ANDALUSIA IS  DO.- 6     VP.- 0      @Sevilla

  • BLANCO= Layren AKA=Airen, Baladi AKA=Verdejo, Beba, Calona, Canocazo, Doradilla(Indigenous), Mantuo Castellano AKA=Alcanon, Montua de Pilas, Palomino Fino, Palomino de Jerez, Pedro Ximenez AKA=Perrum/Pede Ximen, Perruno, Torrontes, Vigiriega, Zalema
    • International Chardonnay, Colombard, Gewüztraminer, Moscatel(de AlejandriaAKA=Muscat(Alexandria), Moscatel(de Grano Menudo) AKA=Muscat(Blanc a Petits Grains), Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • TINITO= Graciano, Monastrell, Rome(Indigenous), Tintilla de Rota AKA=Garnacha
    • International Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Pinot Noir, Tempranillo

GEOGRAPHY REGION-Iberian Peninsula, COUNTRY-Spain(South), REGION-Andalusia, +Latitude(27.5°N)

  • BORDERS-Portugal(West), ExtremaduraRegion(North-East), Castilla La ManchaRegion(North), MurciaRegion(East), Morocco(South)
  • PROVINCES-Almeria, Cadiz, Cordoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaen, Malaga, Sevilla
  • Sub-Zones/ DO.’s Condado du Huelva DO., Granada DO., Jerez-Xeres-Sherry DO., Malaga DO., Manzanilla-Sanlucar Berrameda DO., Montilla-Moriles DO., Sierras de Malaga DO.

TOPOGRAPHY Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous, +Altitude(10mt. to 700mt.)

  • On~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea/ Atlantic~Ocean~
  • On~Genil~River~Tributary~Guadalquivir~River~

SOILS Metamorphic, Sedimentary

  • Barros- Clay With Organic Matter, Darker In Color, 10% Chalk. Barros, Arenas, Albariza
    • (Predominantly Planted With Grapes For Ororoso Production.)
  • Arenas- Sand(Silica-Based) With Limestone, Yellow/ Reddish In Color, 10% Chalk.
    • (Predominantly Planted With Moscatel Grapes.)
  • Albariza- 30%- 80% Calcarious(High In Chalk) Mixed With Limestone, Clay and Sand Derived From Oligocene Epoch.
    • (Predominantly Planted With Palamino, Grapes For Fino Production.)

CLIMATE Mediterranean With Maritime & Continental Influence

  • *Summers– Hot, Dry   |   *Winters– Cold, Wet
  • +WINDS~ ~Libeccio~(Originates… Gibraltar), ~Poniente~(Originates…Atlantic)

HISTORY 3,000 Year Wine Culture, History Since 800 AD.

  • *Generally– Invaded/ Occupied Throughout History by:
    • Byzantines, Carthaginians, Castillians, Christians, Greek, Phnetions, Moors, Iberians, Muslims, Romans, Vandals, Visigoths
  • 711 @Andalucia– “Invaded
    • Muslim Moors From North Africa Crossed the Straights of Gibraltar and Invaded the Iberian Peninsula. They Took Over, Converted Most of Its Inhabitants and Ruled For 5 Centuries.  It Wasn’t Until 1245 That the Moors Were Pushed Back by a Crusade by the Churches In a Effort to Reclaim There Land. Finally In 1492 They Were Expelled Completly.  The Moors Left a Distinct Mark On Andalucian Culture That Can Still Be Seen and Felt Today.
  • 1400’s @Andalucia New Market, Exports of Wine Starts to England.
  • 1700’s @Andalucia New Market, One of First Wines to Be Consistently Imported Into America.
  • 1800’s(Mid) @Andalucia Sherry’s Golden Age


  • Xeres is the Name the Moors Called the Area From 711- 1265.
  • Jerez is the Name For of the Area After Moorish Rule Post 1265.
  • Sherry is the Name the English Used For the Area.
  • Bull-Fighting, Flamenco, Horses, Culture Fair(May)
  • Cultural Transition-Zone Between Western Europe and North Africa.


  • FESTIVALS~ ~Jerez Horse Fair~ (May/ Andalusia)
  • GASTRONOMY… Olive/ Oil, Jamon(Pata Negra Ham/ Acorn-Fattened), Raisins, Honey, Vinegar, Tapas, Orange Juice
    • CHEESE… Castillo de Bujaraiza(Goat)


    • CONSEJO REGULADOR– Governing and Regulatory Council, Since 1934, Oversees, Enforces, Regulate Wines Produced In the Sherry Triangle.
    • SANISH LAW LAW/ Estatuto del Vino- Established Boundaries of Sherry Production.
  • LAWS GOVERNING- Geographic Boundaries, Topography, Viticulture, Viniculture

**Refer to SPAIN/ Home For Detailed Information On Spain as a Country.

**Andalusia Wine Map Courtesy of Delong Maps, Purchase These Maps at Delongwine.com

CONDADO Du HUELVA DO.      @Huelva

  • BLANCO= Garrido Fino, Palomino, Pedro Ximenez, Zalema
    • International Chardonnay, Moscatel(de AlejandriaAKA=Muscat(Alexandria), Moscatel(de Grano Menudo) AKA=Muscat(Blanc a Petits Grains)
  • TINTO= Tempranillo
    • International– Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(South-West), PROVINCES-Huelva, Sevilla
    • BORDERS-Portugal(Near Coast), @Hw.#A-49, E-1
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling,  SLOPES/ ?, +Altitude( ? mt.)
    • On~Odiel/ Tinto~Rivers~/Atlantic~Ocean~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic ,Sedimentary, Reddish Sand, Limestone
  • VITICULTURE-  ?  ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURE- Fortified(Condado Palido, Condado Viejo), Fino Sherry(Zalema)
    • Estate/ Producers- Iglesias, Oliveros, Privilegio del Condado, Ruiz

