CALIFORNIA-Napa Valley


NAPA VALLEY IS   AVA.- 17      @Napa

  • WHITE= Chardonnay 11%, Sauvignon Blanc 4%, Albarino, Chenin Blanc, Furmint, Friulano, Garnacha Blanco, Gewurztraminer, Grunner Veltliner, Marsanne, Muscat(Orange), Pinot Gris, Ribolla Giallo, Riesling, Sauvignon Gris, Scheurebe, Semillon, Tribidrag, Vermentino
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon 55%, Merlot 10%, Aleatico, Barbera, Cabernet Franc, Carignan, Dolcetto, Grignolino, Malbec, Monduese, Perloursin, Petit Verdot, Petite Sirah, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, St. Macaire, Syrah, Tempranillo, Teroldego, Touriga Nacional, Valdiguie AKA=Napa Gamay, Zinfandel

GEOGRAPHY STATE-California, REGION-Napa, COUNTY-Napa, LATITUDE: 38.5° N

  • BORDERS- Lake County(North), Sonoma County(West), Solano County(East)
  • (34 Miles Long & 4 Miles Wide),  @Hw.#29/ #121/ #128/ #221/ Silverado Trail
  • 26 Miles to Pacific Ocean, 48 Miles to San Francisco 360 Miles to Los Angeles.
  • SUB-ZONES/ AVA.’S-
    • Valley Floor- Calistoga AVA., Carneros AVA., Coombsville AVA., Oak Knoll AVA., Oakville AVA., Rutherford AVA., Stags Leap AVA., St. Helena AVA., Yountville AVA., Wild Horse Valley AVA.
      • UN-OFFICIAL– American Canyon AVA., Silverado AVA.
    • Mountains- Atlas Peak AVA., Chiles Valley AVA., Diamond Mountain AVA., Howell Mountain AVA., Mount Veeder AVA., Spring Mountain AVA.
      • UN-OFFICIAL– Pope Valley AVA., Pritchard Hill AVA.

TOPOGRAPHY FEATURESFlat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced/ Valley(Napa)

  • Valley Floor- +Alt. 10 ft. In Carneros to 350 ft. In Calistoga.   |   Mountains- +Alt. to 4,342 ft., Vines to 2,600 ft.
  • Mayacamas Mountain Range- In Inner Coast Ranges Which Are Part of the California Coast Range System.
    • Volcanic Origins, (Eastern Exposure/ +Morning Sunlight), Separates Napa Valley From Sonoma Valley.
  • Vaca Mountain Range- In Inner Coast Ranges Which Are Part of the California Coast Range System.
    • Franciscan Formation Origins, (Western Exposure/ +Afternoon Sunlight), Separates Napa Valley From Sacramento Valley.
  • On~Napa~River~ (Tributaries)
    • 55 Miles Long From Headwaters On Mt. St. Helena to San Pablo~Bay~
    • Napa River Flood Project–  Widening Project On 6 Miles of the River to Alleviate Potential Flood Pressure On Napa Flood Plain
  • On~Tributaries~Napa River~
    • On~Chase~Creek~/ On~Chiles~Creek~/ On~Conn~Creek~/ On~Foss~Creek~/ On~Maxwell~Creek/  On~Mill~Creek~/ On~Rector~Creek~/ On~Ritchie~Creek~/ On~Shelby~Creek~/ On~Simmons~Creek~/ On~Sulphur~Creek~/ On~York~Creek~
  • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS
    • Napa Valley is the Outcome of the 140 Million Year Process of the Collisions Between the North American Plate and the Farallon Plate and Later the Pacific Plate.
    • Sonoma Volcanic Formation~ (Separates Sonoma From Napa.)
      • Piocene Age, Obsidian, Diatomaceous, Tuff, Pumice Deposited In Basalt Lava, Parent Earth For Many Soils to Be Eroded From.
    • Franciscan Formation~
    • VOLCANISM~ ~Mt. St. Helena~,  ~Mt. St. George~

SOILSMetamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary

  • 100+ Soil Variations, 33 Soil Series, Primarily Composed of Decomposed Rock From Vaca & Mayacamas Mountain Ranges, and Alluvial Soils Composed of Silt, Clay, Gravel From Napa River Flood Plain.

