🇪🇸SPAINRioja & Navarra

RIOJA IS  DO.- 2     VP.-3     @Haro

  • BLANCO= Calagrano, Garnacha Blanca, Malvasia de Rioja, Maturana Blanca AKA=Albilo Mayor, Tempranillo Blanc, Torrontes, Turruntes de Rioja, Viura AKA=Macabeo, Verdejo
    • International Chardonnay, Guwurztraminer, Sauvignon Blanco
  • TINTO= Tempranillo 75%, Garnacha 7%, Graciano 2%, Mazuelo 3% AKA=Carignan, Maturana Tina AKA=Maturano
    • International Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah

GEOGRAPHY Spain(North-Central), REGION-Rioja, PROVINCES– Logrono, Haro

  • BORDERS: Navarra ‘Region‘(North-East), “Ebro River Valley”, LATITUDE: 42.3° N
  • PROVINCES– Alava, Navarre, La Rioja
  • Sub-Zones/ DO.’s–  Navarra DO., Rioja DO.

TOPOGRAPHY “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Valley(Ebro)”

  • SLOPES/ Pyrenees Mountains(North), Sierra de Cantabria Mountains(North-West)

    • Sierra de la Demanda/ Sierra de Cameros(South-West), +Alt.700 mt.
  • ON PLATEAU/ ?,
    • On~Alhama/ Cidacos/ Iregua/ Leza/ Najerilla/ Oja~Tributaries~Ebro~Rivers~

SOILS  Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Iron Rich Clay, Limestone, Sandstone, Silt

CLIMATE Continental WithMediterranean Influence

  • Influenced by the Convergence of 2 Climates, the Cooler- Wet “Atlantic-Maritime” and the Hotter-Dryer “Mediterranean”.

VITICULTURE 65,000 ha. Planted, (Red 87%, White 13%), DOCa, Established 1925

  • Vino de Municipio– Village Wine
  • Vinos de Z0na– Produced From One of 3 Zone That Make Up Rioja Region.
  • Vinedos Singulares– Rioja’s Single Vineyard Designation.
    • Purpose– To Control and Protect Wine That Are Made With Grapes Cultivated in a Demarcated Area, Whose Characteristics Are Deemed Worthy of Protection.  Defining Vineyards and Permitting the Mention of Their Names On Label.
      • Vines +35 Years Old
      • Justify the Natural Delimitation of the Vineyards.
      • Hand Harvest
      • Ensure Yields Are 20% Less Than DOCa. Levels
      • Wine Must Be Vinified and Aged Separately Have
      • Full Traceability                             Full Ownership
      • Winery Must Be In the Same Village as the Vineyard(15% Grace)
  • Vina Ardanza Seleccion Especial– Special Selection For Vintages That Are Deemed Super Great.
    • There Has Been 4 Such Vintages In the Past 75 Years…1964, 1973, 2001, 2010.
  • Chozos– Huts That Where Used by Vineyard Workers.
  • Parceled Into Numerous Small Vineyard Plots Farmed by Thousands of Growers, Many Co-Operative.

VINICULTURE Traditionally +AGED/ American Oak, Presently Both American & French Oak

  • RIOJA BLEND Tempranillo(+60%), Garnacha(-20%), Graciano, Mazuelo
    • Rioja- +AGED/ Max 1 Year, No Barrel/ Used Barrels
    • Crianza- +AGED/ Min. 2 Years/ 1 Year In Barrel…Use Barrels 2/ 3 Years
    • Reserva- +AGED/ Min. 3 Years/ 2 Years In Barrel
    • Gran Reserva- +AGED/ Min. 5 Years/ 3 Years In Barrel…Usually Best Vineyards
    • Historically In the 1800’s American Oak Was More Available and Affordable Than French Oak. The Distinctive Character of American Oak Helped Shape the Historical Style of Spanish Tempranillo.  Today the Philosophy of Weather to Used American or French Oak is Left Up to the Winemaker and the Style They Want to Produce.
  • RIOJA BLANCO BLEND Viura, Malvasia, Garnacha Blanc
    • International– Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc (Can’t Exceed +49% of Blend)
  • RIOJA BLANCO BLEND AGING REQUIREMENTS- Traditionally American Oak Used
    • Crianza- +AGED/ Min. 6 Months In Barrel
    • Reserva- +AGED/ Min. 2 Years, Min. 6 Months In Barrel
    • Gran Reserva- +AGED/ Min.. 4 Years, Min. 1 Year In Barrel
  • SANGRIA White/ Red Versions -Wine, Sparkling Water, Brandy, Citrus Slices
  • CAVA SPARKLINGMETHOD/ Traditional – 4 Cava Districts
    • Cava is Produced In +150 Villages In Spain, Including Regions of Valencia, La Rioja, Extramadura, But the Cultural and Spiritual Home of Cava is Catalunya.
  • FLOR Like “Sherry” In Andalusia, There’s Producers Biologically Aging Rioja Wines.


