🇮🇹ITALIA-Overview


ITALIA IS   Regions20     Provinces74      @Rome

    • DOCG. 74      DOC. 329      IGP. 119
  • BIANCO= Trebbiano Toscano 6%, Catarratto 6%, Glera 3%, Trebbiano Romagnolo 3%, Malvasia Bianca di Candia 2%, Garganega 2%, Ansonica 1%, Grillo 1%, Addoraca, Aghedene, Albana, Albanella, Albaranzeuli Bianco, Albanello, Albarola, Alionza, Alverega, Angela, Arilla, Arneis, Arvesiniadu, Asprinio, Baratuciat, Barbarssa, Barbera Bianca, Barbesino, Barsaglina, Bellone, Belzamino, Bertinora, Bervedino, Bianca Capriana, Bianco Antico, Bianco Comune, Biancame AKA=Bianchello, Bianchetta Trevigiana, Bianco d’Alessano, Biancolella, Biancone, Bian Ver, Bigolona, Blanchet, Bombino Bianco, Boschera, Bosco, Bsolla, Buriano, Bussanello(Cross), Calbanesco, Campolongo, Canaiolo Bianco, Canino,Caprettone, Cargarello, Carica l’Asino, Carricante, Cascarolo, Catalanesca, Catarratto, Chiavennasca Bianco, Cividin, Cococciola, Coda di Coglionara, Coda di Pecora/ Volpe, Cordusel, Cortese, Damaschino, Dorona, Durella, Erbaluce, Falanghina, Famoso, Fedit 51(Cross), Fenile, Fiano, Fogarina, Foglia Tonda, Forastera, Forcella, Francavidda, Fubiano(Cross), Galioppo, Garofanata, Ginestra, Giacche, Glera Lungo, Goldtraminer(Cross), Greco Bianco, Greco Giallo, Greco Moro, Grechetto, Guardavalle, Impigno, Incrocio Bruni 54(Cross), Invernenga, Lagarino, Lanzesa, Lumassina, Maceratino Bianco, Maligia, Malvasia Bianco/ Basilicata/ Candia/ Istriana/ Lazio/ Lipari/ Lunga/ Rosa, Mantonico, Manzoni Bianco(Cross), Marchione, Maresco, Marzemina Bianco, Maturano, Melara, Minutolo, Molinelli, Montonico Pinto, Montu, Mostosa, Nascetta, Nasco, Nosiola, Nuragus, Orpicchio, Ortrugo, Pallagrello Bianco, Pampanaro, Pampanuto, Paolina, Passerina, Pecorello Bianco, Pedevenda, Pepella, Perera, Peverella, Picolit, Pegnoletto, Pinella, Preveiral, Prie, Primaticcio, Refosco Bianco, Retagliado Bianco, Ribolla Gialla, Ripoli, Rollo, Rossese Bianco, Rossetto, Roviello, Ruggine, Ruzzese, Sagrestana, Sanginella Bianca, San Lunardo, San Pietro, Santa Maria,Sant- Antonia, Scarsafoglia, Sciaglin, Scimiscia, Scroccona, Semidano, Spergola, Theilly, Tocai Friulano, Torbato, Trebbianina, Trebbiano Abruzzese/ Giallo/ Lugana/ Modenese/ Romagnolo/ Spoletino. Ucelut, Varano Bianco, Verdea, Verdeca, Verdealbara, Verdello, Verdetto, Verdicchio, Verdiso, Verduschia, Verduzzo Friulano, Verduzzo Treviginao, Vermentino, Vernaccia Oristano/ San Gimignano, Vernaccina, Vespaiola, Verdealbara, Vitovska, Volpola, Wildbacher
    • Internationale Chardonnay 3%, Pinot Grigio 2%, Moscato 2% AKA= Muscat Blanc a Petite Grains, Zibbibo AKA=Moscato Alessandria
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese 12%, Montepulciano 5%, Barbera 4% Calabrese AKA=Nero d’Avola 3%, Negro Amaro 3%, Aglianico 2%, Primitivo 2%, Nebbiolo 1%, Dolcetto 1%, Croatina 1%, Abbuoto, Abrostine, Abrusco, Acitana, Aglianico, Aglianicone, Albana Nera, Albaranzeuli Nero, Albarola Nero, Albarossa(Cross), Aleatico, Ancellotta, Avana, Avarengo, Barbera del Sannio, Barbera Sarda, Bariletta, Becuet, Bombino Nero, Bonamico, Bonda, Bracciola Nera, Brachetto, Brachettone del Roero, Brugnola, Brunetta