    • Greenstones, Deep Sea Cherts, Limestone, Sandstone, Serpentines, Shales
  • Mayacamas Mountain Range- Predominantly Volcanic Soils
  • Vaca Mountain Range- Predominantly Volcanic Soils, Rhyolite, Tuff
  • Underneath Napa Valley- Under the Primary Soils of Napa is…(In Order of Depth)
    • River and Bays Deposits   |   Volcanic Rock   |   Marine Sedimentary Rock   | Oceanic Crust
  • NAPA SOIL SERIES
    • ~Aiken Series~   ~Bale Series~   ~Boomer Series~   ~Bressa Series~    ~Clear Lake Series~
    • ~Cole Series–     –Contra Costa Series–     –Coombs Series–     –Cortina Series–     Dale Series–    
    • ~Diablo Series–     –Egbert Series–     –Fagan Series–     Felton Series–     –Forward Series–    
    • ~Guenoc Series–     –Haire Series.    Hambright Series–     –Henneke Series–      –Kidd Series–    
    • ~Lodo Series–     Los Gatos Series–     –Maxwell Series–   –Maymen Series–     –Millsholm Series–    
    • ~Montara Series-   Perkins Series–     –Pits Series–     –Quarry Series–     –Pleasanton Series
    • ~Reyes Series–   –Rock Outcrop Series–    –Riverwash Series–      –Sobrante Series–   –Tehama Series
    • ~Water Series–    –Yolo Series
  • **Refer to GEOGRAPHY/ Soils Series” For Detailed Information.

CLIMATE Mediterranean With Continental Influences In the Norther Valley, and Maritime Influences In the Southern Valley, With Many Micro Climates, Napa Valley Can Range In Temperature 15° From North End to South End.

  •  *Summers– Warm, Sunny, Cool, Foggy   |   *Winters– Cold, Wet, Rain
  • +RAIN/ 29 in./ yr.,    +WIND/ Carneros Express…Originates San Pablo Bay
  • Winkler Climate Scale- Southern End of Valley(Region II)
    • Northern End of Valley(Region III)    Eastern Portion of County(Region V)
  • Heat Convection- Moist Air Move Up the Vally During the Day and Withdraws as the Evening Cools.
  • Inversion Layer– Cooler Air In Valley Pushes Hot Air Upward, 1,600 ft.- 1,800 ft.
  • Chalk Hill Gap– Gap In Mayacamus Mountains Letting In Fog From Pacific.

VITICULTURE 45,000 ac. Planted,  (25% White/ 75% Red)

  • NAPA VINEYARD ACREAGE BY GRAPE 
    • Cabernet Sauvignon…19,894       Chardonnay…7,238
    • Merlot… 5,734                                 Pinot Noir… 2,914
    • Sauvignon Blanc… 2,687              Zinfandel… 1,497
  • Know For High Quality Wine, Less Than 5% of California Output.
  • COOPERAGE ~Seguin Moreau~ French Barrel Maker Since 1838, Producing Barrels In Napa Since 1994.
  • ECONOMY– Generally Napa’s Real Estate, Farming Costs and Wines Are Incredibly High.
  • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Napa Valley Vintners Association NVV.~ Formed 1944 With 7 Members, Now +550 Members.
    •  Original 7 Members: Beaulieu, C. Mondavi & Sons, Inglenook, Larkmead, Louis M. Martini, Louis Stralla, Napa Valley Cooperative.
    • MissionTo Present a United Front & To Eat Drink and Be Merry.
  • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Napa Valley Grapegrowers NVG.~
    • Mission– Established In 1975 as a Committe On How and When Grape Prices Are Determined.
  • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Napa Green~
    • Mission~ To Protect and Restore the Napa River Watershed, Sanving, Energy and Water, Reducing Waste and Carbon Footprint and Being Conscientious Employers and Good Neighbors.
  • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~California Certified Organic FarmersCCOF.
    • Mission~ Non-Profit Organization That Advances Organic Agriculture For A Healthy World Through Organic Certification, Education and Advocacy.
  • WINNER Worlds Best~ DtheV.com Worlds Best Terroir (3rd. Place)
    • **Refer to “WINE CULTURE/ Derek’s Top 6 List” For Detailed Information.
  • CONTENTIOUS WINE ISSUE!  Phylloxera Was Actually a Good For the Wine Napa Wine Industry In That it had to Look at the Fundamental Processes of Growing Vines, and Forced Grape Growers to Pull and Replant Old Compromised Vines!”
    • NOOverall There is Nothing Good About a Insect Devastating an Entire Crop Around the World and All the Peoples Livelihood That is Associated With the Louse.
    • YESIn the Wake of the Phyloxera Epidemic Napa Grower Had to Take a Look at What Grapes They Were Growing and Where.  During the Replanning and Replanting Phase Growers Took the Opportunity to Plant Their Vineyards With the Correct Varieties, Correct Rootstock, Correct Micro-Climates, Correct Trellis System, Correct Vine Spacing and Orientation That Were Best Suited For the Vines But Never Done Because of the Mass Overhaul of the Vineyard.

