🇮🇹ITALIAToscana


TOSCANA IS   DOCG.- 11     DOC.- 42     IGT.- 5       @Florence

  • BIANCO= Albarola, Ansonica(Indigenous), Biancone(Indigenous), Buriano(Indigenous), Canaiolo Bianco AKA=Drupeggio, Grechetto, Livornese Bianco(Indigenous), Malvasia Bianco, Malvasia Verde, Orpicchio(Indigenous), Primaticcio(Indigenous), Trebbiano AKA=Procanico, Verduschia(Indigenous), Vermentino, Vernaccia, Volpola(Indigenous)
    • Internazionale Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese 27%, Abrostine, Abrusco, Albarolo Nero(Indigenous), Aleatico, Barasglina, Bonamico(Indigenous), Bracciola(Indigenous), Caloria, Canaiolo(Indigenous), Ciliegiolo, Colombara Nera(Indigenous), Colorino(Indigenous), Foglia Tonda(Indigenous), Grane(Indigenous), Granoir(Indigenous), Gratena(Indigenous), Lacrima del Valdarno(Indigenous), Mammolo(Indigenous), Malvasia Nera, Mazzese(Indigenous), Morone(Indigenous), Negratino(Indigenous), Occhio Rosso(Indigenous), Raspo Rosso(Indigenous), Sanforte(Indigenous), Vermentino Nero, Verrucciese(Indigenous)
    • Internazionale Alicante Bouschet, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan, Garnacha, Merlot, Petite Verdot, Syrah

GEOGRAFIA Italia(West-Central), REGION-Tuscany, LATITUDE: 43.7° N

  • PROVINCIA-Arezzo, Firenze, Grosseto, Livorno, Lucca, Massa-Carrara, Pistoia, Prato, Pisa, Siena

TOPOGRAFIA FEATURESRolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Valley(Arno)

    • SLOPES/ Toscana Appennines Mountains, +Alt.?
    • On~Arno/ Ombrone~River~Tyrrhenian~Sea~
  • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS
    • VOLCANISM~Mount Amiata~ Mainland Italy Highest Volcanic Peak.

TERREMetamorphic, Sedimentary, Volcanic

  • Limestone, Calcareous, Chalk, Galestro(Friable Marl Composed of Compressed Layers of Clay & Shale)

CLIMA Continental With Mediterranean Influence

  • Summers– Long, Dry  |   Winters– Cold, Wet

VITICULTURA  64,000 ha. Planted

  • Wine Culture Since 1000 BC., Aromatized- Basil, Rosemary, Thyme

VINICULTURA Great Vintages of Tuscany…1997, 2001, 2004, 2010

  • Still/ Varietal,  Bianco,  Rosso,  Rosato,  Riserva,  Vin Santo,  Passito

STORIA

  • 700 BC.– 300 @Lazio Etruscans, Modern Name For an Ancient Civilization of Italy.
    • Etruscan People Occupied the Land South of Arno River In Tuscany/ Western Umbria/ North & Central Lazio.  Etruscan Had There Own Language and Were Said to Have a Formable Wine Culture.  The Etruscan Civilization Occupied This Area and Came to aN End With the Roman-Etuscan Wars Which Saw Their Land and People Assimilate Into the Roman Republic.
  • 1716 @Chianti Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany Officially Delimited the Chianti Production Zone Defining the Boundaries Pertaining to the Original Chianti Zone.
  • 1800’s @Montalcino Brunello Was Referred to a Rosso-Vino di Montalcino or Red-Wine of Montalcino.

CULTURA

  • GASTONOMIA... Olive Oil, Cinghiale, Panforte, Crostini(Hard Unsalted Bread Moistened With Olive Oil)
    • FORMAGGIO… Pecorino
  • FESTIVALS~ ~Festa Dell’Uva~ (June/ Chianti)
  • PIONEERS~ ~Giacomo Tachis~ Oenologist For Antinori, Helped Define the Super Tuscan Style.

**Tuscany Images Courtesy of Delong Maps, Purchase These Maps at Delongwine.com


ITALIAToscana ‘Coastal’

  • GEOGRAFIA– Five Provinces Stretching 250km. BORDERS: Liguria(North), Lazio(South)
    • PROVINCIA– Grosetto, Livorno, Massa-Carrara, Pisa
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Tuscan Apennines Mountains, +Alt. Sea Level to 600mt.

CANDIA Dei COLLI APUANI DOC.     @Carara

  • BIANCO= Alborola, Vermentino
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese, Vermentino Nero
    • Internazionale– Merlot
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ North), PROVINCIA-Massa-Carrara
    • VILLAGES-Carrara, Massa, Montignoso
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Tuscan Apennines Mountains/ Alpi Apuane, +Alt.?
    • On~Coast/ Ligurian~Sea~
  • CLIMA=Mediterranean, INFLUENCED/ Proximity to Ligurian Sea
  • VITICULTURA– ?  haPlanted
    • Estate/ Produttore– Cima, Montepepe

TERRATICO Di BIBBONA DOC.     @Cecine

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano, Vermentino
  • ROSSO= Cabernet Sauvignon, Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Merlot, Syrah
  • GEOGRAFIA-Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ North-West), PROVINCIA-Pisa
    • South of Livorno-City(    km.), COMMUNES– Bibbona, Cecina, Collesalvetti, Marittimo
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Flat/ Plain/ Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Coast/ Terrhenian~Sea~
  • VITICULTURA–   ?   haPlanted
  • VINICULTURASuper Tuscan
    • Estate/ Produttore– Caprarecccia, Ferrari Iris e Figli, Terra Lenaia

SAN TORPE DOC.     @San Thorpe

  • BIANCO= Malvasia Bianco Lunga, Trebbiano, Vermentino
    • Internazionale– Chardonnay, Sauvignan Bianco
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ North-West), PROVINCIA-Livorno/ Pisa
    • (DOC., Laps)Tere id Pisa DOC.
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.250mt.-400mt., On~Coast~(Near/ 12km.)
  • TERRE=Metamorphic”, “Sedimentary, Schist, Limestone
  • VITICULTURA–  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURAVin Santo,  Rosato
    • Estate/ Produttore– Badia di Morrona, Ivana Cupelli

TERE Di PISA DOC.     @Santo Pietro Belvedere

  • BIANCO= ?
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese
    • Internazionale Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ North), PROVINCIA-Pisa
    • East of Pisa-City(35km.), (DOCLaps)San Torpe DOC.
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Coast~(Near/ 10km.), On Coastal Plain, +Alt. 70mt.
  • TERRE=Metamorphic”, “Sedimentary, Decomposed Seashells
  • VITICULTURA–  ?  haPlanted
    • Estate/ Produttore– La Spinetta(65ha.), Varramista
  • CULTURA2011– Official DOC. Established.