  • 1890 @Rioja/ Spain “Phylloxera Free“, Other Countries Came to Rioja.
    • Brought Wine-Makers and Merchant From Bordeaux to Find Wine for Sale and Consumption. (Hot Climate and Altitude Discouraged the Aphid From Infesting Parts of Northern Spain.)
  • 1926 @Rioja– Wine Law“, DO. Officially Established.
  • 1950 @Rioja “Modernization” of Rioja Takes Place.
    • Murrieta & Riscal Brought Bordeaux Varietals and Viticulture Practices to Rioja and Began the Modern Wine Industry.
    • Rioja Benefited From the Phylloxera Epidemic In France/ Bordeaux.  Wine Makers and Wine Culture From France Came Down to Rioja to Produce Wine, Wine Was Sent by Train to Bordeaux to Quench the Thirst of the Bordelaise.


  • Wire Netting Around Bottle- Added as Protection Seal to Stop Unscrupulous People From Changing the Content to a Wine of Inferior Quality and Reselling, Today It’s Used For Eutectic Reason and the Maintain a Cultural Link to Past.
  • Santiago de Compostela Pilgrimage Route– 800km. Walking Route Through the Northern Reaches of the Iberian Peninsula Ending at the Tumb of St. James In Galicia.
  • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Consejo Regulador de la Denominacion de Origen Rioja~
  • Monks & Monasteries ~Yuso~ Benedictine Monks, 1100’s


  • FESTIVALS~ ~Haro Wine Festival/ Batalla del Vino/ Wine Battle~ (June/ Haro)
    • ~Festival of San Mateo~ (September/ Logrono), Wine Harvest Festival
  • GASTRONOMY Baby Lamb(25 Day Old), Olive Oil
    • CHEESE Camerano(Goat/ Fresh)

**Rioja & Navarra Images Courtesy of Delong Maps, Purchase Maps at Delongwine.com


  • Denominación de Origen Calificada DOCa. (1 of 2 DOCa/ Also Priorat)

RIOJA ALTA       @Haro

  • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Rioja(North-West)
    • VILLAGES– Haro, Briones, San Vicente de Sonsierra, Cenicero, Fuenmayor, Logrona, Najera, San Asensio
    • Sub-Zones– Cenicero, Huérfanos, Oriental
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Valley(Iregua, Najerilla, Oja)”
    • SLOPES/ Cameros Mountains/ Sierra de la Demanda, +Alt.360mt.- 650mt.
    • On~Iregua/ Najerilla/ Oja~Tributaries~Ebro~Rivers~
  • SOILS–  Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Chalk, Clay, Alluvial
  • CLIMATE=Continental With Mediterranean Influence, Cooler, Wetter
  • VITICULTURE–  ?  ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURE– +Quality
    • Estate/ Producer– Bhilar, CVNE., Finca Allenda, Lopez de Heredia, Marques de Murrieta, Marques de Vargas(60ha.), Montecillo, Muga, Ollauri-Conde de los Andes,  Oxer Bastegiet, Perica(56ha.), Ramon Bilbao, La Rioja Alta, Romeral, Wine Love(Nat.Pro.),Vina Ardanza
    • Vineyards– Castillo de Cuzcurrita, Marques Caceres, Vinedos de Altura
  • CULTURE– La Rioja Alta Has a In-House Coooperage Which They Import Oak From USA. & France.
    • OJA VALLEY     @Haro
      • Geography– Rioja, In Rioja Alta, @Hw.#A-12/ N-120
        • VILLAGES– Ezcaray, Haro
      • Topography– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ San Lorenzo Mountains, Sierra de la Demanda
        • On~Oja~River~Tributary~Ebro~River~
    • NAJERILLA VALLEY     @Najerilla
      • Geography– Rioja, In Rioja Alta, @Hw.#A-12/ N-120
        • VILLAGES– Alesanco, Canas, Najerilla, San Millan de la Cogolla, Tricio
      • Topography– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Cameros Mountains/ Sierra de la Demanda
        •  On~Najerilla~River~
    • IREGUA VALLEY     @Lagrono
      • Geography– Rioja, In Rioja Alta
      • Topography– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Iregua~River~