VINICULTURE No Chaptization, Grape Concentrate Addition Allowed.

  • NAPA PRODUCERS NOT OPERATING WITHIN A AVA.
    • Aj Pearce, Ancien, Buoncristiani Family, Brace & Bite, Cadie Family, Dirty & Rowdy, Flanagan, Kale, Leaf & Vine, Long Fellow, Matthiasson, Nellcote,  Le Pich, Purlieu, Roy, Solamente, Tournesol, Uncharted Wine

HISTORY

  • PRE-PROHIBITION AGE (1836 to 1920)
    • 1836 @Yountville ViticultureGeorge Young Planted First Vineyards In Napa.
    • 1848 @Sierra Gold Rush, Gold at Sutter’s Mills, Influx of European Settlers.
    • 1850 @Oak Knoll Joseph Osborne Planted 1,800ac. In Oak Knoll
    • 1850 @California Became a State
    • 1850 @Napa Samuel Brannan, Plant 100ac. Acagua Caliete Ranch.
    • 1854 @Napa John Patchett, Open Napa’s First Official Winery.
    • 1861 @St. Helena Charles Krug, Plant Vines, Established Charles Krug Winery.
    • 1862 @St. Helena German Jacob Schram Establishes Schramsberg Winery.
    • 1874 @St Helena Joseph Ghisletta, Plants Sunny St. Helena Winery.
    • 1876 @St. Helena German Jacob & Fredrick Beringer,  Establishes Beringer Winery.
    • 1877 @NapaPhylloxeraPhylloxera Hits Napa Valley.
    • 1877 @Howell Mountain Jean Brun & WJ. Chaix Plants First Vineyards.
    • 1879 @Calastoga Finland Gustave Niebaum, Established Inglenook.
    • 1880 @Pritchard Hill Charles Pritchard Planted Zinfandel.
    • 1881 @Oakville Hamilton Crab, Planted 119ac. Vineyard That Became To-Kolon.
    • 1854 @Calastoga Alfred Tubbs, Planted Vineyards and Build Chateau Montelena.
    • 1890 @Napa ViticulturePre 1900’s Planting Boom
    • 1890’s @Napa PhylloxeraHits Napa Valley Again.
    • 1895 @Rutherford Thomas Rutherford, Plants Vineyards, Becomes Rutherford.
    • 1920 @America ProhibitionJanuary 17th. 1920 to December 5th. 1933, When Napa Reemerged From Prohibition Everything Needed to Be Rethought, Re-Done or Replaced.
    • IMPORTANT PRE-PROHIBITION WINERIES
      • Beringer, Inglenook, BV.
    • PREDOMINAT PRE-PROHIBITION GRAPES
      • White= Flame Tokay, Furmint, Green Hungarian, Muscat, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Sauvignon Vert, Semillon
      • Red= Cabernet Franc, Carmenere, Gamay, Grenache, Hamburg, Malbec, Muscadelle, Petite Sirah, Petit Verdot, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel
  • POST-PROHIBITION (1933 to Mid 1960’s)
    • 1930’s @America– Great Depression
    • 1944 @Napa– Seven Members Formed Napa Valley Vintners Association.
    • IMPORTANT POST-PROHIBITION WINERIES
      • The Big Four Beaulieu Vineyard, Krug, Martini, Ingleno0k,
      • Freemark Abbey, Mayacaymas, Stonyhill
    • PREDOMINANT POST-PROHIBITON GRAPES
      • White= Riesling, Muscat Alexandria
      • Red= Alicante Bouschet, Carignane, Petite Sirah, Zinfandel
  • SILVER AGE (Mid 1960’s to 1980’s)
    • 1960’s @NapaWine Renaisssance,
      • New Generation Bringing: New Ideas, Passion, Technologies, Dedication, Wineries, Facilities, Viniculture Techniques.
    • 1965 @Oakville– Robert Mondavi, Leaved Krug to Start Robert Mondavi Winery.
    • 1975’s @NapaIrrigationDrip Irrigation Introduced
      • Stabilized Napa Growing, Increasing Yields and Helps Expand Vineyards to Areas of Valley.
    • 1976 @ParisJudgement of Paris **Refer to Judgement of Paris For Detailed Information.
    • 1983 @Napa– Robert Mondavi & Philippe de Rothschild Collaborate on Opus One.
    • 1980 @NapaPhylloxera, Hits In Late 80’s and Early 90‘s.
      • Replanting Took Place With a Better More Resistant Root-Stock Than AXR-1.
    • 1983 @NapaWine LawNapa Valley Became California First AVA..
    • IMPORTANT “SILVER AGE” WINERIES
      • Chappelle, Heitz, Mondavi, Stags Leap Wine Cellars, Sterling
  • MODERN AGE/ CULT ERA (1990 to Late 2000’s)
  • NEW GENERATION (2010 to ?)
    • 2014 @Napa– On August 14, Magnitude 6 Earthquake Caused by the West Napa Fault.