JEREZ-XERES-SHERRY DO.      @Jerez de la Fontera

  • BLANCO= Palomino Fino/ Palomino de Jerez 90%, Moscatel, Pedro Ximenez…+Beba, Canocazo, Mantuo Castellano AKA=Alcanon, Mantuo de Pilas, Perruno, Vigiriega
  • TINTO= Tintilla de Rota AKA=Garnacha
  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(South-West), On Coast Andalusia(South-West)
    • Multi-Appellation, @Hw.#A-381/ E-5
    • Sub-Zones- Marco de Jerez AKA=The Sherry Triangle, Triangle Shape of the 3 Cities of Sanlucar de Barrameda, Jerez de la Frontera and Puero de Santa Maria. The 3 Towns In the Sherry Triangle Are Only Miles Apart But Each Has Its Own Distinct, Culture, History and Microclimate Unique to Jerez.
    • Others- Chiclana de la Frontera Roto,  Chipiona Cadiz,  San Fernando,  Puerto Real
      • DISTRICTS-Macharnudo, Balbaina, Carrascal, Anita
      • Abulgar, Ahorcado, Almocaden, Anina, Atalaya, Balbaina, Burujena, Callejuela, Campix, Carrascal, Cerro Viejo, Corchuelo, Los Cuadrados, Cuartillo, Espartina, Gibalbin, Hornillo, La Loma, Lagunetas, Lombardo, Macharnudo, Maestre, Mahina, Majadale, Majuelo, Meca, Medidora, Miraflores, Montecorto, Montegililo, Munive, Nino de Oro, Orbaneja, Osborne(*1772),Pagollano, Pastrana, Portugalejo, Punta del Aguila, Los Quemados, Santa Lucia, Tabajete, Los Tercios, Tizon, Torrox
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling,  SLOPES/ ?, +Altitude(10mt. to 155mt.)
    • On~Guadalete/Guadalquivir~Rivers~On~Altantic~Ocean~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Albariza, Barros, Arenas
    • Barros- Clay With Organic Matter, Darker In Color, 10% Chalk
      • (Predominantly Planted With Grapes For Ororoso Production.)
    • Arenas- Sand(Silica-Based) With Limestone, Yellow/ Reddish In Color, 10% Chalk
      • (Predominantly Planted With Moscatel Grapes.)
    • Albariza- 30%-80% Calcarious, High In Chalk With Limestone, Clay, Sand Derived From Oligocene Epoch.
      • (Predominantly Planted With Palamino, Grapes For Fino Production.)
  • CLIMATE- Maritime With Mediterranean Influence
    • SUNSHINE…300 Days, RAINFALL…25 Inches, Over 65 Days
  • VITICULTURE-  17,500 haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Barbadillo(*1821), Buleria, Callejuela, Cota 45, Domecq(International), Emilio Lustau, Equipo Navarros, Gonzalez Byass, Luis Perez, Muchada-Leclapart, Oxford 1.970, Osborne, De La Riva, Romate
    • Vineyards- La Platera(1.2ha.)
    • Non-Sherry Wine- These Are Still Wines From the Region That Are Not Fortified to the Minimum of 15% ABV.
    • Aseria/ Alumbra– Vineyard Managers Build Rectangular Pits In Vineyard Between Rows of Vines to Help Collect Water For Hot Growing Season.
    • Vinos de Lagrima- Wine From Free-Run Juice
    • Wine From Jerez Are Said to Posses Noticeable Salinity From Salt/ Sea Influence.
  • CULTURE- Jerezanos– Someone Who Identifies, and is From Jerez.
    • PIONEERS~ ~Jose Ignacio Domecq~ Jerez, Winemaker/ Pedro Domecq Wineries
    • COOPERAGE~ ~Toneleria Tevasa~
  • GOING THERE- Visit the Historic Alcazar Fortress/ Mosque Turned Into Church In 1264.
    • WINE ROUTE~ ~Marco de Jerez~ Wine & Brandy Route Which Intersects 8 Municipalities That Make Up the Jerez Region, All Offering a Variety of Landscapes and Wine Tourism Resources That Enable New and Unforgettable Experiences.
    • AT NIGHT~ ~Sherry Bars In Jerez~ Albores, Bodegas Tradicion, Las Banderillas, Las Bodeguita, La Carbona, El Guitarron de San Pedro, El Paseje, La Pandilla, Plateros, San Pable
    • FISH MARKET~ ~Mercado Central In Cadiz~
    • BLANCO= Palomino, Pedro Ximenez
      • International Moscatel(de AlejandriaAKA=Muscat(Alexandria), Moscatel(de Grano Menudo) AKA=Muscat(Blanc a Petits Grains)
    • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(South), In Jerez-Xeres-Sherry DO.(North-East)
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling, +Altitude( ? mt.), On~Coast~, On~Guadalquivir~Estuary/River~
    • SOILS- Sedimentary, Albariza, Barros, Arenas
    • CLIMATE- Atlantic, Greater Proximity/ Exposure to Sea, Winds, +Higher Humidity
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers- Barbadillo(*1821), B. Rodriguez, Callejuela, La Cigarrera, Covisan(Co.-Op./170 Growers), Delgado Zuleta, Equipo Navazos, Fernando de Castilla, Herederos de Argueso, Hidalgo, Hidalgo-La Gitana, Hijos de Rainera Perez Martin, Ibanez, Lustau, Muchada-Leciapart, Sacristia AB, Sanchez Ayala, Valdespino, Yuste
      • Vineyards-  Hidalgo la Pastrana
    • VINICULTURE- Flor– More Vigorous/ Thicker
      • Manzanilla Sherry Come From Sanlucar Berrameda.
    • CULTURE- Sanluqueno– Someone Who Identifies, and is From Sanlucar Berrameda.
  • JEREZ De La FRONTERA DO. (Un-Official)     @Frontera
    • BLANCO= Palomino, Pedro Ximenez
      • International Moscatel(de AlejandriaAKA=Muscat(Alexandria), Moscatel(de Grano Menudo) AKA=Muscat(Blanc a Petits Grains)
    • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(South), In Jerez-Xeres-Sherry DO.(   )
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling, +Altitude( ? mt.)
    • SOILS- Sedimentary, Albariza, Barros, Arenas
    • CLIMATE- Maritime
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
    • VITICULTURE- Fino Sherry Are Produced In  Jerez and El Puerto de Santa Maria
      • Estate/ Producers- Almocaden, Dios Baco, Emilio Hidalgo, Emilio Lustau, Gonzalez Byass, El Maestro Sierra, Rey Fernando de Castilla, De la Riva, Sanchez Romate, Sandeman, Tradicion, Valdespino, Williams & Humbert
      • Vineyards- Macharnudo
    • CULTURE- Jerezano– Someone Who Identifies, and is From Jerez.
      • FESTIVALS~ ~Jerez Horse Fair~ (May/ Andalusia)
  • PEURO De SANTA MARIA DO. (Un-Official)     @Santa Maria
    • BLANCO= Palomino, Pedro Ximenez
      • International Chardonnay, Moscatel(de AlejandriaAKA=Muscat(Alexandria), Moscatel(de Grano Menudo) AKA=Muscat(Blanc a Petits Grains)
    • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(South), In Jerez-Xeres-Sherry DO.
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling, +Altitude( ? mt.), On~Guadalete~River~
    • SOILS- Sedimentary, Albariza, Barros, Arenas
    • CLIMATE- Maritime
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
    • VINICULTURE- Fino Sherry Are Produced In Jerez and El Puerto de Santa Maria.
      • Estate/ Producers- Grant, Gutierrez Colosia, Osborne