RIOJA ALAVESA     @Laguardia

  • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Rioja(North-Central)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Verga Mountains, +Alt.400mt.-600mt.
    • On~Leza~Tributary~Ebro~Rio~(North), “Non-Contiguous”
  • SOILS=  Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Chalk, Iron Rich Clay
  • CLIMATE=Continental With Mediterranean Influence
    • Cooler, Wetter Than Alta & Baja Rioja
  • VITICULTURE–  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE– +Quality *Small Growers
    • Estate/ Producer– Altanza(160ha.), Artuke, Baron de Ley(600ha.), Contino, Faustino(650ha.), Marques de Riscal(540ha.), Olabarri, Remelluri, Remirez de Ganuza, Telmo Rodriguez, Vinedos de Paganos, Torre de Ona, Ygay, Ysios
    • Vineyards– Corrales, Labastida, Torre de Ona
    • GEOGRAPHIC/ CULTURAL DISCLAIMER  Some Consider Rioja Alavesa Part of Basque County and Not Rioja.  In Regards to Its Wine Culture it Has More In Common With Rioja, With Altitude and Climate It’s More Similar to Basque Country.
    • LEZA VALLEY     @Agoncillo
      • Geography– Rioja, In Rioja Alavesa, @Hw.#AP-68/ E-804
      • Topography– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ ?
        • On~Leza~River~Tributary~Ebro~River~
    • JUBERA VALLEY     @Vantas Blancas
      • Geography– Rioja, In Rioja Alta
        • VILLAGES– El Redal, Santa Engracia del Jubera, Ventas Blancas
      • Topography– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ ?
        •  On~Jubera~River~Tributary~Leza~River~Tributary~Ebro~River~

RIOJA ORIENTAL     @Calahorra

  • BLANCO= Tempranillo Blanc0, Viura AKA=Macabeo, Verdejo
  • TINTO= Tempranillo 72%, Garnacha 13%, Graciano 4%, Mazuelo 3% AKA=Carignan
  • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Rioja(South-East), Largest Area Rioja Sub-Zone
    • (Laps)Navarra(North-East)
    • VILLAGES– Alfaro, Calahorra, Mendavia, Viana, Villamediana de Iregua, Tudelilla
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Valley(Ebro)”, SLOPES/ Verga Mountains, +Alt.300mt.-380mt.
    • On~Cidacos/ Alhama~Rivers~Tributary~Ebro~Rio~ 
    • VALLEYS– Juber Valley, Cidacos Valley, Alhama Valley
  • SOILS=  Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary
  • CLIMATE=Continental, Hotter, Dryer Than Alta & Alavesa Rioja
  • VITICULTURE– 22,00 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE–  -Quality. +Abv. -Acid
    • Estate/ Producer– Aldonia(16ha.), Burgo Virgo, El Coto, Cvno, Domecq Domain, Faustino, Ijalba, Isidro Milagro, Javier Arizcuren, Marques Caceres, Mateos, Murua, Navarrsotillo, Ondarre, Ontanon, Palacios Remondo, Real Rubio, Rodiles, Vina Ilusion(Nat.Pro.), Vina Lanciano
    • Vineyards– El Arca, La Pasada, Il Pison
  • CULTUREAKA=Rioja Baja
    • CIDACOS VALLEY     @Calahorra
      • Geography– Rioja, In Rioja Baja,  @Hw.#AP-68
        • VILLAGES– Arnedo, Autol, Calahorra, Pradejon, El Redal, Tudelilla, Quel, Villar de Arnedo
      • Topography– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Verga Mountains
        • On~Cidacos~River~Tributary~Ebro~River~
    • ALHAMA VALLEY     @Alfaro
      • Geography– Rioja, In Rioja Baja
      • Topography– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Verga Mountains
        •  On~Alhama~River~Tributary~Ebro~River~

Vino de la Tierra’s of  La Rioja

  • VITICULTURE– Wines Produced In “RIOJA” Non-Conforming to a DO.


  • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Rioja


NAVARRA DO.      @Pamplona

  • BLANCO= Garnacha Blanca, Malvasia, Viura AKA=Macabeo 2%
    • International– Chardonnay 5%, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscat Blanc a Petit Grain
  • TINTO= Tempranillo 33%, Garnacha 24%, Graciano 2%, Mazuelo 1%
    • International– Cabernet Sauvignon 15%, Merlot 14%, Pinot Noir, Syrah 1%
  • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Navarra, South of Pamplona-City(    ha.)
    • BORDERS: Rioja ‘Region‘(South-West), “Multi-Appellation(5)
    • VILLAGES– Fitero
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley”, Pamplona Basin
    • SLOPES/ Pyrenees Mountians (Sierra de Andia/ Sierra del Perdon),  +Alt.300mt.-650mt.
  • SOILS= Metamorphic”, ”Sedimentary, Alluvial, Grey Marls of Marine Eocene Period
    • Mixure of Soils Depends On Elevation and Substrata Composition.
  • CLIMATE= Continental With Mediterranean Influence
    • North– Sub-Humid Zone   |   South– High-Dry Zone
  • VITICULTURE– 11,000haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers– Azul Y Garanza, Camilo Castilla, Castillo Monjardin, Cune, Chivite, Irache, Lupier, Magana, Marco Real, Maximo Abete, Ochoa, Otazu, Piedemonte, San Martin, Zorzal