di Rivoli, Bubbierasco, Bundula, Cabrusina, Caddiu, Cagnulari, Calabrese di Montenuovo, Canaiolo Nero, Canina Nera, Cardin, Caricagiola, Casavecchia, Casetta, Castagnara, Castiglione, Catanese Nero, Cavrara, Cellerina, Cenerente, Centesimino, Cesanese, Chatus, Ciliegiolo, Cjanorie, Colobana Nera, Corbina, Cordenossa, Corinto Nero, Cornacchia, Cornalin, Cornarea(Cross), Cornetta, Corvina, Corvino, Corvinone, Cove’(Cross), Croa, Crova, Crovassa, Croatina, Crovassa, Denela, Dindarella, Doux d’Henry, Durasa, Enantio, Ervi(Cross), Forselina, Forgiarin, Fortana, Frappato, Freisa, Fruhroter Veltliner, Fumin, Furmat, Gaglioppo, Gamba Rossa, Giro, Gosen(Cross), Grane, Granoir, Gratena, Greco Nero, Grero, Grignolino, Grisa Nera, Grisa Rousa, Gropello Berici/ Gentile/ Mocasina/ Revo, Gruaja, Guarnaccino, Incrocio Terzi(Cross), Janese, Lacrima, Lacrima del Valdarno, Lagrein, Lambrusca Alessandria, Lambrusca Grasparossa/ Maestri/ Marani/ Salamino/ Sorbara/ Viadanese/ Vittona, Lambruschetta, Lecinara, Magliocco, Magliocco Canino, Maiolica, Malbo Gentile, Malvasia Brindisi/ Casorzo/ Nero Basilicata/ Lecce/ Schierano, Mammolo, Manzoni Rosso(Cross), Marsigliana Nera, Marzabino, Marzemina Nera, Mayolet, Mazzese, Melara, Merlese(Cross), Minnella Bianca, Molinara, Monica, Montanera, Moradella, Morone, Moscatello Selvatico, Mostarino, Nebbiera(Cross), Nebbiolo Rose, Negrara Trentina, Negrara Veronese, Negrat, Negratino, Negro Amaro Precoce, Negretta Cuneese, Negretta di Marengo, Negrone, Nera dei Baisi, Ner d’Ala, Neretto Duro, Nerello Cappuccio, Nerello Mascalese, Neretto di Bairo, Nero Buono, Neyret, Nieddera, Nieddu Mannu, Nigra(Cross), Nocera, Notardomenico, Occio di Pernice, Occhiorosso, Olivella Nera, Oseleta, Pallagrello Nero, Paolina, Paradisa, Parporio, Pascale, Passau(Cross), Pattaresca, Pavana, Pecorino, Pecorello, Pelagos, Pelaverga Grosso, Pelaverga Piccolo, Perricone, Petit Rouge, Piculit Neri, Piedirosso, Pignola, Pignolo, Plassa, Pollera Nera, Pomella, Prie Rouge AKA=Premetta, Primitivo, Prunesta, Pugnitello, Quagliano, Quiara, Raboso Piave, Raboso Veronese, Raspo Rosso, Rebo(Cross), Recantina, Refosco Peduncolo/ Gentile/ Nostrano, Rondinella, Rosciola, Rossara, Rossese, Rossetta di Montagna, Rossignola, Rossola Nera, Roussin, Roussinde Morgex, Ruche, Sagrantino, Sanforte, San Martino(Cross), San Micheli(Cross), Schiava Gentile/ Grigia/ Grossa/ Nera, Schioppettino, Sciascinoso, Sennen(Cross), Serpentaria/ Uva Serpe, Sgavetta, Simesara, Sirica, Soperga(Cross), Suppezza, Susumaniello, Tamurro Nero, Tazzelenghe, Termarina Nera, Teroldego, Terrano, Theilly, Timorasso, Tintilia, Tintore di Tramonti, Trevisana Nera, Tronto, Turca, Turchetta, Uva del Fantini, Uva Della Cascina, Uva Tosca, Uva del Tunde, Uva di Troia, Uvalino, Uva Longanesi, Uva Rava, Varano Rosa, Valentino Nero(Cross), Vermentino Nero/ Nero Grosso, Vernaccia, Verucchiese, Vespolina, Vien de Nus, Vuillermin, Wanderbara, Zanello
    • Internationale Merlot 4%, Cabernet Sauvignon 2%, Syrah 1%, Cannonau AKA=Garnacha, Cabernet Franc, Bovale Grande AKA=Carignan, Fruhroter Veltliner, Bovale-Sardo AKA=Graciano, Pinot Nero AKA=Pinot Nior