MONTESCUDAIO DOC.      @Montescudaio

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano
    • Internazionale– Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal), PROVINCIA-Livorno
    • East of Cecina-City(    km.)
    • COMMUNES– Casuale Marittimo, Castellina Marittima, Guardistallo, Montescudaio Riparbella, Val di Cecina
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”
  • VITICULTURA–  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURASuper Tuscan
    • Estate/ Produttore– Frontemorsi, Podere la Regola, Poggio, Sorbaiano, Morazzano

VAL Di CORNIA DOCG.        @Cornia

  • BIANCO= Ansonica, Malvasia, Trebbiano, Vermentino
    • Internazionale– Viognier
  • ROSSO= Ciliegiolo, Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ West), PROVINCIA-Livorno
    • North-East of Piombino-City(    km.), “Non-Contiguous(2)”
    • COMMUNES-Campiglia Marittima, Monteverdi Marittimo, Piombino, San Vincenzo, Sassetta, Suvereto
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Cornia~River~/ On~Coast/ Tyrrhenian~Sea~
  • VITICULTURA–  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURASuper Tuscan
    • Estate/ Produttore– Bulichella, Volpaiole

BOLGHERI DOC.     @Bolgheri

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano, Vermentino
    • Internazionale– Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese, Teroldego
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petite Verdot, Syrah
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ West), PROVINCIA-Livorno
    • BETWEEN: Mountains & Sea, COMMUNES-Castagneto Carducci
    • Sub-Zones/ DOC.’s- Sassicaia DOC.,West Side/ East Side(Of Strada Bolghereese)
    • (In/ Laps)Val di Cornia DOCG.(North-West)
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling”, On~Coast/ Tyrrhenian~Sea~, (13km. Long)
    • 9 Different Topographic Areas.
  • TERRE “Metamorphic”, “Sedimentary, Alluvial-Sand, Blue Clay, 21 Different Soils Profiles
  • VITICULTURA– 1,375 haPlanted,  ADVANTAGES– Breezes and Luminosity From the Sea
    • Estate/ Produttore– Argentiera(74ha.), Ca’Marcanda, Campo alle Comete(15ha.), Castello di Bolgheri, Donne Fittipaldi, Grattamacco(25ha.), Guada al Tasso(Antinori), I Luoghi, Le Macchiole(27ha.), Michele Satta, Marsilliana, Masseto, Mulini di Segalari, Ornallaia, Podere Castellaccio, Podere Sapaio(16ha.), Poggio al Tesoro(70ha.), Tenuta di Biserno(39ha.)
    • Vineyards– Castagni, Felciaino, Ornellaia, Sondraia
  • VINICULTURA–  Bianco,  Rosso(+AGED/ 10mo.),  Superiore-(+AGED/ 24mo.)
    • Super Tuscan(Wine Produced From Bordeaux Varieties Blended With Sangiovese.)
    •  Vin Santo,  Botrytis(Terre del Marchesato)
  • CULTURA-
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Consorzio di Bolgheri~
      • Mission~ 40 Producers to Govern the Bolgheri DOC.
  • BOLGHERI SASSICAIA DOC.    @Bolgheri
    • ROSSO= Sangiovese
      • Internazionale– Cabernet Sauvignon(+80%), Cabernet Franc
    • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ West), PROVINCIA-Livorno
      • In Bolgheri DOC.(North-East)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Coast/ Tyrrhenian~Sea~, SLOPES/ ?+Alt.?
    • VITICULTURA– 79 haPlanted
      • San Guido Obtained Its Own DOC., Monopole/ Only One In Italy
    • VINICULTURASuper Tuscan, +AGED/ 24 mo.
      • Estate/ Produttore– Marchese Incisa Della Rocchetta, Tenuta San Guido(Produces-Sassicaia, Guidalberto, Le Difese)

SUVERETO DOC.     @Suvereto

  • ROSSO= Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ West), PROVINCIA-Livorno
    •  (In/ Laps)Val Cornia DOCG.(South-East)
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Cornia~River~/ On~Coast/ Tyrrhenian~Sea~
  • VITICULTURA–  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURA Super Tuscan
    • Estate/ Produttore– Fralluca Ciparisso, Tenuta Casadei(24ha./ Colaboration/ Cline)

ELBA DOC.      @Portoferraio

  • BIANCO= Ansonica, Biancone, Vermentino, Procanico AKA=Trebbiano Toscana
  • ROSSO= Aleatico, Sangiovese
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ West), PROVINCIA-Livorno
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Hilly”, Off Coast(10 km.), On~Elba~Island~In~Tyrrhenian~Sea~
  • VITICULTURA–  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURAVin Santo
    • Estate/ Produttore– Tenuta Delle Ripalte, Valle di Lazzaro
  • ELBA ALEATICO PASSITO DOCG.      @Portoferraio
    • ROSSO= Aleatico
    • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ West), PROVINCIA-Livorno
    • TOPOGRAFIAOff Coast(10 km.), On~Elba~Island~In~Tyrrhenian~Sea~
    • VITICULTURA–   ?  haPlanted
    • VINICULTURA- Passito
      • Estate/ Produttore– Acquabona, Mola, Monetfabbrello

GORGONA DOC. (Un-Official)     @Gorgona

  • BIANCO=    |   ROSSO= Aleatico, Sangiovese
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal), PROVINCIA-Livorno
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Island/ Hilly”, Off Coast(30 km.), On~Island/ In~Tyrrhenian~Sea~
  • VITICULTURA–   ? haPlanted
  • VINICULTURAVin Santo
    • Estate/ Produttore– Marchesi di Frescobaldi
  • CULTURE– Vineyards Tended to by Prison Inmates/ Sponsored by Frescobaldi

MAREMMA DOC.      @

  • BIANCO= Ansonica, Malvasia, Trebbiano, Vermentino
    • Internazionale– Chardonnay, Viognier
  • ROSSO= Ciliegiolo, Canaiolo Nero, Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ West), PROVINCIA-Grosseto
    • Southern Toscana Coast and Interior, “Multi-Appellation”
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Uccelina Mountains
  • VITICULTURA– 1,564 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURASuper Tuscan
    • Estate/ Produttore– Antonio Camillo, Brancaia, Fattoria la Maliosa(Nat.Pro.), Piccini, Poggio al Tufo(Tommasi), Le Pupille

MONTEREGIO Di MASSA MARITTIMA DOC.     @Marittima

  • BIANCO= Malvasia, Trebbiano, Vermentino
    • Internazionale– Viognier
  • ROSSO= Caloria, Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ West), PROVINCIA-Grosetto
    •  In Maremma DOC.(North-West)
    • COMMUNES-Castiglione Della Pescaia, Colline Metallifere, Folonica, Gavorrano, Massa Marittima, Monterotondo, Roccastrada, Scarlino
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.380 mt.
  • VITICULTURA– 167 haPlanted
    • Estate/ Produttore– Conti di San Bonifacio, Cura Brecce, Valdonica, Valentini

MONTECUCCO DOC.     @Montecucco

  • BIANCO= Malvasia, Trebbiano, Vermentino
  • ROSSO= Ciliegiolo, Sangiovese, Vermentino
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ West),  PROVINCIA-Grosetto
    • In Maremma DOC.(East)
    • COMMUNES: Arcidosso, Campagnatico, Castel del Piano, Cinigiano, Civitella, Paganico, Roccalbegna, Seggiano
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Amiata Mountains, +Alt. 300mt. – 450mt.
    • VOLCANISM– ~Monte Amiata~ (2nd. Highest Volcano In Italy)
  • TERREMetamorphic“, “Volcanic
    • Friable Galestro, Clay, (Iron/Calcium/ Magnesium Rich)
  • VITICULTURA– 500 ha.
  • VINICULTURAReserva(+AGED/ 24 mo.)
    • Estate/ Produttore– Amantis, Basile, Campi Nuovi, Castello di Potentino, Il Civettaio, Livio Sassetti, Massari, Peteglia, Poggio Stenti, Salustri
  • MONTECUCCU SANGIOVESE DOCG.     @Montecuccu
    • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, Toscana(Coastal), PROVINCIA-Grosetto, In Maremma DOC.
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Hilly”, SLOPES/ Amiata Mountains, +Alt.?
    • VITICULTURA–  ?  haPlanted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Amantis