CULTURE

  • Napa Has Branded Itself Premier Wine-Tourist/ Wine Lifestyle Destination
  • Zinfandel Steamer- Late 1800’s a Steam Liner Ship Would Regularly Travel From Napa to San Francisco to Pick Up and Deliver Wine.
  • Judgement of Paris After Visiting Napa Steven Spurrier, an English Wine Merchant Living In France, Conducted a Blind-Tasting Wine Competition In France Putting California Wine Against French Wines. French Critics Score Chardonnay From Chateau Montelena, Over Puligny-Montrachet and Cabernet Sauvignon From Stags Leap Cellars Over Mouton Rothschild and Haut-Brion. The “Exposure” In a “Time Magazine Article” Put Napa Along With France Atop of the World Wine Scene.
  • Napa 1st. Growth (Un-Official)
    • Bryant Family, Behrens & Hitchcock, Grace Family, Harlan Estate, Screaming Eagle, Paulmyer, Heitz(Martha Vineyard), Araho
  • Ghost Winery Napa Wineries Built Between 1860 and 1920, But Had to Close During Prohibition or Change Their Crops.
    • Ghost Wineries of Napa
      • Freemark Abbey, Chateau Montelena, Far Niente, Frog’ Leap, Ladera
  • WINE FESTIVAL ~Bottle Rock~ (May)
    • ~Napa Valley Wine Festival~ (July)      ~Napa Valley Film Festival~ (November)
  • PIONEERS  ~Charles Krug~  1861, Open First Commercial Winery In Napa.
    • ~Gustave Niebaum~ 1880’s Finnish Fur Trader Who Built Inglenook and Became an Early Pioneers.
    • ~George de Latour~ Started Beaulieu Vineyards, Influential In Napa Culture.
    • ~Andre Tchelistcheff~ Led Beaulieu Vineyards In Post Prohibition Era, Inspired, Educated New Area of Winemaking Based On Hygiene and Quality Control.
    • ~Carole Meredith~ Owner Winemaker Lagier Meredith, Helped Solved Mystery of Zinfandel.
    • ~Robert Mondavi~ Legend In Influencing Napa and Branding Throughout the World.
    • ~Salvatore Emmolo~ Own a Rootstock Business In Napa After Prohibition.
    • ~Joe Heitz~ 1966, Planted Martha’a Vineyard In St. Helena.
    • ~Nathan Fay~ First to Plant Vine In Stags Leap District AVA..
    • ~John- Caldwell~ One of Coombville Original- Vine Propugater/ Smuggler.
    • ~Jacob Schram~ 1868, Planted First Vines On Diamond Mountain.
    • ~Randy Dunn~ One of Howell Mountain Original Grape Grower.
    • ~Joseph Chiles~ 1841, Awarded Original Land Grant, Planted First Vines.
    • ~Charles Pritchard~ 1890, Planted First Vines On Pritchard Mountain.
    • ~Peter Vedeer~ 1864, Planted First Vines On Mount Veeder.
    • ~George Yount~ “Napa”, 1831, Help Settle Napa and Yountville Was Named After.
  • POLITICS
    •  ~Napa Valley Hillside Ordinance~
      • Prohibits New Planting of Hillsides With Grades Greater Than 22.5%.
    • ~Napa County Watershed and Oak Woodland Protection Initiative~
  • NAPA VALLEY WINE AUCTION– Generous Napa Valley Wine Makers Auction Off “One of a Kind” Wines to Benefit Great Causes Like Community Health and Children’s Education Nonprofit Services.
    • It Lends Itself the Unique Opportunity For Wine Merchants and Collectors to Get Wines From High-End Producers That Aren’t Available Anywhere Else.
  • ACADEMICS
    • ~Napa Valley College~     @Napa, California
      • Specialization~ 3 Viticulture and Enology Degree Programs

Napa Isn’t In the Wine Business, They’re In the Real Estate Business.

GOING THERE

  • TIPS FOR GOING THERE~
    • Spend Day/ Time at Wineries On Valley Floor.
    • Spend Day/ Time at Wineries In Mountains.
    • Sign Up For a Guided Tour at One of the Historical Vineyards.
    • Do a Non Wine Related Thing.
    • Eat at One of the Many Michelin Starred Restaurants.
    • Stay at a Luxury Hotel, or Stay at a Moderately Priced Hotel.
    • Spend Time In Downtown Napa at Night After Wineries Are Closed For the Day.
  • WINE TRAIN~ Take Trip Up and Down the  Valley Floor On Historic 1900’s Era Pullman Passenger Train
    • Train Runs From Downtown Napa to St. Helena and Back.
  • AFTER DARK/ AT NIGHT~ (Down-Town Napa) Bounty Hunter, Cadet Wine Bar, Carpe Diem, Compline, Rebel Vintners, Vintners Collective, Wine Thief.


NAPA COUNTRY     @Napa

  • GEOGRAPHY– California, REGION-Napa(Greater)
  • VITICULTURE– Wine Produced In “NAPA COUNTY” Non-Conforming to an AVA.
    • Estate/ Producers– Dollarhide Estate(500ac.), LJ Crafted Wines

**Napa Images Courtesy of “Delong Maps”, Purchase These Maps at Delong Maps.com


North Napa Valley Floor

  • GEOGRAPHY–  North Valley– Calistoga to Rutherford, +Alt.400ft., +RAIN/ 40in.-55in.
  • TOPOGRAPHYFlat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous

CALISTOGA AVA.     @Calistoga

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Furmint, Friulano, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon 60%, Cabernet Franc, Barbera, Malbec, Merlot, Petite Sirah, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo, Touriga Nacional, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(North), @Hw.#29/ Silverado Trail
    • (Northernmost Napa Valley AVA.), North-West of Napa-City(27mi.)
    • BORDERS– Diamond Mountain AVA.(S0uth-West), Sub-Zones Calistoga Canyon, Dutch Henry Canyon
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly
    • SLOPES/ Mayacamas Mountain Range(Palisades Mountains), +Alt.300ft.-1,200ft.
    • On~Shelby/ Simmons~Creek~Tributary~Napa~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Alluvial Fans, Cobles
    • Upper-Slopes-Volcanic
    • Lower-Slopes Sedimentary
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Mediterranean Influences
    • Warmest AVA. In Napa Valley
  • VITICULTURE- 12,675 ac., 2,500 ac. Planted,  2009- AVA. Officially Established.
    • Estate/ Producers Amici Cellars/ Palisades, Araujo, Aubert, August Briggs, Biale, Barlow, Bennett Lane, Canard, Chateau Montelena*(95ac.), Clos Pegase(E.), Cuvaison, Davis(E.), Dutch Henry, Eisele, Envy Wines*, Frank Family, Heibel Ranch, Huge Bear, Jax, Jericho Canyon, Kenefick, Larkmead(E./110ac.), Laura Micheal, Lava Wine, Madrigal, Massican, Paoletti, Schrader, La Sirena, Sterling*, Stonybrook, Summers, Tamber Bey, Tedeschi Family, Tom Eddy, Twomey, Venge, Vermeil*, Vincent Arroyo
    • Vineyards Bone Ash, Eisele, Falleri(.5ac.), Frediani, Gaudi Carli, Keneflick Ridge, Monitor, Palisades, Peterson Family, Pocai, Romeo, Rosedale, Three Palms(83ac.), Walnut Wash
  • GOING THEREFESTIVALS~ ~Calistoga Wine Festival~ (May)
    • WINE TOURS~ Chateau Montelena, Sterling
    • AFTER DARK~ ~Downtown Calistoga Tasting Rooms~
    • NON-WINE RELATED~  ~Old Faithful Geyer~,  ~Hike to Mt. St. Helena Trail~,    ~Mud Baths~,  ~Oak Hill Mine Trail~, ~Bothe State Park Hike~,   ~Petrified Forest~