GEOGRAFIA HEMISPHERE-Northern, REGION-Western Europe(East), COUNTRY-Italy, LATITUDE: 36.71° to 46.99° ‘N

  • Boot Shaped Peninsula South of Alps, (1,000 km..) Long
  • BORDERS: France(North-West), Switzerland(North), Austria(North-East), Slovenia(North-East)
  • REGIONS:   Val d’Aosta, Piemonte, Liguria, Lombardia, Trentino-Alto Adige, Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Emilia-Romagna, Toscana, Umbria, Lazio, Marche, Abruzzi, Campania, Molise, Calabria, Basilicata, Puglia, Sicilia, Sardegne
  • **Refer to “ITALY/ Sub-Chapter” For Information On These.

TOPOGRAFIA FEATURESFlat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced/ Valley

  • ALPS MOUNTAIN RANGE Runs West to East Across the Top of Italia.

    • Formation
  • APPENNINES MOUNTAIN RANGE Start to From South of the Po River Valley In the Shape of a Spine Which Runs the Entire Length the Italia Peninsula and Into Northern Sicilia. Consists of “Sub-Chains”…Ligurian/ Toscana/ Emilia/ Lucanian Appennines.
  • PADAN PLAIN
    • Formation
  • PO RIVER VALLEY Valley Runs Across the Base of the Alps.
    • Formation
  • RIVERS
    • On~Tanaro/ Ticino/ Adda~Rivers~Tributary~Po~River~to~Adriatic~Sea~
    • On~Coast/ Ligurian/ Tyrrhenian/ Mediterranean/ Ionian/ Adriatic~Seas~
  • ITALY’S VOLCANOS
    • Lazio Volcanos– Roman Magmatic Zone
      • Vulsini(Bolsena/ Latera/ Montefiascone)
    • Tuscany Volcanos- ~Mount Amiata~ (Mainland Italy Highest Volcanic Peak)
    • Campania Volcanos– ~Mt. Vesuvius~
    • Sicilia Volcanos– ~Mt. Etna~,  ~Pantelleria~,  ~Lipari~,  ~Stromboli~
    • Other Volcanos– ~Campi Flegrei~,   ~Ischia~,  ~Monte Albano~
  • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS– Italia Lies At the Boundary Between Eurasian and African Tectonics Plates. This Coalition Between Land Masses Creates a Subduction Zone and With it a System of Volcanos They Have Pushed Up the Various Italian Mountains. The Volcanos of Italia Follow the Ark to the Subduction Plate Which Begins With a Few Dormant Volcanos In the Lazio Region and Runs Though the Active Volcanic Regions of Campania, Basilicata and Sicila.

TERRE Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Volcanic

  • **Refer to “ITALY/ Sub-Chapters” For Detailed Information On Soils.
  • **Refer to “TERROIR/ Geology & Soil” For Detailed Information On Soils.

CLIMA  Mediterranean , Continental, +WINDS/ Gregale/ Apennines

  • Summers– Hot, Dry   |   Winter– “North” Cold Snow “South” Milder
  • **Refer to “ITALY/ Sub-Chapters” For Detailed Information On Climate.

VITICULTURA–   #2 In Grape Production & #2 In Wine Consumption In World

VINICULTURA– Still/ Varietal,  Bianco,  Bianco Superiore,  Rosso,  Rosso Superiore,  Rosato,  Rosso Riserva,  Passito, Spumante,  Vendemmia Tardiva,  Vin Santo