MORELLINO SCANSANO DOCG.     @Scansano

  • ROSSO= Morellino(+85%) AKA=Sangiovese
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ West), PROVINCIA-Grosetto
    • In Maremma DOC.(South-Interior)
    • South-East of Grosetto(5 km.),  @Hw.#E80
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”
  • VITICULTURA–  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURA+AGED/ 2 yr., Riserava
    • Estate/ Produttore– Cala de Poeti, Pupille

PARRINA DOC.       @Orbetello

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano, Vermentino
    • Internazionale– Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc,
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ South-West), PROVINCIA-Grosetto
    • In Capalbio DOC.(South-West)
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Coast/ Tyrrhenian~Sea~
  • VITICULTURA– ? haPlanted
    • Estate/ Produttore– Parrina Muraccio

CAPALBIO DOC.     @Capalbio

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese, Abrusco
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ South-West)
    • PROVINCIA-Grosetto(South), In Maremma DOC.(South-West)
    • COMMUNES– Capalbi, Magliano, Mancano, Orbetello
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Coast/ Tyrrhenian~Sea~
  • VITICULTURA– ? haPlanted
    • Estate/ Produttore– Bruni Moresco, Fattoria Capalbio Santa Lucia

ANSONICA COSTA Del ARGENTARIO DOC.     @Capalbio

  • BIANCO= Ansonica(+85%), +Other Toscana Bianco Grapes
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ South), PROVINCIA-Grosetto
    • In Maremma DOC.(South-West)
    • COMMUNES– Capalbio, Manciano, Orbetello, Isola del Giglio(Island)
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Coast/ Tyrrhenian~Sea~, “Non-Contiguous”
  • VITICULTURA– 9 haPlanted
    • Estate/ Produttore– Il Cerchio, Le Greppe del Giglio, La Parrina

BIANCO Di PITIGLIANO DOC.    @Pitigliano

  • BIANCO= Malvasia Bianco, Greco, Trebbiano Toscano, Verduzzo
    • Internazionale– Chardonnay, Sauvignon Bianco, Viognier
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ South), PROVINCIA-Grosetto
    • In Maremma DOC.(South-East), (Laps)Sovana DOC.
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Hilly”
  • VITICULTURA– ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURAVin Santo,  Superiore,  Spumante
    • Estate/ Produttore– Pitigliano Ildebrando(Co.-Op.), Roccaccia, Sassotondo

SOVANA DOC.     @Sovana

  • ROSSO= Sangiovese(+50%), Ciliegiolo, Aleatico, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Coastal/ South), PROVINCIA-Grosetto
    • In Maremma DOC.(South-East), (Laps)Bianco Di Pitigliano DOC.
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”
  • VITICULTURA– 265 haPlanted
    • Estate/ Produttore– Busattina, Poggia Foco, Sassotondo

SUPER TUSCAN Blends Original Were Wines With Minority of Bordeaux Varietals (Cabernet Franc/ Cabernet Sauvignon/ Merlot) Grown On Tuscan Coast Blended With Majority of Sangiovese. Originally the Term “Super Tuscan” Was Rarly Used In Italy, But Widely Used In International Markets.

  • STORIA/Back-Story- After Bringing Back French Varietals From Bordeaux Marchese Mario Rocchetta Planted the Cuttings On His Tuscan Coast Estate San Guido. With the Help of His Son Nicolo Rocchetta and Nephews Peiro Antinori They Made the First Wines of the 1968 Vintages Released In 1971. After Five Vintages This Wine He Produced From His “Sassicaia” Vineyard Under the San Guido Label Was Well Respected and Coveted. In a Effort to Sell the Wine He Looked to Be Granted a Ribbon of Authenticity From the DOC. and Was Told French Varietals Would Have to Be Labeled “Table Wine”.  Being the Strong Minded Italian He Said, “Va-Fan-Culo.” to the DOC.  By the Start of the 1980’s Some of the Most Highly Regarded Wines of Italy Where Being Classified as Table Wine. Wine With a Perception of Low Quality. His Wine and Other “Super Tuscans” Became a Phenomenon Until Decades Later the DOC. Had to Create New Classification. IGT. Indicazione di Geografica Tipica IGT. or Indication of Typical Geography In 1992.
  • Produttore– Oreno      –Vineyards– Sette Ponti @
    • ROSSO= Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Petite Verdot
  • Produttore– Rapace     –Vineyards– Uccelliera @
    • ROSSO= Sangiovese(60%), Merlot(30%), Cabernet Sauvignon(10%)-
  • -Produttore– Siepi     –Vineyard– Fonterutoli @
    • ROSSO= Sangiovese(50%), Merlot(50%)
  • Produttore– Antinori      –Vineyards– Solaia (20 ha., 340mt.-400mt.) @Chianti
    • ROSSO= Cabernet Sauvignon 80%, Cabernet Franc, Sangiovese 20%
  • Produttore– Antinori      –Vineyards– Tignanello(147 ha., 340mt.-400mt.) @Chianti
    • ROSSO= Sangiovese(80%), Cabernet Sauvignon(15%), Cabernet Franc(5%)
  • Produttore– San Guido      –Vineyards– Sassicaia @Bogliere
    • ROSSO= Cabernet Sauvignon(80%), Cabernet Franc
  • Produttore– Ludovico Antinori     –Vineyards– Ornellaia @
    • ROSSO= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon
  • Produttore– Ludovico Antinori     –Vineyards– Masseto @
    • ROSSO= Merlot 100%
  • Produttore– San Felice     –Vineyards– Vigorello @
    • ROSSO= Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • WINE PHILOSOPHY?  Is the Wine Still Considered a Super Tuscan if the Wine is Produced From Bordeaux Varietal Grown On the Tuscan Coast But Not Blended With Sangiovese, or Not Grown and Produced With Italian Grapes at All?
    • Some Producers Are Labeling Their Wines Super Tuscans Without Sangiovese Grapes and Some Producers of the World Are Calling Their Wines Super Tuscan and the Grapes and Wines Are Not Even From Italy.


ITALIAToscana ‘Interior’


COLLINE LUCCHESI DOC.     @Lucca

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano Toscano, Greco, Malvasia, Vermentino

    • Internazional– Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
  • ROSSO= Canaiolo, Ciliegiolo, Sangiovese, Vermentino Nero
    • Internazional– Merlot, Syrah
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior/ North), PROVINCIA-Pistoia
    • COMMUNE-Lucca, North & East of Lucca(1km.), Sub-Zones- Massarosa, Pescaglia
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Serchio~River~
    • SLOPES/ Apennines/Luca Hills, AKA=Alpi Apuane, +Alt.400 mt.
  • TERREMetamorphic”, “Sedimentary“, Clay, Gravel, Limestone, Sandstone
  • VITICULTURA– 89 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURABianco,  Rosso,  Vin Santo
    • Estate/ Produttore– Colle Verde, Fabbrica de San Martino, Fubbiano, Lenzini, Podere Conori, Sardi Giustiniani, Valgiano(16ha.)
  • CULTURA1968 Official DOC. Established.
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Lucca Biodinamica~
      • Mission~ To Share Knowledge, Materials and Equipment Among Its Members In an effort to Promote Biodynamic Agriculture.

MONTECARLO DOC.     @Montecarlo, Capannon

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano Toscano, Vermentino
    • Internazionale– Pinot Blanc, Pinot Grigio, Roussane, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon
  • ROSSO= Ciliegiolo, Colorino, Malvasia Nero, Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior/ North), PROVINCIA-Pistoia, @Hw.#A11
    • COMMUNES-Altopascio, Capannoir, Montecarlo, Porcari, South-East of Lucca(3km.)
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling”
  • VITICULTURA–   56  haPlanted
  • VINICULTUREBianco(30% -60% Trebbiano),  Rosso(50%-75% Sangiovese)
    • Estate/ Produttore– Buonamico, Teso, Michi, Montechiari, Poggio, Vigna Greppe
  • CULTURA1969 Official DOC. Established.

VALDINIEVOLE DOC.     @Pescia

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano, Malvasia, Vermentino
  • ROSSO= Canaiolo, Sangiovese
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior/ North), PROVINCIA-Pistoia, @Hw.#A11
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Hilly/ Valley(Nievole)”, SLOPES/ Montalbano Ridge, On~Nievole~River~
  • VITICULTURA– ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURABianco,   Rosso,   Superior,  Vin Santo
    • Estate/ Produttore
  • CULTURA– ~Etymology~ Derived From Latin Nebula Meaning Fog

BIANCO Dell EMPOLESE DOC.     @

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano Toscana
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior/North), PROVINCIA-Florence
    • BETWEEN: Pisa & Florence, (Laps)Chianti DOC.(North)
    • COMMUNES-Capraia Limite, Cerreto Guidi, Empoli, Fucecchio, Montelupo Fiorentino, Vinci
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Empoli Hills, Protected by Monte Albano
  • VITICULTURA–   ? haPlanted
  • VINICULTURAVin Santo
    • Estate/ Produttore

CHIANTI DOCG.    @Florence

  • BIANCO= Chardonnay
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese “Grosso Clone” 75-100% +Canaiolo 10%, and Up to 20%, Abrusco, Ciliegiolo
    • InternazionaleCabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior)
    • PROVINCIA– Arezzo/ Florence/ Pisa/ Pistoia, Prato/ Siena
    • COMMUNES– Arezzo 19, Firenze 32, Prato 3, Pisa 16, Pistoia 7, Siena 24
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”
  • VITICULTURA– 4,100 haPlanted
    • BOTTLE SHAPES~ ~Fiasco~ Round/ Straw-Wrapped Bottle With History Dating Back to 1500’s.
      • Sala-Italian Swamp Weed Used to Protect Handblown Bottle During Transportation.
  • VINICULTURAChianti(Not Released Untill March 1st.)
    • Reserva(+AGED/ 2 Years),  Superiore(+12%Abv.)
    • Includes 8 Sub-Zones That Are Permitted to Attach Their Name On Label.
  • STORIA– Baron Risasoli Gets Credit for Original Chianti Blend
    • 1716 @Chianti– Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany Officially Delimited the Chianti Production Zone Defining the Boundaries Pertaining to the Original Chianti Zone.
    • 1850’s @Chianti– Sangiovese & Trebbiano 75-90% +Malvasia/ Canaiolo to 15%, Passito Added to Secondary Fermentation
    • 1967 @Original DOC. (Sangiovese +Malvasia, Trebbiano 10%-30%)
  • STORIA/ Back-Story
    • The 200 Years After the 1716 Creation of Chianti Everyone In Tuscany Started to Call Their Wine “Chianti”. After a Century of Producers Making Watered Down, Massed Produced “Chianti Wine” (Usually +YEILD Wines In Fiasco Bottles) Lead to the Creation of the Cortorium of Chianti Producers. This Group Came Together to Do Something About it. This Mass Produced Wine Didn’t Come From the Original Hills of Tuscany With the Coveted Soils at Higher Evaluation. So Become the “Chianti Classico Zone”, and With it the Nero Gallo (Black Roster)- Representing the Older Genuine, Original Chianti Classico Area Centered Around the Hills of Castelina, Greve, Gaiole, and Radda
    • Nero Gallo Was a Symbol of the Ancient Military League That Protected Florence/ Chianti In Med-Evil Times.
    • The Bando(Proclamation) by Cosimo lll de’Medici Defined the Boundaries of Production for the Chianti Region. This Represented the the First Formal Piece of Legislation In the History of Wine That an Area Formally Set Its Geographic Boundaries.
  • CULTURE
    • PIONEERS~ ~Marchese Peiro Antinori~ President of Winery That  Helped Shaped Tuscan Wine.

**Chianti Classico Images Courtesy of Delong Maps, Purchase These Maps Delongwine.com


  • SUB-ZONES Of CHIANTI
    • **Producers Can Use “Sub-Zone” Names or “Chianti” On Bottle
  • Colline Pisane     @Casciana Alta
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, Chianti(West)
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Sorelle Palazzi
  • Montalbano      @Vinci
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, Chianti(North-West), West of Florence-City(  km.),
      • (Laps)Carmignano DOCG.
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Capezzana, Castellina, Faltognano
  • Montespertoli      @Montespertoli
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, Chianti(North)
    • VITICULTURE– 1,430 ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Barone de Renzis, Corfecciano, Parri, Fonti San Giorgio
  • Colli Fiorentini     @Florence 
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, Chianti(North-Central), Greater Florence
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Val d’Arno”, SLOPES/ Fiesole, +Alt.300 mt.
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Castello di Poppiano, Castelvecchio, Ferdinando Guicciardini, Lucignolo, Malenchini, Ottomani, Uggiano, San Vito, La Torre, La Querce, Volognano
  • Chianti Rufina     @Rufina
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, Chianti(North-East)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Apennines Mountains, +Alt.500mt., On~Sieve~River~
    • CLIMA= “Mediterranean” Coolest Chianti Sub-Zone
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Castello del Trebbio, Colognole, Frescobaldi, Renzo, Selvapiana
      • Vineyards– Lastricato
  • Colli Senesi      @Siena
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, Chianti(South/ South-West), “Non-Contiguous(3)”
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, +Alt.300mt.
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Bichi Boghesi, Cerro, Farnetella, Montsanto, Salcheto
  • Colli Aretini     @Arezzo
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, Chianti(South-East)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly” +Alt.300mt., “Non-Contiguous”
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Patema, Petrolo, Selvatici, San Ferdinando, Villa a Sesta