St. HELENA AVA.      @St. Helena

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sangiovese, Syrah, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(North)
    • North-West of Napa-City(18mi.), @Hw.#29/ Silverado Trail
    • East of/ Below Spring Mountain,  Sub-Zones- Deer Park, Spring Valley
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly
    • SLOPES/ Mayacamas Mountain Range, Vacca Mountain Range,+Alt. 200ft.-475ft.
    • Valley Comes Together In a S Shaped Curve, On~Sulfur~Creek~to~Napa~River~
  • SOILS- MetamorphicVolcanic, Sedimentary, Gravel-Benchlands, Clay, Cobble, Tufa
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Mediterranean Influences, +RAIN: 39in./ yr.
  • VITICULTURE- 9,000acPlanted,  1995- AVA. Officially Established.
    • Estates/ Producers Accendo, Alejandro Bulgheroni(E./15ac.), Allora, Auburn James, Ballentine, Behrens, Bennessere, Beringer, Boswell, Burgess, Calafia, Casa Nuestra, Charles Krug, Colin, Corison, Conn Creek, Duckhorn*, Ehlers(E./42ac.), Flora Springs(E./98ac.), Freemark Abbey, Forman, Frogs Leap, Gallica, Hall,  J. Phelps, Keenan, L. Martini, Long Medow Ranch, Markham, Macauley, Newton, Orin Swift, Paloma, Paulownia, Revana, Rombauer*, Salvestrin, Somnium, Spottswoode, Terra Valentine, Titus, Trinchero, Trujillo, Tudal, V. Madrone, V. Sattui, Sutter Home, Varozza, Viader, Vineyard 29, Vine Cliff, William Cole, Yao Family
    • Vineyards Carol’s, Dickerson, Fig Tree, Glass Mountain, Hayne, Kronos, Leweilling, Marlee’s, Las Piedras, Rossi, Quella(9ac.), Sunbasket, Titus, Vittorio’s, Yewell
  • CULTURE-
    • PIONEERS~ ~Charles Krug~ “1861” Open First Commercial Winery In Napa
    • PIONEERS~Gustave Niebaum~ “1880’s” Finnish Fur Trader.
      • Built Inglenook Estate and Was One of the Early Pioneers of the Napa Valley.
    • PIONEERS~ ~Joe Phelps~ “1970” Pioneer of the Modern Napa Movement and Leader to Many.
    • ACADEME~  ~Culinary Institute of America at Greysonte~ CIA.
  • GOING THERE-  WINE TOURS~  Duckhorn, Rombauer, Freemark Abbey
    • NON-WINE RELATED~  ~Wine Tasting In a Cave~,  ~Christopher Hill Art Gallery~
      • ~St. Helena Health Spa~

RUTHERFORD AVA.     @Rutherford

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grignolino, Malbec, Malbec, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(Central)
    • North of Napa-City(14mi.),  @Hw.#29/ #128/ Silverado Trail/ Rutherford Crossing
    • Sub-Zone- Rutherford Bench
  • TOPOGRAPHY Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly
    • SLOPES/ Mayacamas Mountain Range, Vacca Mountain Range, +Alt.155 ft.-500 ft.(Max.)
    • On~Conn~Creek~Tributary~Napa~River~/ On~Lake~Hennessey~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Cobble, Tufa
    • West– Dominated by Two Alluvial Fans of Clay/ Bale Loams From the Mayacamas Mountain Range.  These Fans Are Referred to as the Rutherford Fan Complex.
    • Rutherford/ Oakville Bench 2,500ac., Slightly Elevated Bench That Runs 6 Miles Through Rutherford & Oakville. The Bench is Formed by 3 Alluvial Fans From Base of  East Facing Maycaymas Mountain Range That Deposited Gravel, Sand, Silt, Clay and Are Well Drained and Allow For Deep Root Systems Which Produces High Quality Grapes.
    • The Boundaries of the Rutherford/ Oakville Bench Have Been Disputed For Decades But Generally Are Considered South of Bale Slough In Rutherford to North of Dwyer Road In Oakville and East to Highway 29. (Some Consider the East Boundary to Be the Napa River.)
    • ~Rutherford Dust~ Term Coined by Andre Tchelischeff/ Maynard Amerine to Describe the Soil and the Sensory Quality of the “Bench” Wines.  The Sandy-Loam “Dust” That the Vineyards Possess is Said to Express Wine That Exhibit Dusty, Cherry, Plum and Fine-Grain Tannin With All-Spice Notes.
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean, +RAIN: 38in./yr.
  • VITICULTURE- 6,600acPlanted,  1993- AVA. Officially Established.
    • First Napa AVA. to Achieve 100% Participation In the Sustainable Winegrowing Cerificaiton.
    • Estates/ Producers Alpha Omega, Beaulieu, Cakebread*, Caymas*, Conn Creek, Del Dotto, Franciscan, Fleury, Frogs Leap, Grgich Hills*, Heitz*, Honig, Inglenook, Mumms, Neyers, Peju, Pina, Prestoni, Provenance, Quintessa(160ac.), Raymond, Round Pond, Rutherford Ranch, Scarecrow, Sequoia Grove*, St. Supery*, Staglin, Sullivan, Swanson, The Terraces, Tayson Pierce, Tonella, Wheeler Farms, White Hall Lane, William Harrison, ZD
    • Vineyards- Alsace, Beckstoffer Georges III, Bella Oaks, Bosche, Carpy Connolly, C.C. Ranch(115ac.), Franklin, Inglenook, Lee Lane, McGah, Melbury(7ac.), Melrose, Morisoli, Patriarch Winston Hill, Preston, Sacrashe, Scarecrow”Estate”, Sequoia Grove”Estate“, Sugar Shack, Sycamore, Thomas, Trailside, Winston Hill
    • Vineyards/ Estates On Rutherford Portion of the Bench- Avenali, Bella Oaks, Beaulieu, Bosche, Chaix, Cohn, Del Bondino, Fehirg, Grgich, De Pins, Inglenook, Martha’s, Morizoli, Opus One, Ranch #1, Ranch #2, Robert Mondavi, Sycamore, Sullivan, Tietjen
  • CULTURE-
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Rutherford Dust Society~ RDA.
      • Mission~ Symbol of the Highest Standards In Grape Growing and Winemaking.
        • Safeguarding the Future the Napa River, Protecting Salmon and Reducing the Treat From Pierce’s Disease.
    • PIONEERS~  ~Joe Heitz~ 1966, Planted Martha’a Vineyard In Rutherford.
  • GOING THERE-  WINE TOURS~  Cakebread, Mumms(Sparkling)
    • NON-WINE RELATED~