  • SPARKLING WINE Of ITALY
      • Traditional Method
    • Franciacorta      @Lombarbia
      • CulturaDOC. Established In 1967
    • Trentadoc     @Trentino
      • CulturaDOC. Established In 1993
    • Oltrepo Pavese      @Lombardia
      • CulturaDOC. Established In 1970
    • Alta Langa      @Lombarbia
      • CulturaDOC. Established In 2002
    • Others…@Small Amounts of Sparkling Are Also Produced Across Italy.
      • Charmat Method
    • Prosecco     @Veneto
    • Asti     @Piemonte
    • Lambrusco     @Emilia-Romagna
    • **Refer to “ITALY/ Sub-Chapters” For Detailed Information On Its SparklingWines.
  • TRADITIONAL ITALIAN OAK BARREL SIZES
    • Tonneau- 450 Liters
    • Tonneau- 350 Liters
    • Barrique- 225 Liters
    • Cigarillo- 150 Liters
    • Feuillette- 114 Liters
    • Fusto- 50 Liters
    • Botti
    • Caretelli– 50-100 Liters
  • ROSE IN ITALY
    • Cerasuolo     @Abruzzo
    • Chiaretto     @Lombardia
    • Kretzer   @Alto Adige
    • Rosato      @Everywhere Else In Italy
    • Vin Ruspo      @Carmignano, Tuscany
    • **Refer to “ITALY/ Sub-Chapters” For Detailed Information On Its Rose Wines.

STORIA

  • 728 BC. @Sicilia Greeks Acquired and Starting Planting Vines, Know as Magna Graecia.
  • 700 BC.– 300 @Lazio Etruscans, Modern Name For an Ancient Civilization Occupying Central Italy.
  • 1000 @Roma Viticulture”, Introduced to Region by Greece & Romans.
  • 79 @Pompeii Excavation of Pompeii Leaves the Clearest View we Have Today of Wine Culture 2,000 Years Ago.
  • 479 @Roma Fall of RomeViticulture Kept Alive During by Church, Monks & Monasteries.
  • 1800’s @Montalcino– Brunello Was Referred to a Rosso-Vino di Montalcino or Red-Wine of Montalcino.
  • 1800’s  @Sicilia Phloxera
  • 1861 @Italia Independence”, On March 17, Italy Became a Modern Nation State.
  • 1716 @Chianti– Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany Officially Delimited the Chianti Production Zone Defining the Boundaries Pertaining to the Original Chianti Zone.
  • 1900’s @Sicilia Marked by a Century of Wars and Poverty.
  • 1918 @Friuli AnnexationOnce Part of the Austrian Hungarian Empire Until 1918.
  • 1919 @Alto Adige/ Sud Tyrol  Annexation, Control of Region Back to Italy After World War I.
  • 1940 @Italia– Reputation For Lying About “What Was In the Bottle”, Stretching Yields, Counterfeit, and Using Different Grapes.
  • 2ooo’s @Sicilia ResurgenceLast 25 Years Has Seen an Increase In the Regions Viticulture.

CULTURA

  • GODS OF WINE~ ~Bacchus~ Roman Wine God          ~FurflunsEtruscan Wine God
  • Enotria (The Land of Vines) Name Given to Italy by the Greek Because of Its Abundance of Grapes.
    • Each Regions or Province Across Italy Has Its Own Grapes, Culture, Cuisine, Language and Regional Dialect.
  • Monks & Monasteries”  ~Italy~
    • ~Benedictine of Monte Cassino~            ~Benedictine of Freisa~
    • ~Benedictine of Greco di Tufo~              ~Templars of Locorotondo~
    • ~Jesuits of Lacrima Christira~               ~Knights of Malta~
    • ~Cistercians of Gattinara Spanna~       ~Benedictine of Gragnano~
    • ~Benedictine of Santa Maddalena~       ~Jesuits of Frascati~
    • ~San Pietro In Lamosa Monastery~ Cluniac Monks
  • ECONOMY~ History of Wine, Olives, Basalmic Vinegar, Fashion, Ferrari, Tourism.
  • GASTRONOMIA… FORMAGGIO
    • Asiago(Cow/ Hard),  Bra(Cow/ Semi-Hard),  Caciocavllo(Cow-Sheep/ Stretched Curd),  Castelmagno(Cow/ Blue),  Casu Marzu(Sheep/ Soft),  Fontina(Cow/ Semi-Soft),  Gorgonzola(Cow/ Blue),  Mascarpone(Cow/ Fresh),  Montasio(Cow),  Mozzarella(Bufala/ Fresh),  Murazzano(     / Semi-Hard),  Parmigiano-Reggiano(Cow/ Hard),  Pecorino(Sheep/ Semi-Hard),  Piave(Cow/ Hard),  Provolone(Cow/ Semi-Hard),  Ricotta(Sheep/ Cow/ Goat/ Fresh),  Robiola,  Romano(Sheep/ Hard),  Sardo(Sheep/ Semi-Hard),  Taleggio(Cow/ Hard)
    • Classic Regional Pairing- Mozzarella de Buffalo & Greco di Tufo
      • Pecorino Toscano & Chianti Classico   |   Gorgonzola & Vin Santo