  • TIERRA ESTELLS      @Estella

    • WHITE= Viura
      • International– Chardonnay
    • RED= Tempranillo 50%,
      • International– Cabernet Sauvignon 20%
    • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Navarra(West)
      • VILLAGES– Aberin, Los Arcos, Ayegui, Dicastillo, Estella,
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”, SLOPES/ Sierra de Urbasa
      • On~Ega~River~Tributary~Ebro~River~
    • SOILS=  Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary
    • VITICULTURE–  1,800  haPlanted
      • Estate/ Producer-
  • VALDIZARBE     @Puente la Reina
    • WHITE= Viura
      • International– Chardonnay, Malvasia
    • RED= Garnacha, Tempranillo
      • International– Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
    • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Navarra(North-Interior)
      • VILLAGES: Adios, Anorbe, Artazu, Barasoain, Biurrun, Cirauqui, Exhauri, Eneriz, Garinoanin, Guirguillano, Legarda, Leoz, Maneru, Mendigorria, Muruzabal
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”, On~Agra/ Salado~River~Tributary~Ebro~River~
    • SOILS=  Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary
    • VITICULTURE– 920haPlanted
      • Estate/ Producer
  • RIBERA ALTA     @Tafalla
    • WHITE= Moscatel de Grano Menudo

      • International– Chardonnay
    • RED= Tempranillo, Graciano
    • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Navarra(South-Interior)
      • VILLAGES– Caparroso, Falces, Funes, Olite, Vilafranca, Tafalla
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Arga/ Aragon/ Ega~Rivers~Tributary~Ebro~River~
    • SOILS=  Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary
    • VITICULTURE–   4,125  haPlanted
      • Estate/ Producer
  • BAJA MONTANA     @Sanguesa
    • WHITE= ?
    • RED= Garnacha 60%, Tempranillo 25%
    • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Navarra(East-Central)
      • BORDERS- Aragon
      • VILLAGES– Aibar, Caseda, Eslava, Ezprogui, Gallipienzo, Javier, Leache, Lerga, Liedena, Lumbier, Sada, Sanguesa, San Martinde Uni,
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.650mt.
      • On~Aragon/ Irati~Rivers~Tributary~Ebro~River~
    • SOILS=  Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary
    • CLIMATE– Wettest Navarra Sub-Zone
    • VITICULTURE– 1,520 haPlanted
      • Estate/ Producer
  • RIBERA BAJA      @Tudela
    • WHITE= Moscatel, Viura
    • RED= Tempranillo 40%, Garnacha 30%
    • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Navarra(South)
      • VILLAGES– Castejan, Tudela
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”
      • SLOPES/ Sierra del Moncayo Range, +Alt.300mt., On~Ebro~River~
    • SOILS=  Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary
    • VITICULTURE– 3,350 haPlanted
      • Estate/ Producer

Vino de la Tierra’s of  Navarra

  • VITICULTURE– Wines Produced In “NAVARRA” Non-Conforming to a DO.


  • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Navarra & Aragon
    • BORDERS– Navarra
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Queiles~River~
    • Due to the Arid Climate and Unique Soils Navarra Didn’t Succumb Immediately to Phylloxera, This Lead the Bordelaise Coming From South-West France For Wine and Influencing Navarra’s Wine Culture.
  • CULTURE–  “Monks & Monasteries”  ~Iratxe~
    • FESTIVALS– ~San Fermin~ (July/ Pamplona)
      • Week of  Events to Honor the Co-Patron Saint of Navarre

Vino de Pago VP.

  • **Refer to “SPAIN/ Home Page” For Detailed Information On Vino Pago Requirement

Pago Arinzano VP.      @Navarra

    • Crossroads of Rioja & Navarra, Along Ancient Wine Road That Streaches Through the Pyrenees and Onto Bordeaux
  • VITICULTURE– 240ha. Planted,  Owned by Bodegas Chivite

Prado de Irache VP.      @Estella

  • VITICULTURE– 16haPlanted

Pago de Otazu VP.      @Navarra

    • South of Pamplona-City( 8 km.)
  • VITICULTURE–  92ha. Planted

Pago La Finca Bolandin VP.      @Abiltas

  • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Navarra
  • VITICULTURE- 137haPlanted

**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced