva +AGED/ Min. 3 yr./ 1 yr. In Barrel
    • Gran Reserva +AGED/ Min. 5 yr./ 2 yr. In Barrel…Usually Best Vineyards
  • MISTELA- Term For a Fortified Wine Produced by Neutral Grape Spirit to Unfermented Grape Juice.
  • CLARETE- Traditional Light/ Fresh Wine.
    • +BLEND/+25% Red Grapes Fermented With Wine Grapes. Often Field Blends Picked Early to Retain Acidity.
    • Pale to Darker Depending On Maceration Time. Sometimes Aged On Lees In Barrels.
  • DOBLE PASTA- Technique For Producing Dry, Dark Red, High Alcohol, Full Body Wine by Bleeding Off a Portion of Macerating Juice or Newly Fermented Wine and Replacing it With More Crushed Grapes. In Order to Increase or “Double”, the Ratio of Grape Skin to Juice of Remaining Wine.
    • Doble Pasta is a Method to Produce Extremely Full Body Wines and as a Byproduct There is a Bleeding Off of Wine Which is Enjoyed as Rose.
    • Spanish Regions-(With Culture of Doble Pasta Vinification) Alicante, Jumilla, Utiel-Requena, and Yecia
    • NODon’t Get Crossed by Price and Aging Requirement, Your Palate May Prefers the Fruity Freshness of a Young Joven or Crianza Over to a “Highly Oaked and Aged Gran Reserva.

HISTORY 3,200 Year Wine History

  • 4000 BC. @Spain Phoenicians Settled In Spain and Started Cultivating Wine.
  • 800 @Spain Viticulture, Introduced by Roman Empire.
  • 711 @AndaluciaInvaded
    Muslim Moors From North Africa Crossed the Straights of Gibraltar and Invaded the Iberian Peninsula. They Took Over, Converted Most of Its Inhabitants and Ruled For 5 Centuries. It Wasn’t Until 1245 That the Moors Were Pushed Back by a Crusade by the Churches In a Effort to Reclaim There Land. Finally In 1492 They Were Expelled Completly. The Moors Left a Distinct Mark On Andalucian Culture That Can Still Be Seen and Felt Today.
  • 700 @Spain Moors Conquered Spain and Put a Stop to Most Wine Making.
  • 1100 @Spain Mid-Evil, Christianity Overtook Spain Reviving Wine and Wealth.
  • 1400’s @Andalucia New Market, Exports of Wine Starts to England.
  • 1700’s @Andalucia New Market, One of First Wines to Be Consistently Imported Into America.
  • 1821 @Canary Islands Portuguese Gave Up Canary Islands to Spain In Exchange Madeira, the Azores.
  • 1872 @Penedes Cava/ Sparkling Wine Produced.
  • 1876 @Spain– Phylloxera
  • 1890 @Rioja/ Spain Phylloxera Free, Other Countries Came to Rioja.
  • 1926 @Rioja– Wine LawDO. Officially Established.
  • 1932 @Spain New Market, Revised 1970
  • 1936-1939  @Spain Spanish Civil War
  • 1950 @Rioja Modernization, of Rioja Takes Place.
  • 1970’s @SpainCivil War Aftermath
    • In the Aftermath Francisco Franco’s Nationalist Fascism Party Ruled.  Until 1970 the Wine and Agriculture Industry Was Suppressed. Since Then a New Generation of Winemakers Are Rebranding Themselves.


  • Pioneers
    • ~Rodriguez, Angel~ Ruedo, Founded Martinsancho Winery, Revived Verdejo.
    • ~Perea Pascuas Brothers~ Ribera del Duero, Founded Vina Pedrosa Winery.
    • ~Fernandez, Alejandro~ Ribera del Duero, 1970, Founded Tinto Pesquera Winery.
    • ~Barbier, Rene~ Catalunya, Visionary Who Revolutionized Priorat Wines In 1970’s.
    • ~Pastrana, Carles~ Catalunya, Patriarch of Modern Priorat, Owns L’Obac & Miserere.
    • ~Palacios, Alvaro~ Catalunya, Spanish Wine-Grower, Who Helped Revitalized Priorat.
    • ~Raventos, Josep~ Catalunya,1872, Produced First Cava In Penenes.
    • ~Torres, Miguel~ Catalunya, Founder of Torres Winery In Penedes and Chile.
  • GASTRONOMY… Quince Paste
    • CHEESE… Camerano(Goat/ Fresh),  Garrotxa(Goat/ Semi-Soft),  Ibores(Goat/ Semi-Soft),  Idiazabal(Sheep/ Hard),  Mahon(Cow-Goat/ Hard),  Majorero(Goat/ Semi-Hard),  Manchego(Sheep/ Semi-Hard),  Monte Enebro(Goat/ Semi-Soft),  La Peral(Cow/ Sheep/ Semi-Hard),  Queso de a Serena,  Roncal,  Valdeon(Cow/ Blue)
    • Classic Regional Pairing- Manchego & Sherry(Amontillado)


  • GOVERNING BODY- Instituto Nacional de Denominacioned de Origen INDO.
  • LAWS GOVERNING- Geographic Boundaries, Topography
    • Label Requirement- Abv.%, Varietal


  • VINO De MESA VDM.  ~Table Wine/ Unclassified~
  • VINO De La TIERRA VT.  ~Wine of the Land, Local Wines~
    • Wine Produced In an Autonomous Community Non-Conforming to DO.
    • From a Particular Area With Identifiable Local Characteristics.
    • Quality Wines With a Geographical Indication
  • DENOMINACION De ORIGEN DO.  ~Denominations of Origen~
    • ~Qualified Denomination of Origin~
  • VINO De PAGO VP.    Wine of a Single Quality Estate
    • Single Estate Classification For High Quality Wineries Unable to Claim a DO. For Their Wine Due to Location Outside a DO..  To Be Considered VP. a Single Estate Must Demonstrate Unique Characteristic Such a Climate or Soil and Be Evaluated Over a 10-Year Application Period.
    • Pago A Rural Area Which Has Unique Characteristics In Both Its Soil and Micro- Climate Distinguishing and Differentiating it From Surrounding Sites and Whose Vineyards Produce Wines With Distinctive Qualities
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Grandes Pagos de Espana~ GPDE.
      • Mission~Upholds and Promotes the Culture Around Vino di Pago Wines, and Ensures Wines Are Produced In a Specific Terroir, Reflecting the Unmistakable Personality of Its Soils, Topography and Climate.
    • VITICULTURE & VINICULTURE– Grape Production, Winemaking, Bottling Must Take Place Within Pago Boundaries.
      • Abadia Retuerta     @Castilla y Leon
      • Arinzano     @Navarra
      • Ayles     @Aragon/ Ayles
      • Los Balagueses     @Valencia/ Utiel-Requena
      • Bolandin     @Navarra
      • Calzadilla     @Castilla-La Mancha/ Huete
      • Campo de la Guardia      @Castilla-La Mancha/ Toledo
      • Casa del Blanco     @Castilla-La Mancha/ Ciudad Real
      • Chozas Carrascal     @Valencia/ San Antonio de Requena
      • Dehesa del Carrizal     @Castilla-La Mancha/ Ciudad
      • Dominio de Valdepusa     @Castilla-La Mancha/ Toledo
      • Finca Bolandin     @Navarra/ Abitas
      • Finca Elez      @Castilla-La Mancha/ Albacete
      • Florentino     @Castilla-La Mancha/ Ciudad Real
      • Guijoso      @Castilla-La Mancha/ Albacete
      • Otazu     @Navarra
      • Prado de Irache     @Navarra
      • El Terrerazo     @Valencia/ Utiel-Requena
      • Vera de Estenas      @Valencia/ Utiel-Requena
    • **Refer to SPAIN/ L0cations For Detailed Information On Vino de Pago’s


  • Anada- Vintage
  • Anejo- Aged
  • Arrope- Aged Syrup Made by Heating Grape Must to Reduce Its Volume.
  • Barrica- Oak Barrel
  • Blanco- White
  • Bodega- Winery
  • Colleiteiro- A Boutique Winery
  • Cosecha- Harvest/ Vintage
  • Joven- Young
  • Majuelo- Family Owned Family Run Winery
  • Pie Franco- Ungrafted Grapevine
  • Ranas- Terrace
  • Tinajao- Earthware Jar For Fermentation

GEOGRAPHIC DISCLAIMERTo Understand the Wine World and Benefit From DtheV.com an Comprehension of Spain’s Geography is Needed and the Ability to Visualize Its Wine Regions Topography.  Spain is Organized In a North to South / East to West Orientation and Intended to Be Researched as So.

    • Galicia                             Castile & Leon
    • Madrid                            Castille La Mancha
    • Extramadura                 Pais Vasco
    • Rioja & Navarra            Aragon
    • Catalunya                      Valenciana
    • Murcia                            Andalusia
    • Spanish Islands
  • **Refer to These Proceeding Sub-Chapters For Detailed Information.

**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.