South Napa Valley Floor

  • GEOGRAPHY  South Valley Oakville to Carneros, +Alt.50ft., +RAIN/ 18in.-24in.
  • TOPOGRAPHY Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly

OAKVILLE AVA.     @Oakville

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Sangiovese, Syrah, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY– California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(Central)
    • North of Napa-City(12mi.), @Hw.#29/ Silverado Trail/ Oakville Crossing
    • Sub-Zone- Oakville Bench
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Valley, On~Conn/ Rector~Creek~Tributaries~Napa~River~
    • SLOPES/ Mayacamas Mountain Range, Vacca Mountain Range, +Alt.500 ft.(Max.)(Unique Modification/ 1,006 ft.)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, On Rutherford Bench
    • West– Dominated by Two Alluvial Fans of Clay/ Bale Loams From the Mayacamas Mountain Range.  These Fans Are Referred to as the Oakville Fan Complex.
    • East– Dominated by Volcanic Tuffs, Lava/ Pyroclastic Flows From Vaca Mountains.
    • Rutherford/ Oakville Bench
      • **Refer “Rutherford AVA.” For Detailed Information On “Rutherford/ Oakville Bench.
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean With Maritime” Influences and Micro Climates
  • VITICULTURE-  5,700ac./ 5,000acPlanted,  1993- AVA. Officially Established.
    • Estates/ Producers Addax, B Cellars, Beckstoffer, Branding Iron, Cardinale & Lokoya, Cosentino, Dalla Valle(E.), Durant & Booth, Far Niente, Futo, Gallica, Gargiulo, Groth(E.), Harland(E.), Lewis, MacDonald, Mondavi*, Meyer, Napa Wine Cellars, Nickel & Nickel, Oakville Ranch, Opus One(E.), O’Shaughnessy, Paradigm, Pelissa(E.), Plump Jack(E./36ac.), Promontory, Quicksilver, Rock Cairn, Rudd(E.), Saddleback, Silver Oak, Screaming Eagle(E.), Swanson(E.), Tin Box, Turnbull, Ulysses, Venge(E./ 17 ac.), Vine Cliff(E./26ac.)
    • Vineyards Ames, Au Paradis, Backus, Bond, Buselli, Cosentino, Crossroads, Detert, Double H Ranch, Dos Olivos, Durham, Ehrlich, Fortuna(59ac.), Franciscan, Gamble Ranch, Gargiulo, Giannone, Grapes of Raithe, Hamilton, Harbison, Harlan, Harris(50ac.), John C. Sullerger, Kelleher, Laird, Lopez, Locust Hil, Lore, MBar Ranch, McWilliams, Martha’s(34ac.), Martin Stelling, Miner, Missouri Hopper, Moffitt, Mondavi ‘Estate‘, Money Road Ranch, Navone, Oakville 88, Oakville 360, Oakville Farmhouse, Oakville Ranch, Oakview, Opus One, Rancho Prequeno, Pedregal, Pelissa, Penny Lane, Pigeon Hill, Saddleback, Saunders, Screaming Eagle, St. Eden(11ac.), Silver Oak, Skiar, Skellenger Corner, Stanton, Taddei, Tench, Tenderman, To Kalon(Beckstoffer), To Kalon(Detert),To Kalan(MacDonald), To Kalon(Mondavi)(144ac.)(Planted 1868)(I-Block/ H-Block/ U-Block), To Kalon(Opus One “North”)(59.18ac.), To Kalon(Opus One “South”)(59.61ac.), To Kalon(Monastery Block)(500ac.), To Kalon(Wilsey), Traina, Ulysses, To Kalon(UC. Davis Heritage)(19.70ac.)(90+Zinfandel Cuttings), Ulyesses”Estate“, Vecina(11ac.), View Estates, Vine Cliff, Vine Hill Ranch, Vinous, Vineyard House, Weity/ Leopoldina, Weitz
    • Vineyards/ Estates On Oakville Portion of the Bench- Farnienti, Martha’s, Robert Mondavi, Opus One(59.61ac.), Stelling, UC. Davis Heritage(19.70ac.)
  • HISTORY- 1868- HW. Crab Planted 240 ac. To Kalon Vineyard
    • ~Etymology~ To Kalon Translates to “The Highest Beauty” In Ancient Greek.
  • CULTURE-
    • PIONEERS~ ~Robert Mondavi~ Legend In Influencing Napa Valley the 1960’s and Subsequently Branding Napa Throughout the World
    • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Oakville Wine Makers~
      • Mission~ A Non-Profit Organization Dedicated to Promoting and Preserving the Oakville AVA. In Napa Valley
  • GOING THERE-  WINE TOURS~ Mondavi
    • NON-WINE RELATED~  ~Go to Oakville Grocery For Picnic Supples~