CHIANTI CLASSICO DOCG.     @Florence

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano
    • Internazionale– Chardonnay
  •  ROSSO= Sangiovese “Classico 2000 Clone” (+80-100%), Canaiolo, Ciliegiolo, Colorino
    •  –Internazionale– Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), In Chianti DOC.(Interior)
    • Original Hill Area
    • COMMUNES/ TOWNSHIPS– Castellina, Gaiole, Greve, Radda, Barberina Val d’Elsa
      • Plus Parts of…Barberino Val d’Elsa, Castelnuovo Berardenga, Poggibonsi, San Casciano Val di Pesa, Tavarnelle Val d’Pesa
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.500mt., On~Ombrone/ Pesa~River~
  • TERRE= Metamorphic”, ”Sedimentary
    • Galestro(Sandy Shale), Alberese(Limestone/ Sandstone), Clay
  • CLIMA= Continental WithMediterranean Influences
  • VITICULTURA– 70,000 ha./ 7,200 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE– **White Grape Grown But Not Manditory to Be Blended In Chianti Classico
    • Chianti Classico d’Annata
      • VINICULTURE+AGED/ +12 mo.
    • Chianti Classico Riserva
      • VINICULTURE+AGED/ +24 mo./ +3 mo./ Bottle
    • Chianti Classico Gran Selezione
      • VINICULTURE– Single Vineyard From Estates Grown Fruit, +80% Sangiovese, +Abv. +13%
        • +AGED/ +30 mo./ +3 mo./ Bottle.   |   No Set Oak-Aging Requirement
      • Estate/ Produttore– Bibbiano, Bindi Sergardi, Carus Vini, Casa Emma, Castello di Ama, Castello di Gabbiano, Castello di Monsanto, Castello di Verazzano, Fontodi, Poggio al Sole, Ricasoli, Rocca di Montegrossi, Santo Stefano, Tolaini, Vignamaggio
  • SUB-ZONES Of CHIANTI CLASSICO
    • **Producers Can Use “Sub-Zone” Names or “Chianti Classico” On Bottle
  • San Casciano In Val di Pesa      @San Casciano
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, (In/ Laps)Chianti Classico(North-West),  @Hw.#RA3
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Terzona~Creek~Tributary~Pesa~River~
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • North-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Chiesanuova, Cigliano(25ha.), Montecapri, Poggio Torselli, Poggiopiano, Pisignano, La Romola, Sant’Andrea, Spedaletto, Villa del Cigliano
      • South-West-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Bibbione, Borghetto Antinori, Campoli, Le Corti Corsini, Fabbrica, Montefiridolfi, Montepaldi, Palagio, Paterno, Perseto, Santa Maria, Sorripa, Talente, Tignanello
      • South-East-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore- Catello di Gabbiano, Ferrone, Luiano, Peppoli, La Querceto(Branca), Santa Lucia
  • Tavarnelle Val di Pesa      @
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, (In/ Laps)Chianti Classico(West-Central)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore
  • Barberino Val d’Elsa
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, (In/ Laps)Chianti Classico(West-Central)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore
  • Poggibonsi
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, (In/ Laps)Chianti Classico(West-Central)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore
  • Greve     @Greve
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, (In/ Laps)Chianti Classico(North-East),  @Hw.#SR22
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Monte Muro, +Alt. 350mt.- 655mt.
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • North-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Carpineto, Castel Ruggero, Chiocchio, La Madonnina, Montemasso-Ruffino, Nozzole, Presura, San Polo, Strada In Chianti
      • Central-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Greti, Montefioralle, Mellazzano, Uzzano, Riseccoli(Sugarne), Ruffoli, Castello Vicchiomaggio, Vignamaggio, Villa Calcinaia(Viticcio)(30ha.), Verazzano
      • South-West-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Cafaggio, Candiale, Casole, Castello die Rampolla, La Cinciole, Conca d’Oro, Crespine, Fontodi, Lamole di Lamole, La Massa, Montagliari, Montechil, Monte Bernardi, Panzanello, La Saia, Vitigliano
    • -Vineyards- Campolungo(11ha.), Grospoli, Le Masse, Il Prato
      • South-East-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Catello di Querceto, Le Corti Anichini, Dudda, I Fabbri, Fattoria di Lamole, Lamole di Lamole(40ha.), La Masse di Lamolie, Poggio Scalette, Riseccoli, Il Tagliato, Querciabella
  • Castellina       @Castellina
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, (In/ Laps)Chianti Classico(South-West),  @Hw.#SR22/ SR429
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling”, SLOPES/ Poggio Della Macia Morta, +Alt.632 mt.
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • North-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Castellare, Concadoro, Nittardi, Piccini, Tenuta Gretole-Ruffino, Tenuta Santedame-Ruffino, Villa Rosa
      • South-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Bibbiano(30ha.), Brancaia, Castello di Fonterutoli, Castello di Rencine, Lilliano, Poggio Amorelli, Rocca Delle Macia, Rodano, San Leonino, Straccali, Tenuta di Capraia, Villa Cerna, Villa Pomona, Villa Rosa
    • -Vineyards- Cappannino( 7ha.)
  • Radda       @Radda
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, (In/ Laps)Chianti Classico(East-Central),  @Hw.#SR429
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Monti del Chianti, On~Pesa~River~
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • North-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Albola, Albola(Capaccia), Bugialla, Campomaggio, Caparsa, Castelvecchi, La Croce, Istine, Lucarelli, Montemaggio, Monterinaldi, Montevertine, Petraia, Selvale, Selvale(Terreno), Selvanella, Spanda, Volpaia
      • South-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Beretone, Domini, Casa al Vento, Castello di Albola(125 ha.), Malpensata, Monteraponi, Poci, Poppi, Radda Paese, San Fedele
  • Castelnuovo Berardenga
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, (In/ Laps)Chianti Classico(South), @Hw.#SS408
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling”, On~Ombrone~River~
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • West-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Aiola, Borgo Scopeto, Canonica a Cerreto, Corsignano, Dievole, Fattoria di Petroio, Villa di Geggiano, Querciavalle
      • East-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Le Boncie, Castello di Bossi, Castello’in Villa, Felsina Berardenga, San Felice, Tenuta di Arcento, Villa a Sesta
    • Vineyards– Rancia
  • Gaiole      @Gaiole
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, (In/ Laps)Chianti Classico(South-East),  @Hw.#SP408/ SS484
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling”, On~Arbia~River~, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.450mt.- 525mt.
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • West-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Agricoltori Chianti Geografico, Badia a Coltibuono, Castello di Ama, La Porta di Vertine, Vistarenni
    • -Vineyards- San Lorenzo(25.5ha.)
      • East-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Castello di Starda, Ricasoli(234ha.)(Castello di Brolio Barone), Fattoria Rietine, Riecine, San Vincenti
    • Estate/ Produttore– Montecalcini, Sodacci
      • South-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Capannelle, Castello di Cacchiano, Il Colombaio di Cencio, Rocca di Montegrossi, San Giusto a Rentennano
  • San Donato     @San Donato In Poggio
    • GEOGRAFIAREGION-Toscana, (In/ Laps)Chianti Classico(West-Central),  @Hw.#A3
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling”, SLOPES/ Poggio al Vento, +Alt.456mt., On~Pesa~River~
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • North-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Fatoria di Montecchio, Poggio al Sole
      • South-Sector
    • Estate/ Produttore– Il Campino, Casa Emma, Casa Sola, Castello di Monsanto, Castello della Paneretta, Cinciano, Fattoria le Fonti, Isole e Olena, Querica al Poggio

COLLI Delle ESTRURIA CENTRALE DOC.     @Greater Chianti

  • BIANCO= Canaiolo Bianco, Malvasia del Chianti, Trebbiano
  • ROSSO= Canaiolo, Sangiovese
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior)
    • PROVINCIA-Lucca, Pistoia, Prato, Pisa, Firenze, Siena, Arezzo
  • VINICULTURABianco(+50% Trebbiano),  Rosso(+50% Sangiovese),  Vin Santo
    • Colli delle Estruria Centrale DOC. Was Created to Produce Wine From Carmignano Seconds/ Younger Wine, Giving Winemakers Viticultural Freedom.
  • CULTURA– 1990 Estatblishment of Offical DOC.

CARMIGNANO DOCG.    @Carmignano

  • BIANCO= Canaiolo Bianco, Malvasia del Chianti, Trebbiano
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese(+50%), Canaiolo Nero(-20%)
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Franc(10% – 20%), Cabernet Sauvignon(10% – 20%) AKA=Uva Francesca, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), PROVINCIA-Prato
    • In Chianti DOC.(North), North-West of Florence-City(18 km.)
    • COMMUNES-Carmignano, Poggio a Caiano
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Hilly”, SLOPES/ Montelbano Mountians, +Alt.400mt., On~Arno~River~
  • TERRE= Metamorphic”, ”Sedimentary, Sand, Calcareaus, Clay
  • VITICULTURA– 180 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURARosso(+12.5 Abv., +AGED/20 mo., 8 mo. In Barrel),  Riserva(+AGED/ 3 yr., 12 mo. Barrel),   Vin Santo
    • -Estate/ Produttore– Ambra, Artimino, Bacchereto, Capezzana, La Farnete, Piaggia, San Biagio, Villa Artimino, Villa de Capezzana
  • CULTURA1975 @Carmignano– Estatblishment of Offical DOC./ DOCG. Established In 1990.

  • BARCO REALE Di CARMIGNANO DOC.   @Carmignano
    • ROSSO= Sangiovese+50%, Canaiolo Nero
      • Internazionale Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon
    • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), PROVINCIA-Prato
      • North-West of Florence-City(18km.)
    • VITICULTURA– 14 haPlanted
    • VINICULTURA–  Rosso(+AGED/ 1 yr.), Rosato(Vin Ruspo)((+11% Abv.)
      • Barco Reale DOC. Was Created to Produce Wine From Carmignano Seconds/ Younger Wine, Giving Winemakers Viticultural Freedom.

VIN SANTO Del CHIANTI DOC.     @Greater Chianti

  • BIANCO= Amabile– Malvasia, Trebbiano
  • ROSSO= Occhio di Pernice– Sangiovese(50%)
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana
  • VITICULTURA– Late Harvest, Hand Harvest(Perfect/ Undamaged Bunches Raisinate Better)
  • VINICULTURAPassito(3-6 mo., Grapes Hang From Rafters to Dehydrate)
    • +AGED/ 3-10 yr. Caratelli (75 L., 125 L., 300 L.)Barrels (Sealed/ No Topping Off)
    • +Oxidized, +Abv.14-19% -Regional Variations Across Italy/ Liquoroso Versions
    • **Variation Are Produced Across Toscana In the DOC.’s…Bolgheri, Carmignano, Elba, Montepulciano, Pomino, Sant’Antimo, and Across Italia In the DOC.’s…Gambellara, Trentino.
    • Estate/ Produttore– Castellare San Niccolò, Fontodi, Ricasoli, Rocca de Montegrossi, Travignoli, Villa Calcinaia
  • STORIA
    • Sacrament Wine of Eucharist Used For Holy Communion. White Wine Become Used For Masses Because Red Wine Stained Church Marble.
    • Sweet Wine “In Vogue” In Past and Preferred by the Masses.
    • Traditonal In Tuscan Culture to Offer Vin Santo & Amaretti Biscotti to House Guest.
  • CULTURA– ~Etymology~  Vino Santo In Tocana, Vin Santo In Trentino

POMINO DOC.    @Rufina

  • BIANCO= Chardonnay, Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio, Trebbiano
  • ROSSO= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), PROVINCIA-Firenze/ Siena
    • (Laps)Chianti Rufina
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.500mt.-700mt.
  • VITICULTURA– ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURAVin Santo
    • Estate/ Produttore– Marchesi Frescobaldi

VALDARNO Di SOPRA DOC.      @Montevarchi

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano
    • Internazionale– Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), PROVINCIA-Arezzo
    • BETWEEN: Arezzo Plain & Florentine Hills, North-West of Arezzo-City(10km.)
    • COMMUNES-Pietraviva, Pratomagno
    • CITIES-Castiglion Fibocchi, Figline Valdarno, Montevarchi, San Giovanni Valarno, Subbiano
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Arno)”, SLOPES/ Arno Valley, +Alt.?
    • On~Arno~River~
  • VITICULTURA– 800 haPlanted
    • Estate/ Produttore– Il Borro(45ha.), Podere Carnasciale, Petrolo, Sette Ponti(60ha.)
  • CULTURE– For Mysterious/ Shady Reasons Few Producers Bottle Under the Valdarno DOC. Label and Instead Chose to Use the Toscana Rosso IGT. Label.

SAN GIMIGNANO DOC.     @San Gimignano

  • BIANCO= Vernaccia, Malvasia del Chianti, Trebbiano Toscano
    • Internazionale– Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Bianco
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Nero, Syrah)
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), PROVINCIA-Siena,  MUNICIPALITY– San Gimignano
    • In Chianti DOC., North-West of Siena-City(   km.),  @Hw. SR68
    • Sub-Zones- Guardia Sanframondi, Sant’Agata dei Goti, Solopaca, Taburno
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.100 mt.-480 mt.
  • TERRE=Metamorphic”, ”Sedimentary, Pliocene Era 7 to 15 Million Years Ago, Sand, Yellow, Clay
  • CLIMA= “Mediterranean
  • VITICULTURA– 12,500 ha., 1,900  ha. Planted
    • Rosso(+50% Sangiovese, +-40% Cabernet Sauvignon/ Merlot/ Pinot Nero, Syrah), Rosato
    • Some of Grapes Produced From This DOC. Make Their Way Into Production of Chianti and Colli Senese DOC. Wines.
    • Vinsanto/ Occhio Pernice– Trebbiano Toscano(+30%), Malvasia del Chianti(-50% )
    • Vermiglio– Highly Coveted Robust Red Wine Town Was Known For In the Middle Ages
  • VINICULTURA– +11.5% Abv.,  Reserve(+12.5 Abv.), Vin Santo
  • STORIA–  History of Wine Production Goes Back to Etruscan Times
  • CULTURA
    • ASSOCIATIONS– ~Consorzio della Denominazione San Gimignano~
      • MissionTo Ensure the Correct Management of The Appellation; To Enhance the Value, Defend the DOC., and Carry Out Research and Development.
    • AGRICULTURE~ History of Grapes, Olive and Cereal Production.

  • VERNACCIA Di SAN GIMIGNANO DOCG.     @San Gimignano
    • BIANCO= Vernaccia(+90%) +Chardonnay(-10%)
    • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), PROVINCIA-Siena,  @Hw. SR68
      • In Chianti DOC., North-West of Siena-City(   km.)
      • Sub-Zones- Guardia Sanframondi, Sant’Agata dei Goti, Solopaca, Taburno
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.200 mt.-400 mt.
    • VITICULTURA– 12,500 ha., 755 ha. Planted
    • VINICULTURA– +11.5% Abv.,  Reserve(+12.5 Abv.), Vin Santo
      • Annata(No Oak Fermentation or Oak Aging)
      • Selezione(Either Single Vineyard or a Cellar Created Cuvee)
      • Riserva(Usually Barrel Fermented, +AGED/ 1 Year)
      • Estate/ Produttore– Agricoltori del Chianti, Alessandro Tofanari, Campochiarenti, Castello Montauto, Colobaio Santachiara, Falchini, Gini, Guidi, Melini, Montenidoli, Panizzi, Selvabianca, Sociale Certaldo, Vincenzo Cesani
    • STORIA1966 @San Gimignano–  DOCG. Established, 1st. In Italia.