ITALY WINE LAW & CLASSIFICATION

  • GOVERNING BODY- Ministry of Agriculture & Forestry.
  • LAWS GOVERNING- Geographic Boundaries Pruning & Trellising, Varietals, Viniculture, +Abv. Levels, +AGED/ Yield/ Hectare Vinification Methods, Label Requirement.
  • VINO Di TAVOLO– Table Wine
    • Wine Produced in ITALY Non-Conforming to DOC./ IGP.
  • INDICAZIONE Di GEOGRAFICA PROTETTA IGP.,  Protected Geographic Indication.
  • INDICAZIONE Di GEOGRAFICA TIPICA IGT.,  Typical Geographic Indication.
    • IGP. & IGT. Are Same and Producers Are Allowed to Use Either Term On Label.
    • IGP/ IGT. Offers a Regional Pedigree Designation of Location and Quality of Wines That Failed to Meet DOC. Standards.
      • IGP./ IGT. Provides Producers a Geographic Indication For Less Regional Winemaking Requirements.
    • DOC./ DOCG. Requirements Due to the Type of Grape or Some Aspect of the Wines Production.
  • DEMONINAZIONE Di ORIGINE CONTROLLATA DOC.,  Controlled Origin Denomination
  • DEMONINAZIONE Di ORIGINE CONTROLLATA GARANTITA DOCG.,  Controlled Origin Denomination Guaranteed

ITALIAN WINE TERMS

  • Abboccato- Lightly Sweet, Semi-Dry
  • Amabile- Semi-Sweet
  • Annata- Vintage Year
  • Bianco- White
  • Bottiglia- Bottle
  • Cantina- Winery
  • Cantina Sociale- Cooperative Winery
  • Classico- Original, Not Expanded
  • Consorzio Trade Organization of Wine Producers
  • Degustazioni- Tasting
  • Dolce- Sweet
  • Enoteca- “Wine Library”, But Refers to a Wine Shop
  • Fattoria- Farm
  • Frizzante Semi-Sparking
  • Girapoggio- Vineyard Rows That Run Along the Horizontal Contour of the Hill.
  • Musto Cotto Grape Concentrated Must
  • Passito- Wine Produced From Dried Grapes
  • Riserva- Wine Aged For a Extended Period of Time
  • Ritchino- Vineyard Rows That Run Vertically Up and Down the Hill.
  • Rive- On Label Mean Grapes Where Harvested by Hand From One of 43 Steep Hillsides Vineyard Areas or Communes Within Conegliano-Valdobbiadene.  Not Being Used to Describe High Quality Vineyards.
  • Rosso- Red
  • Rosato- Rose
  • Secco- Dry
  • Spumante Foamy(Fully Sparkling)
  • Tenuta Estate
  • Tranquillo Still Wine
  • Uve- Grape
  • Vedemmia Tardiva Late Harvest
  • Vino- Wine
  • Vino Biologico Organic Wine

  • GEOGRAPHIC DISCLAIMER~ To Understand the Wine World and Benefit From DtheV.com a Understanding of Italy’s Geography is Needed and the Ability to Visualize Its Wine Regions Topography.  Italy is Organized In a North to South / East to West Orientation and Intended to Be Researched and Memorized as So.
  • LANGUAGE DISCLAIMER~ Most of the Important Words In the Italian Chapter of Demystifying “The Vine” is In Italian.  A Small Understanding of the Italian Language is Needed to Fully Understand Its Content.

  • SUB-CHAPTERS Of ITALIA
    • Val d’Aosta                                 Piemonte
    • Liguria                                        Lombardia
    • Trentino-Alto Adige                  Veneto                
    • Friuli-Venezia Giulia                 Emilia-Romagna
    • Toscana                                     Umbria
    • Lazio                                           Marche
    • Abruzzi                                       Campania
    • Molise                                         Calabria
    • Basilicata                                   Puglia
    • Sicilia                                         Sardegne
  • **Refer to Proceeding Italy Sub-Chapter For Information On These


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.