Wine is Made In the Vineyard, Sherry is Produced In the Winery.


SHERRY- Grapes Grown and Wine Produced In One of Three Cities Within the Province of Jerez.(Sanlucar de la Barrameda, Jerez de la Frontera, Puero de Santa Maria)

  • Grapes Fermented In Stainless Steal, Put Through a Carbon Filter, Fortified After Fermentation to 15% With Grape Spirit, +Aged/ +2 Year In Above Ground/ Solera System and Oxidized, Then Fortified to 17% ABV. Before Bottling.
  • Asoleo- Practice of Drying Grapes On Straw Mats In the Sun.

BLANCO- Palomino, Muscatel, Pedro Ximenez

  • The Styles of Sherry Can Be Produced as an Aperitif or Desert Wine Depending On Style.
  • Generally Sherry Starts Out as a White Wine From the Palomino Grape Then is Put In Barrels With No Topping/ Ulage to Compensate For Volume Loss During Evaporation. Because the Wine Isn’t Topped Off For 5 Years a Local Yeast Will Develop On the Wine’s Surface In the Barrel.
  • Mosto- Term For Pressed Juice After Pressing. Historically, Mosto Was Acidified With Gypsum/ or Calcium Sulfate. (Used Both as an Acidifying and Antibacterial Agent, Modern Mosto is Acidified by Tartaric Acid.)

TARTRATE PRECIPITATION- Tartaric Acid Removed In Tartrate Crystals.

  • **Refer to SPAIN/ VINICULTURE/ Post Fermentation For Detailed Information.


  • Sacchaomyces(Flor/ Flower) Yeast That’s Induced to Grow On Surface of Sherry and is the Basic of What Style of Sherry Wine Will Become.
  • Flor- Floats On the Surface, Creates a Vail/ Voile or a Barrier to Oxidation, Yeast Will Interact With the Wine Creating New Flavor Compounds Adding to Wine Aroma and Flavor.
  • The Yeast/ Flor Feed Off of the Oxigen In the Ulage of the Barrels and Creates an Air Tight Seal Over the Wine.
  • There Are Generally 4 Types of Flor (or Strains of Sacchaomyces) Associated With Sherry, Each One Lends Different Characteristics to the Barrels of Sherry.
  • Flor Takes 7-10 Days to Develop and Can Live to 10 Years.
  • Flor Consumes a Lot of the Structure of Wine: Nitrogenous Material, Glycerol, Sugar, Alcohol, Organic and Volatile Acids.
  • Depending On the Time of Year the Flor Shows Different Characteristics.
    • Winter/ Summer– Gray and Flatter
    • Spring/ Fall– Milky White and Cotton Textured.
    • Like a Flower the Flor Blooms In Spring and Fall When the Temperature In the Bodegas Are Perfect For Growth.
  • Flor Can Be Encouraged to Grow In Barrels by…
  • Flor Can Be Killed-Off by…
  • **Refer to WINE STYLES/ Oxidation For Detailed Information.


  • +Aged/ Sur Lee, as the Yeast Dies Off it Fall to the Bottom Barrel Forming Cabezuela(Fine Lees)
  • Oxidation- Wine Spoiled by Deliberate or Excessive Exposure to Oxygen.
  • Not All Sherry is Oxidized, Only the Styles Without Flor.
  • Oxygen is Extremely Beneficial and is Needed For Flor Wine, it Provides Micro-Nutrients to Sustain Flor Over Multiple Years.
  • 600 Liter Barrels Are Filled Over With 500 Liters of Wine (5/6) With Non Air Tight Bungs, This Allowing For Ulage and a Ingress/ Egress of Oxygen During the Aging Process.
  • Sack- ~Etymology~ Come From the Term Sacar…Meaning to Draw Out…Referring to Wine That Was Drawing Out From a Solera Blending System.
    • Later In Wine History Some Fortified Wines Where Put In a Dry Sack as Marketing.


  • Over Time Bodegas Became Larger and Wider With Higher Ceiling In an Attempt to Moderate Temperature, Control Humidity and Airflow to Better Promote and Control the Growth of Flor. The Floors are Covered With Albero(Sandy, Chalky Dirt) Which is Sprinkled With Water to Constantly Releases Moisture, to Keep Temperature Constant For Flor Growth and to Mitigate Evaporation of Wine.
  • Ideal Internal Temperature Between 70%-85% and Humidity of Between 64%-68%. In Bodegas Play and Important Role.
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY?  Like Terroir In Vineyards, Can Bodegas In the Sherry Triangle Exhibited Individual Terroir?”
    • There Can be Two Different Forces Effecting This. “Outside the Bodegas and Inside the Bodegas.
  • OUTSIDE The BODEGAS- Location of the Bodegas Plays and Important Role. If the Bodegas is Near the Sea or Located Inland. Direct Exposure to Wind or Partially Sheltered From the Atlantic.
    • +WIND~ ~Poniente~ Cooling/ Humid Wind From Atlantic.
    • ~Levente~ Hot Wind Originating Africa Through Straight of Gibraltar.
  • INSIDE The BODEGAS- The Unique Population of Microbial Yeast In the Bodegas.
    • Thickness of the Walls, Height of the Ceilings.
    • Almacenistas/ Warehouse- (Someone Who Ages) or Wholesaler of Sherry.
  • VINICULTURE- Immediately After Fermentation, Wine is Sampled and First Delimitation Sherry For Classification is Preformed. Cast of Wine Are Marked On Barrels According to the Potential of the Wine.
  • Capataz– Bodega Forman/ Winemaker/Person Responsible For Gauging the Quality of the Mosto and Deciding Which Style of Sherry it Will Become.
  • I (Single Stroke/ Una Raya) Indicates Wine With the Finest Flavor and Aroma, Suitable to Become a Fino or Amontillado. (These Will Be Fortified to ABV. 15% to Allow For the Growth of Flor.)
  • I. (Single Stroke With a Dot/ Raya Y Punto) Indicates a Heavier More Full-Bodied Wine. These Wines Will be Fortified to ABV. +17.5%  to Prevent Growth a Flor.
  • II (Double Stroke/ Dos Rayas) Indicates a Wine Which Will Be Allowed to Develop Further Before Delimitation.
  • III (Triple Stroke/ Tres Rayas) Indicates a Wine That Has Developed Poorly and Will Be Distilled.
  • Venencia- Cylindrical Shaped Cut Attached to 1 Meter Shaft.  Tool Used to Extract Samples, and Skillfully Poured Sherry Into a Catavino Glass Usually From a Height to Promote Aeration and Open-Up.
  • Venenciador- Person Who Uses Venencia.


  • Grouping of Barrels Organized by the Age of the Sherry Inside the Different Levels of Barrels Called Criaderas.
  • This Fractional Blending System For Maintaining Consistency of Wine by Blended Between Multiple Vintages Over Time So Each Bottle is a Blend of Many Wines of Varying Ages. Solera Systems Use Racking/ Siphoning or Gravity to Blend Multiple Years Barrels. Solera Systems Were Originally Produced to Limit or Maintain Consistency Through Vintage Variation, But Also to Keep Flor Levels Consistent Due to the Different Evaporation Levels of the Different Barrels.
  • Originated In Jerez In the Late 1700’s and Came Into Predominace In the 1800’s, (Its Said That Some of Those Original Solera’s Still Contain Small Amounts of the First Wines Put Into Them Hundreds of Years Ago.)
  • Criadera- Building That’s Referred to as a Nursery Where the Levels of Solera System Are Stacked On Top of Each Other.
  • Solera Cast- Meaning Floor and is Bottom Cast of Solera System.
    • 1st. Criadera Cast- Refers to the Barrel On Top of Solera Barrel.
    • 2nd. Criadera Cast- Refers to the 2nd. Barrel Above Solera Barrel.
  • Solera Cast is Filled With Wine of Current Vintage, Subsequent Years/ Tiers/ Criadera Casts Placed Above the Solera Cast, When Wine is Drawn From Solera Cast it Gets Refreshes With Younger Wine From Next Criadera Cast From Above.
  • Using Solera System Use to Be a Long, Labor Intensive Process, Now Done and Helped by Modern Pump System.
  • Solera System Used to Be Stack On Top of One Another But With Extended Systems, Some Consisting of Up to 15 Criadera This Wasn’t Practical With the Weight of the Barrels. Now the Different Criadera Are In Segregated Batches and Some In Different Rooms Altogether.
  • Barrel Maceration is Important In Aging Sherry.
  • Some Solera System Contain Oak Casa of Over 100 Years Old.
  • Each Cast Has a Developed a Personality and Character of Its Own Over Multiple Decades it Has Been In Use.
  • Each Solera System Has an Average Age In Production.
  • Saco- Bottling of the Old Wine/ Extraction of Wine From Solera Cast.
  • Rocio- Replenishing the Cast/ Replacing of Wine With the Next Oldest Level.
  • Every Year Saco & Racio is Performed or Correr la Escalas To Run the Scale
    • This Can Be Done, Yearly, Bi-Yearly or Several Times a Year.
    • Generally 10% to 20% is Done at a Time and Never More Than 33%.
    • Traditionally This is Done Manually With a Jarra or Jar With a Hose and Pouring It Into a Cask On the Next Level.  Usually Now it is Achieved by Using an Octopus/ a Pump With Several Arm Which Allows For a Precise Amount of Wine to Be Taken Out of Many Barrels at the Same Time.
  • Most Sherry’s Are Filtered and Bottled.
  • Sacristia- Room or Area of Bodegas Where Extended Aging is Done.
  • The Ambiance, Lighting, Noise Levels of Sacristia Are Often Simular to That of Buries Saints.
  • VOS. Vinum Optimum Signatum= Very Old Sherry- 20 Year
  • VORS. Vinum Opimum Rare Signatum=Very Old Rare Sherry- 30+Years
  • Sherries Must Be Reviewed and Certifed by Consejo Regulador.

Some Producers Can Operate Several Soleras, Stored/ Located In Different Bodegas, Each With Varying Temperature and Humidity Levels.


  • Tonerlero- Cooper of Barrel Maker, Most Bodegas Have an Onsight Tonerlero to Produce New Bota and Maintain Old Bota
  • Bota- Sherry Barrel or Cast. Bota Are Produced From American Oak Which is More Porous Than French and Spanish Oak, Provides Optimal Breathing or Ingress/ Egress of Oxygen.
    • Bojo AKA= Bung Hole
  • 25 Year Old Bota Are Used, But an Optimal Bota Are Between Fifty to Eighty Years Old.  Bota Are Painted Black to Highlight Leaks, Defects and Damages.
  • WINE BARRELS~  ~Sherry Puncheon~ 500 Liters(Andalusia)
  • WINE BARRELS~  ~Sherry Butt~ 478-500 Liters(Andalusia)


  • Sherry Plays a Large Roll In the Tapas Culture of Spain and Andalusia.
  • Over the Centuries Sherry Has Ceremonially Come In and Out of Fashion.
  • England Was a Major Sherry Importer and Many of the Spanish Sherry Producers Where Founded by British Family.
  • Sack- Generic Term Widely Used In England and Europe For White Fortified Wines From Spain or Canary Islands. Bottles Put In Sacks to Deter Breakage While In Transportation.
  • Sherry is Sampled Directly From the Butt by Using a Special Tool Called a Venencia, The Venencia is Narrow Enough to Pass Through the Bung-Hole and Withdraw a Measure of Sherry. This is Usually Preformed by a Venenciador and Poured From Head Height Into a Copita Held In His Other Hand.
  • Capataz- Forman or Superviser of the Bodegas and Middle Man Between the Grape Grower and the Sherry Sales People. The Capataz Over Look Sometimes Hundreds of Barrels and Monitores There Changing Personalities.
  • Venenciador- Person Who Uses the Venencia. (Usually the Capataz)
  • Venencia- Special Cup Traditionally Made of Silver and Fastened to a Long Whale Whisker Handle.
  • Long Pour- The Young Sherry is Poured From High Above Into a Copita, This Height Allows For Rapid Introduction of Oxygen to the Wine.
  • Copita/ Catavino- Tulip Shaped Sherry Glass that Sherry is Traditionally Enjoyed From.

Sherry Can Be the Driest Wine and the Sweetest Wine and Everything In Between.


  • Dry Sherry…4 Styles…Fino, Manzanillo, Palo Cortado, Oloroso
  • The Sherry’s Consejo Regulador Defines Dry Sherry AKA=Vinos Generosos/ Generous Wines, as Wines With a Maximum of Grams of RS. per Liter Produced From Grapes That Have Been Fermented to Complete Dryness.

If Flor Develops Flor Becomes Barrier to Oxygen and Sherry is.

  • FINO
    • VINICULTURE- Fino Sherry is Produced In Jerez and El Puerto de Santa Maria.
      • Palomino Grapes, Fermented In Stainless Steel, +Aged/-to-5 Years Under Flor.
      • *Generally- Free Run Juice is Used.
      • 600 Liter Oak Barrels Filled to 80% For Oxygen Available to Feed Flor.
      • Fino Sherry is Generally Heavier and Less Savory Than Manzanilla Sherry.
      • Estate/ Producers- Gonzalez Byass…Tio Pepe, Hidalgo, Domecq, Lustau, Valdespino
      • Sight: Pale/ Clear
      • Aroma: Nut, Yeasty, Dough, Savory, Earthy
      • Palate: Dry/ -Body/ Lean, Bruised Citrus, Olive
      • Structure: Low Tannins, ABV. +15%- 17%, Medi+Acid
        • FOOD PAIRING… Salty Tapas, Anchovies, Marcona Almonds, Iberico Ham, Serrano Ham, Olives, Fried Fish/ Prawns
        • CHEESE PAIRING… Aged Sheeps Milk, Goats
        • SERVINGChilled, Drinkable for 2 Years After Bottling/ 1 Week After Opening.
          Fino is a Food Wine, It Causes You to Salivate, Salivate Cleans the Taste Buds On Your Palate.
      • Sanlucar de Barrameda Has a Different Climatic Influence On the Flor. Sanlucar is On the Atlantic Ocean Coast, and This Lead to a Different Flor Growth. Flor In Jerez Tends to Die Off In the Colder Winter and Hotter Summers Where Flor In Sanlucar Has a More Thicker Flor and Consistent Growth Year Round.
    • VINICULTURE- Manzanilla Sherry is Produced Only In Sanlucar de Barrameda.
      • Palamino Grapes, Fermented In Stainless Steel.
      • +Aged/ to 5 Years Under Flor, Fortified to 15% ABV.
      • *Generally– Free Run Juice is Used.
      • Manzanilla Sherry is Generally Lighter and More Savory Than Fino.
      • Estate/ Producers- Barbadillo, B. Rodriguez, Callejuela, La Cigarrera, Delgado Zuleta, Doblas, Equipo Navazos, Fernando de Castilla, Herederos de Argueso, Hidalgo, Hidalgo-La Gitana, Hijos de Rainera Ibanez, Lustau, Muchada-Leciapart, Perez Marin, Sacristia AB, Sanchez Ayala, Valdespino, Yuste
      • Sight: Pale/ Clear
      • Aroma: Nutty(Almond), Yeasty, Dough, Savory, Earthy, Salinity
      • Palate: Dry/ -Body, Bruised Citrus, Olive
      • Structure: Low Tannins, +ABV. 15%- 19%, Medi+Acid
        • FOOD PAIRING… Salty Tapas, Anchovies, Marcona Almonds, Iberico Ham, Serrano Ham, Olives
        • SERVINGChilled, Drinkable
    • VINICULTURE- Palamino Grapes, Fermented In Stainless Steel
      • +Aged/ Fino, to 5 Years Under Flor, +Aged/+8 yr. Full-Amontillado
      • Starts Life as a Fino, Aging Biologically Under Protection of Flor For 2- 10 Years Before Flor Dies and Starts to Age Oxidatively Without Protection of Flor.
      • Estate/ Producers- Alvear, Barbadillo, Dios Baco, Lustau
      • Sight: Dark/ Amber
      • Aroma: Nutty, Caramel, Floral
      • Palate: Off-Dry-Sweet, +BODY, Sharp, Tangy
      • Structure: Medi-Tannins, ABV. +16%- 17%, Medi Acid
        • FOOD PAIRING… Wild Game, Grilled Red Meats, Pan-Seared Chicken, Mushroom Ristottos
        • CHEESE FOOD… Gorgonzola, Roquefort, Stilton, Bloomy-Rind Cow’s Milk
        • SERVINGChilled, Drinkable for 3 Years/ 3 Days After Opening
    • VINICULTURE- Palamino Grapes, Fermented In Stainless Steel
      • +Aged/ For Period of Time Years Under Flor, Then Flor is Intentionally Killed by Additional Fortification an Extended Period of Oxidative Aging Without Flor Takes Place Then Fortified to ABV. +15%
      • Intermediate Style Between a Amontillado & Oloroso.
      • Estate/ Producers- Cesar Florido, Emilio, Gonzales Byass, Lustau
      • CULTURE- Translates to “Cut Stick” After Sign Used On Barrel to Designate Style.
      • Sight: Dark/ Amber
      • Aroma: Spice, Molasses
      • Palate: Dry-Sweet/ +BODY, Caramel
      • Structure: Medi-Tannins, ABV. +17% -22%, Medi Acid
        • FOOD PAIRING…      |     CHEESE PAINING
        • SERVINGChilled, Drinkable

If No Flor Develops, No Barrier to Oxidization and Sherry is and…

    • VINICULTURE- Palamino Grapes, Fermented In Stainless Steel,
      • +Aged/ ? Years No Flor, Fortified to ABV. 17%.
      • Only Dry Style of Sherry That’s Completely Oxidized.
      • *Generally– Pressed Juice is Used.
      • Through Evaporation the Alcohol Level Will Rise as it Ages, Many to 20% ABV. and With 30 Year Old Oroloso to 24% ABV.
      • 600 Liter Oak Barrels Filled to 100% For No Oxygen Available to Feed Flor.
      • Estate/ Producers- Epuipo, Gutierrez-Colosia, Lustau, Maestro Sierra(*1830)
      • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ Translates to Fragrant/ Aromatic.
      • Sight: Dark/ Amber
      • Aroma: Spice, Candied Figs, Walnut, Tea
      • Palate: Dry(Seem Sweeter Because +Glycerol), +BODY, Saltiness, Praline, Bitterness
      • Structure: Medi-Tannins, ABV. 17%- 22%, Medi+Acid
        • FOOD PAIRING… Roast Goose, Game Pates, Ox Tale, Thick Soups
        • CHEESE PAIRING… Gruyere, Comte, Triple Cream
        • SERVING… Drinkable For 3 Years After Bottling/ 4- 6 Week After Opening.

Sweet Sherry

    • 2 Styles Sweet and Sweetened.
      • Sweet Sherry is Produced From Dried Grapes of Pedro Ximenex or Moscatel.
    • VINICULTURE- Pedro Ximeniz Grapes Dehydrated In Sun For 2 Weeks. (to Raisinate, Concentrate Sugars)  Wine Fermented In Stainless Steel to 15% ABV., Fortified to 17%- 18% ABV.
    • Estate/ Producers– Bardaillo, Dios Baco
      • Sight: Murky/
      • Amber Aroma:
      • Palate: +Sweet, 450 gr. RS./ Liter/ +BODY
      • Structure: Medi-Tannins, ABV. +15%- 22%, Medi Acid
        • FOOD PAIRING… Foie Gras, Dark Chocolate, Dried Fruits, Biscotte
        • CHEESE PAIRING… Bold Blue Cheese, Gouda
        • SERVINGChilled, Drinkable For 4 Years After Bottling/ 1-2 Months After Opening.
    • Moscatel(de AlejandriaAKA=Muscat(Alexandria), Moscatel(de Grano Menudo) AKA=Muscat(Blanc a Petits Grains)
    • VINICULTURE- Moscatel Grapes Dehydrated In Sun For 2 Weeks.
    • Wine Fermented In Stainless Steel to ABV. 15%
    • Estate/ Producers- Valdespino
      • Sight: Murky/ Amber
      • Aroma:
      • Palate: Sweet/ +BODY, Slightly Less Sweet Than Pedro Ximenez
      • Structure: Medi-Tannins, ABV. +15%- 22%, Medi Acid
        • FOOD PAIRING…     |     CHEESE PAIRING
        • SERVING… Drinkable?
    • VINICULTURE- Oroloso Sherry Blended With Pedro Ximenez.
    • Many Styles Include Cream, Pale Creams, AKA=Amorosos
    • Estate/ Producers- Emilio Hidalgo, Equipo Navazos, Romate
      • Sight: Full/ Amber
      • Aroma: Caramel, Nutmeg, Spice, Butter, Pecan
      • Palate: Sweet/ +BODY
      • Structure: Medi-Tannins, ABV. 15%- 22%, Medi Acid
        • FOOD PAIRING… Desserts, Custards, Chocolets, Dried Fruits
        • SERVING… Drinkable
    • VINICULTURE- Blend of Fino or Manzanilla and Unfermented Grape Must.
    • VINICULTURE- Blend of Oroloso, Pedro Ximenez and Vino de Color.
    • Vino de Color– Sherry Boiled Down to Syrup to Add Color or Sweetness to Wine.
    • VINICULTURE- Finos, Manzanillas, Amontillados or Olorosos That Have Had Sweetness Added to Them.
    • VINICULTURE- Harder(But Possible) to Maintain Flor Without Refreshing Barrel With Younger Wines.
    • Anada– Vintage Aging System Use Before Solera Blending Came Into Prominence.
    • VITICULTURE- Bottled Directly From the Cask, Raw, Unfined, Unfiltered Not/ Minimal Filtered Sherry.
    • Estate/ Producers- Barbadillo, Delgado Zuleta, Gonzalez Byass, Hidalgo, Rainera Perez Marin, Valdespino
    • VINICULTURE– Single Barrel Bottling. Bottled In May When the Flor is at Its Most Abundant.
      • As Close as You Can Get to Drinking Sherry From the Cast.
    • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ En Rama, Meaning From the Branch
      • PIONEERS~ ~Toto Barbadillo~
        • One of the Producers of En Rama, Who Tried to Keep the Pre 1970 Modern Era of En Rama Alive.
      • Sight: Deeper Color
      • Aroma: 
      • Palate: +BODY, More Intense Flavors Than Filtered Sherrys
      • Structure: Medi-Tannins, ABV. +15%- 22%, Medi Acid
        • FOOD PAIRING…     |     CHEESE PAIRING
        • SERVING… Drink Fresh, Although Some Say En Rama Will Age.

      “Sherry is the Only Wine Where You Can Drink All the Styles Paired With Different Food Throughout the Entirety of the Meal.


  • Brandy/ Neutral Grape Spirit is Distilled From Airen Grapes Grown In Northern Andalusia and La Mancha.

CONSEJO REGULADOR DE BRANDY DE JEREZ- Convening Council for the Production of Brandy de Jerez.

  • Brandy Must Have Been Produced Exclusively Within the Boundaries of the Sherry Triangle.
  • Brandy Must Be Aged In American Oak Butts/ 500 Liters.
  • Brandy Must Be Aged In a Solera System/ Criaderas Y Coleras.

CULTURE- Moors Brought Technology of Distillation to Iberian Peninsula In 711 AD.


  • Brandy de Jerez Solera- +Aged +1 Year (Young and Fruity)
  • Brandy de Jerez Sloera Reserva- +Aged–  +3 Years
  • Brandy de Jerez Slolera Gran Reserva- +Aged– +10 Years
  • Sherry is the First Wine That Was Fortified Regularly as a Style, They Fortified it to Stop Bacterial Activity and to Give Wine its Extra Staying Power On the Many Journey Across the Atlantic Ocean as Spain Built Its Empire In the Americas.
  • Sherry’s Grapes Are Ferment to Up to ABV. 15%, and Fortified Up to ABV. 22%
    Destilado- Sherry is Fortified Using Destilado, (Wine Distillate From Grapes From Northern Andalusia/ La Mancha.) Distilado is First Mixed With Mature Sherry to Produce Mitad y Mitad (Half & Half), Then the Mitad y Mitad is Mixed With Younger Sherry to the Proper Proportions. This Two Step Procedure is Performed So the Strong Destilado Will Not Shock/ Spoil the Wine.
  • Aquadenti/ Brandy De Jerez- Arabic-Alembics “Pot Stills” For Distilling and Provides Neutral Grape Spirit Used In Fortification of Sherry.


    • Sherry Cobbler
    • Sherry Flip
    • Adonis
    • Artist’s Special
    • Dunhill

Sherry is Verstile and Can Achieve an Entire Paired Meal With Just Different Styles of Sherry, From Aperitif to Desert Wine.

MONTILLA-MORILES DO.    @Montilla, Moriles

  • BLANCO= Pedro Ximenez 45%, Layren AKA=Airen, Baladi AKA=Verdejo, Macabeo, Palomino, Torrontes
    • International Chardonnay, Moscatel(de AlejandriaAKA=Muscat(Alexandria), Moscatel(de Grano Menudo) AKA=Muscat(Blanc a Petits Grains), Sauvignon Blanc
  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(Interior), East of Sevilla-City(40km.)
    • PROVINCE-Cordoba, South of Cordoba-City(17km.)
    • CITIES-Dona Mencia, Montalban, Monturque, Nueva Carteya, Puente Genil
    • Sub-Zones- Moriles Alto, Sierra de Montilla, Montilla-Moriles Superior
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly, SLOPES/ Sierra Subbetica, +Altitude(125mt. to 600mt.)
    • On-Genil/ Guadalquivir/ Guadajoz~Rivesr~
  • SOILS- Sedimentary, Albariza, Barros, Arenas, Marine Fossils, Red Sand, Vertisols(Slity Clay)
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean With Continental Influences, +Diurnal Shifts(20°Variation)
  • VITICULTURE- 5,320 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Alvear(*1729), La Aurora(Co-Op./*1964/800 Growers), Cruz Conde, Equipo Navazos, De Los Frailes, Gracia Hermanos, Geraldino, Los Insensatos de la Antehojuela, Marenas, El Monte(28ha.), Perez Barquero(*1905), Rodriguez de Vera, Robles(*1927/48ha.), De la Salud, De Santa Magdalena(14ha.), Toro Albala
  • VINICULTURE- Brandy,  Dessert Wine,  Sherry(Pedro Ximenez)Fino, Amontillado, Oloroso, Palo Cortado)
    • Asoleo(Sun Drying),  Tinajas(Concrete Amphorae),  Sparkling
  • CULTURE- 1945- DO. Officially Established.
    • Know as The Empire of Pedro Ximenez.

MALAGA DO.     @Malaga

  • BLANCO= Airen, Calona, Doradilla(Indigenous), Montua, Moscatel de Alejandria AKA=Muscat Alexandria, Moscatel Morisco, Pere Ximen AKA=Pedro Ximenez
    • InternationalChardonnay
  • TINTO= Garnacha, Rome(Indigenous), Tempranillo
    • International Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Pinot Noir, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(South-East), PROVINCE-Malaga
    • Non-Contiguous(2), North” & South Malaga
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/  Hilly/ Mountainous
    • SLOPES/ Sistema Betico, +Altitude(700mt.)
    • On~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~, On~Guadalhorce~River~
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean With Continental Influences
  • VITICULTURE- 1,320 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Antigua Casa de Guardia, Bentomiz, Hijos de Antonio Barcelo, Jorge Ordonez, Larios Principe, Malaga Virgen, Schultz Hermanos, Sedella, Telmo Rodriguez, Quitapenas
    • VINOS De LICOR– Fortified or Liqueur Wines
      • Pedro Ximenez, Muscat Alaxandria -30% Doradilla, Lairen Rome
    • Paseros- Grapes Dehydrated Drying Beds, Fortified During Fermentation With?
    • +BLENDED/ Solera(Often), ABV+15%- 22%
      • +Aged  Malaga Palido- (+6mo.)          Malaga- (+6mo.- +24mo.)
        • Malaga Nobile- (+2yr. – +3yr.)         Malaga Anejo- (+3yr. – +5yr.)
        • Malaga Transanejo- (+5yr.)
    • Pajarete- (Little Bid) Fortified Wine With a Sugar Content of 45 – 140 G./L.
    • Vino Maestro- (Master Wine) Grape Distilled Alcohol is Added(8% by Volume) Before Fermentation.
    • Vino Malaga- Sweet Fortified Wine Produced Fro the Free Run Juice of Pedro Ximenez Grapes.
  • HISTORY- 1000 BC. @Malaga Phoenician Trades Brought Wine Culture to the Area.
    • PASAS De MALAGA DO. Dedicated to Eating Grape Production.
    • ECONOMICS~ ~Important Agricultural Heritage Systems~ Cultivation of Muscatel Grapes
  • GOING THERE-  ~Malaga Wine Museum~
    • SERRANIA De RONDA–     @Ronda
      • Geography- SUB-REGION-Malaga(West), On~Coast~(Near/15km.)
      • TopographyRolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous, +Altitude(700mt.)
      • Estate/ Producers- Chinchilla Ronda, Descalzos Viejos(16ha.), F Schatz
      • Vineyards- Finca Sanguijela
    • MANILVA–      @Manilva
      • Geography- SUB-REGION-Malaga(West), On~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~, @Hw.#Ap7
        • West of Marbella-City(10km.)
    • NORTE MALAGA–      @Antequera
      • Geography- SUB-REGION-Malaga(North), North of Malaga-City(10km.)
      • Topography- Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous, On~Coast~(Near/25 km.)
      • Estate/ Producers- La Capuchina
    • MONTES MALAGA–     @Malaga
      • Geography- SUB-REGION-Malaga(East), On~Coast~, East of Malaga-City(1km.), @Hw.#A45/ #A92
    • AXARQUIA–      @Antequera, Sayalonga
      • Geography- SUB-REGION-Malaga(East), On~Coast~, East of Malaga-City(10km.), @Hw.#E15
      • Estate/ Producers- Bentomiz, Dimobe

SIERRAS De MALAGA DO. North, Central, South     @Malaga

  • BLANCO= Airen, Doradilla(Indigenous), Macabeo, Moscatel de Alejandria AKA=Muscat Alexandria, Pedro Ximenez
    • International Chardonnay, Colombard, Gewürtztraminer, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • TINTO= Garnacha, Graciano, Monastrell, Rome(Indigenous), Tintilla
    • International Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo
  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia, PROVINCE-Malaga
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous SLOPES/ Sierra Nevada Mountains, +Altitude( ? mt.)
    • On~Coast/ Mediterranean~(Central), On~Guadalhorce~River~
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean WithContinental Influences
  • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
    • Sierra de Malaga DO. is an Appellation For Still Wine Production In Malaga.
    • Estate/ Producers- Botani, Cortijo Los Aguilares, Sedella

GRANADA DO.     @Granada

  • BLANCO= Palomino, Pedro Ximenez, Torrontes, Vijariego, Verdego
    • International Chardonnay, Moscatel(de AlejandriaAKA=Muscat(de Alexandria), Moscatel(de Grano Menudo) AKA=Muscat(Blanc a Petits Grains), Sauvignon Blanc
  • TINTO= Garnacha, Monastrell, Tempranillo
    • International Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Tempranillo
  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(Interior), PROVINCE-Granada
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced
    • SLOPES/ Sierra Nevada, +Altitude(500mt. to 1,200mt.)
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean With Continental Influences, +Diurnal Shifts
  • VITICULTURE- 215 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Dominio, Fontedei, Munana, Senorio de Nevada
  • CULTURE- 2018- DO. Officially Established.
      • Geography- REGION-Analusia, SUB-REGION-Granada
      • Geography- REGION-Analusia, SUB-REGION-Granada
      • Geography- REGION-Analusia, SUB-REGION-Granada

Vino de la Tierra’s of Andalucia

  • BLANCO= Any White Grapes Varieties Approved For Production In Andalusia.
  • TINTO= Any Red Grapes Varieties Approved For Production In Andalusia.
  • VITICULTURE Wine Produced In ANDALUSIA Non-Conforming to DOC. or DOCG.

CADIZ VT.     @Cadiz

  • BLANCO= Macabeo, Moscatel, Pedro Ximenez, Doradilla, Airen
    • International Chardonnay, Colombard, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
  • TINTO= Tempranillo, Tintilla de Rota AKA=Garnacha
    • International Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia, PROVINCE-Cadiz
    • North & East of the Port of Cadiz
    • Estate/ Producers- Barbadillo, Forlong, Primitivo Collantes, Valdespino


  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(Central-West), PROVINCE-Sevilla

CORDOBA VT.       @Cordoba

  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(North-Central), PROVINCE-Cordoba


  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia, PROVINCE-?


  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia, PROVINCE-?
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Hilly/ Valley
    • SLOPES/ Sierra Nevada/ Sierra Gador, +Altitude(700mt. to 1,000mt.)


  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia, PROVINCE-?

NORTE De GRANADA VT.      @Granada

  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(Central-East), PROVINCE-Granada


  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia, PROVINCE-Granada

RIBERA Del ANDARAX VT.     @Andarax

  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia, PROVINCE-?


  • BLANCO= Chardonnay, Jean AKA=Cayetana
  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(North-East), PROVINCE-Jaen
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Hilly, SLOPES/ Baetic Range/ Sierra Nevada Mountains, +Altitude( ? mt.)

BAILEN VT.     @Bailen

  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(North-East), PROVINCE-Jaen


  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(South-East), PROVINCE-Almeria
    • On~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~

**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.