TERRE Di CASOLE DOC.    @Casoled’Elsa

  • BIANCO= Chardonnay, Trebbiano
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior/ South), PROVINCIA-Siena
    • In Chianti DOC.(South-West)
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling”
  • VITICULTURA–  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURARiserva(+AGED/ +12 mo.),  Superiore
    • Estate/ Produttore– Macchie

VAL D’ARBIA DOC.      @Siena

  • BIANCO= Malvasia del Chianti, Chardonnay, Trebbiano Toscano
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior/ South), PROVINCIA-Siena
    • East of Siena-City(   km.), In Chianti DOC.(South)
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Arbia)”
  • VITICULTURA–   ?  haPlanted
    • Estate/ Produttore– Alteino

PIETRAVIVA DOC.      @

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano, Malvasia
    • Internazionale– Chardonnay
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese, Canaiolo, Ciliegiolo
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior/ South), PROVINCIA-Siena
    • West of Arezzo-City(    km.), In Chianti DOC.(South-East)
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”
  • VITICULTURA–   ?  haPlanted
    • Estate/ Produttore

GRANCE SENESI DOC.      @Siena

  • BIANCO= Trebbiano, Malvasia Bianco Lunga
  • ROSSO= Canaiolo, Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior/ South), PROVINCIA-Siena
    • South of Siena-City(   km.)
    • MUNICIPALITIES-Asciano, Monteroni d’Arbia, Murlo, Rapolano Terme, Sovicille
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”
  • VITICULTURA–   ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURABianco,  Rosso,  Passito,  Vin Santo,  Vendemmia Tardiva
    • Estate/ Produttore– Monte Oliveto

BRUNELLO Di MONTALCINO DOCG.      @Montalcino

  • ROSSO= Sangiovese “Brunello Grosso Clone(BBS.11)” 100%
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), PROVINCIA-Siena(South)
    • South of Siena-City(25 km.), “Greater Montalcino”
    • Sub-DOC.’s- Moscadello di Montalcino DOC, Rosso di Montalcino DOC., Vin Santo Montalcino DOC.
  • TOPOGRAFIASouth…“Flat/ Rolling”, North…”Hilly”, (Town of Montalcino 567mt.)
    • VOLCANISM~ ~Mount Amiata~(Mainland Italy Highest Volcanic Peak)
    • On~Ombrone~River~
  • TERRE=Metamorphic”, ”Sedimentary, Sandy Clay, Marl, Galestro, Limestone
    • (South-West) Pliocene Clay, Limestone, Low-Alt….. Warmer
    • (North-East) Schist, Galestro(Marl) +Alt.150mt.-500mt….Cooler
  • CLIMA= Mediterranean With Continental Influence
  • VITICULTURA– 1,200 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURA+AGED/ +4 yr., 2 yr. Oak,  Reserva(+AGED/ +5 yr.)
    • Grappa di Brunello(Marc From Brunello di Montalcino Grapes)
  • STORIA
    • 1800’s @Montalcino– Brunello Was Referred to a Rosso-Vino di Montalcino or Red-Wine of Montalcino
  • CULTURA
    •  ~Etymology~ Name Derives From Monte Leccio or Holm Oak Hill…Referring to the Oak Forest That Covered the Area
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Consorzio del Vino Brunello de Montalcino~
    • PIONEERS~Giuseppe Sesti~ Owner/ Winemaker, Castello di Argiano
      • ~Clemente SantiSelected a Biotype of Sangiovese, Used it to Make a Innovative Barrel-Aged, Monovarietal Wine…Invented Mondern Brunello 1869, Won Gold Medal at Montepulciano Agricultural Fair.
      • ~Ferruccio Biondi Santi~ Grandson of Clemente Santi, Modernized Brunello.
    • WINE SCANDALS~  ~Brunello di Montalcino~ (2008)
      • Sangiovese Wines Were Being Blended with Lancellota Grapes and Sold as Being 100% Brunello
    • AGRICULTURE~ History of Grapes, Mushrooms, Truffles, Ciingiale(Wild Boar) and Honey Production.
  • GOING THERE- 
    • WINERY TOURS~ Castello Banfi, Frescobaldi, Castelgiocondo, Camiglianco (All Offer Comprensive Tours.)

  • SUB-ZONES Of MONTALCINO
  • Bosco       @Bosco
    • GEOGRAFIA– Montalcino(North-West/ Interior)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Hilly”
    • TERRE= Metamorphic”, Sedimentary“, Clay    |   CLIMA= Cooler, Fog, Spring Frost
    • VINICULTURA– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Castiglion del Bosco(Ferragamo), Citille id Sopra, Sasso di Soli
      • -Vineyards- Capanna(41ha.)
  • Montosoli      @
    • GEOGRAFIA– Montalcino(North)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.500mt.
    • VINICULTURA– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Altesino, Baricci, Marroneto(7ha.), Paradiso di Manfredi, Ridolfi
  • Torrenieri      @Torrenieri
    • GEOGRAFIA– Montalcino(North-East)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”
    • TERRE= Metamorphic”, Sedimentary“, Clay    |   CLIMA= Cooler, Fog, Spring Frost
    • VINICULTURA– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Castiglion del Bosco(Ferragamo), Silvo Nardi
  • Montalcino      @Montalcino
    • GEOGRAFIA– Montalcino(North/ Interior)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Hilly/ Mountainous”, +Alt. 400mt.-500mt.
      TERRE= Metamorphic”, Sedimentary, Calcareous
    • VINICULTURA– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Barbi, Biondi Santi, Costanti, Gianni Brunelli, La Gerla, Le Potazzina
  • Camigliano      @
    • GEOGRAFIA– Montalcino(South-West)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Hilly”
    • TERRE= Metamorphic”, Sedimentary“, Clay     |   CLIMA= Warmer/ Hot, Arid
    • VINICULTURA– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– La Fuga(Folonari), Castelgiocondo(Frescobaldi), Marchesato degli Aleramici, Pian Della Vigna(Antinori)
  • Tavernelle      @Tavernelle
    • GEOGRAFIA– Montalcino(South-Interior)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt. 300mt.-350mt.
    • VINICULTURA– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Armilla, Caprili, Case Basse(Soldera), Pieve Santa Restituta(Gaja)
  • Saint Angela In Colle & Saint Angelo Scalo      @
    • GEOGRAFIA– Montalcino(South)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling”, +Alt.250mt.-400mt.
    • TERRE= Metamorphic”, Sedimentary“, Pliocene Clay, Alluvial   |   CLIMA= Hottest, Driest
    • VINICULTURA– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Banfi Poggio, Col d’Orcia, Lisini, Sesti Phenomena
  • Castelnuovo Dell Abate      @Abate
    • GEOGRAFIA– Montalcino(South-East)
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Hilly”, +Alt.250mt.-450mt.
    • VINICULTURA– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Altesino, Banfi, Barbi, Biondi-Santi, Casa Raia, Casisano(Tommasi)(22 ha.), La Fiorita, Palazzone, Poggio de Sotto(16ha.), Le Ragnaie, Uccelliera
  • Sesti      @
    • GEOGRAFIA– Montalcino(South)
      • High- 350mt.-450mt.
      • Mid-Area- 200mt.-350mt.
      • Low-Lying- 150mt.-250mt.
    • TOPOGRAFIA– “Hilly”
    • VINICULTURA– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Sestadisopra, Tenuta di Sesti(13ha.)
  • Other      @(Not Found In Demarkated Sub-Zone)
    • Estate/ Produttore(Not Located In Stated Sub-Zone) Casanuova delle Cerbaie, Siro Pacenti, Valdivava

  • ROSSO Di MONTALCINO DOC.      @Montalcino

    • ROSSO= Sangiovese “Brunello Grosso Clone(BBS.11)” 100%
    • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), PROVINCIA-Siena(South)
      • South of Siena-City(25km.), In “Greater Montalcino” DOCG.
    • TOPOGRAFIA–  “Flat/ Rolling”, SLOPES/ ?,+Alt.500mt. (Town of Montalcino 567mt.)
    • VITICULTURA– 501 haPlanted
      • Estate/ Produttore– Argiano, Baccinetti, Franco Pacenti, Campogiovanni, Canalicchio di Sopra, Capanna, Casanovadi Neri, Castello Banfi, Castello Tricerchi, Col d’Orcia, Conti Costanti, Corte dei Venti, Patizia Cencioni, Piccolini d’Aragona, Podere Brizio, Il Poggione, Poggio Antico, Poggio Lucina, La Ragnaie, Rodolfo Casimi, Salicutti, Sesti, Siro Pacenti, Valdicava
    • VINICULTURA
      • Rosso di Montalcino DOC. Created to Produce Wine From Brunello Seconds/ Younger Wine, Giving Winemaker Viticultural Freedom.
      • +AGED/ 10 mo./ No Oak Requirements, Wine Released On September 1 Year Following Harvest.
  • MOSCADELLO Di MONTALCINO DOC.     @Montalcino
    • BIANCO= Moscadello AKA= Moscato
    • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), PROVINCIA-Siena(South)
      • South of Siena-City(25km.), In “Greater Montalcino” DOCG.
    • TERRE= Metamorphic Galestro/ Granite, Schist
    • VINICULTURALiquoroso,  Fizznate,  Vendemmia Tardiva
      • Estate/ Produttore– Capanna, Caprili, Tenute del Cerro, Tenuta Col d’Orcia Pascena
    • CULTURE– Historically Moscadello Was the Most Popular Grape/ Wine In the Montalcino. Not Until the 1900’s Did Brunello/ Sangiovese Become King.
  • VIN SANTO MONTALCINO DOC.     @Montalcino
    • BIANCO= Malvasia(+70%), Trebbiano, Pulcinculo AKA=Grechetto
    • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), PROVINCIA-Siena(South)
      • South of Siena-City(25km.), In “Greater Montalcino” DOCG.
    • VINICULTURAOcchio Pernice(Sangiovese),  Reserva
      • Estate/ Produttore

SANT’ ANTIMO DOC.     @Montalcino

  • BIANCO= Malvasia, Trebbiano
    • Internazionale–  Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Grigio
  • ROSSO= Malvasia Nero, Sangiovese
    • Internazionale-Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Nero
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior/ South), PROVINCIA-Siena
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt. to 600mt.
  • VITICULTURA– 434 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURAVarietal,  Rosso,  Super Tuscan,  Vin Santo
    • +BLENDED/ Open to Wine Vinified From Any Grape
    • Estate/ Produttore– Col d’Orcia, Casanova di Neri, Cupano Ombrone, Silvio Nardi
  • CULTURAMonks & Monasteries  ~Abbey of Sant’ Antimo~

ORCIA DOC.        @Pienza

  • BIANCO= Malvasia, Trebbiano
  • ROSSO= Abrusco, Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior/ South), PROVINCIA-Siena
    • East of Montalcino-City(    km.)
    • COMMUNES– Buonconvento, Castiglione d’Orcia, Pienza, Radicofani, San Giovanni, San Quirico, Trequanda
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Valley(Orcia)”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.609mt., On~Orcia~River~
  • TERREMetamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Quartz, Limestone
  • VITICULTURA–  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURAVarietal,  Bianco,  Rosso,  Rosato,  Riserva,  Vin Santo
    • Estate/ Produttore– Casali di Bibbiano, Donatella, Podere Forte, Simonelli-Santi, Trinoro
  • CULTURA
    • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Consorzio del Vino Orcia~
    • UNESCO. WORLD HERITAGE SIGHT~  ~Val d’Orcia~ (Cultural, Landscape, Vineyards)

VALDICHIANA DOC.      @Valdichiana

  • BIANCO= Grechetto, Malvasia, Trebbiano
    • Internazionale– Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio, Pinot Bianco
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior/ South-East), PROVINCIA-Siena
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Valley(Chiana)”, On~Chiani~River~
  • VITICULTURA– 151 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURAVarietal,  Bianco,  Rosso,  Spumante,  Vin Santo
    • Estate/ Produttore– Collezione di Paolo, Renzo Masi, San Luciano, Santa Vittoria

VINO NOBLE MONTEPULICANO DOCG.    @Montepulciano

  • ROSSO= Sangiovese “Prugnolo Gentile Clone”(+70%), Canaiolo(10% to 20%), Colorino, Mammolo
    • Internazionale– Merlot
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), PROVINCIA-Siena
    • South-East of Siena-City(45km.)
    • Sub-DOC.’s– Rosso di Montepulciano DOC., Vin Santo Montepulciano DOC.
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ ?+Alt. 25omt. – 600mt.
    • BETWEEN: On~Ocria~River & Chiana~River~
  • TERRE=Metamorphic“, Sand, Clay, Scarce
  • VITICULTURA–   ? haPlanted
  • VINICULTURA+AGED/+2 yr. In Botti,  Vin Santo
    • Estate/ Produttore– Avignonesi, Boscarelli, Carpineto, La Dogana Enoteca, Poliziano, Salcheto
  • CULTURA ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Montepulciano Alliance Vinum~

  • ROSSO Di MONTEPULCIANO DOC.     @Montepulciano
    • VINICULTURA– Rosso di Montepulciano DOC. Created to Make Wine From Brunello Seconds, Younger Wine, Giving Winemaker Viticultural Freedom.
    • Estate/ Produttore
  • VIN SANTO MONTEPULCIANO DOC.     @Montepulciano
    • BIANCO= Malvasia(+70%), Trebbiano, Pulcinculo AKA=Grechetto
    • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior), PROVINCIA-Siena
    • VITICULTURA
      • Estate/ Produttore– Avignonesi, Bindella, Boscarelli, Crociani, Fattoria della Talosa, Lombardo, Montemercurio, Nottola, Ploiziano, Tenute del Cerro
    • VINICULTURA- Passito(+3mo.), +Aged/ 3 yr./ Caratelli(300 L.)
      • Reserva(+Aged/ 5yr., Caratelli(125 L.)
      • Occhio Pernice(+50% Sangiovese/ Prugnolo Gentile), +Aged/ 8 yr., Caratelli(75 L.)
      • Must Be Grown Entirely In Municipality of Montepulciano, +Alt 200mt. – 600mt.

CORTONA DOC.     @Cortona

  • BIANCO= Grechetto
    • Internazionale– Chardonnay, Pinot Bianco, Riesling Italico, Sauvignon Bianco
  • ROSSO= Sangiovese
    • Internazionale– Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Nero, Syrah
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior/ South-East), PROVINCIA-Arezzo
    • BORDERS: Lazio ‘Region
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Apennine Mountains, +Alt.600mt.
  • TERRE=Metamorphic“, “Volcanic
  • VITICULTURA–  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURAVin Santo
    • Estate/ Produttore– Avignonesi, Luigi d’Alessandro, Stefano Amerighi

Indicazione Geografica Protetta of Toscana

  • BIANCO= Any White Grapes Varieties Approved For Production In Toscana.
  • ROSSO= Any Red Grapes Varieties Approved For Production In Toscana.
  • VITICULTURA– Wine Produced In “TOSCANA” Non-Conforming to DOC. or DOCG.

TOSCANA IGP.     @Tuscany

  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Greater)
    • Estate/ Produttore– Argiano, Tenuta di Biserno, Del Cabreo

MONTECASTELLI IGP.

  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana, PROVINCIA– ?

VAL Di MAGRA IGP.

  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana, PROVINCIA– ?

COSTA TOSCANA IGP.

  • BIANCO= Biancame, Grechetto, Trebbiano
  • ROSSO= Ancellotta
    • Internazionale– Alicante Bouschet, Carignan, Garnacha
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana, PROVINCIA– ?
    • Estate/ Produttore– Ampeleia(Nat.Pro.), Elisabetta Foradori, Kepos

COLLI Delle TOSCANA CENTRALE IGP.

  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Toscana, PROVINCIA– ?
    • -Estate/ Produttore- Monte Bernardi


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.