YOUNTVILLE AVA.      @Yountville

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurtztraminer, Pinot Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Sauvignon Gris
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(Central)
    • North of Napa-City(9mi.), @Hw.#29/ Silverado Trail/ Yountville Crossing
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Yountville Mound”
    • SLOPES/ Mayacamas Mountains, Vacca Mountains, +Alt.20ft.-200ft.
    • On~Rector~Creek~Tributary~Napa~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Clay, Loam
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean
  • VITICULTURE- 8,000 ac./ 4,000 ac. Planted,  1999- AVA. Officially Established.
    • Estates/ Producers Bell, Blankiet, Cornerstone, Chandon(Multi-National), Charello, Corley, Cornerstone, Dalla Valle, Dominus, Elyse, Gemstone, Gamble Family, Girard, Hestan, Hill Family, Hope & Grace, Hipper Creek, JCB, Jessup, Kapcsandy, Keever, Madrone Ranch, Mira(10.5ac.), Priest Ranch, Silver Trident, State Lane, Stewart, V Wine
    • Vineyards Abreu, Flat Rock, Gamble, Keever, Max, Maxine’s, Miller Ranch, Newton, Paradise Hills, Rector Creek, State Ranch
  • CULTURE-
    • PIONEERS~ ~George Yount~  1831, Help Settle Napa and Yountville Was Named After.
  • GOING THERE-  WINE TOURS~ Chandon(Sparkling)
    • NON-WINE RELATED~  ~V Market Place~, ~Napa Valley Museum
      • ~Go to Yountville Market  For Picnic Supples~, ~Napa Bike Rental~

STAGS LEAP DISTRICT AVA.     @Napa

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Muscat Canelli, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon 80%, Merlot 12%, Cabernet Franc, Carignane, Garnacha, Malbec, Merlot, Mourvedre, Peloursin, Petit Sirah, Petit Verdot, Sangiovese
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(Central),  LATITUDE: 38.5° N
    • North of Napa-City(5 mi.), Below Atlas Peak, (1 mi. Long & 3 mi. Wide),  @Silverado Trail
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Valley(Stags Leap Corridor)
    • SLOPES/ Vacca Mountains/ Palisades(East), +Alt.50 ft.-485 ft.
      • Bedrock Island(West) Caused by Faulting and Uplifting.
    • Stags Leap Corridor Forms a Valley/ Narrow Funnel Within the Larger Napa Valley That Pulls Air Up From the South.
    • “Valley & Foothills”On~Chase~Creek~Tributary~Napa~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary
    • West Gravely-Loam, Clay Over Basalt,  East Decomposing Volcanic
  • CLIMATE “Mediterranean, +Diurnal Shifts(+35°)
    • +RAIN: 38 Inch Per Year, Palisades Reflect Sun Onto Vineyards.
  • VITICULTURE- 2,9000 ac./ 1,600 ac. Planted,  1989- AVA. Officially Established.
    • Estates/ Producers Annapurna, Baldacci, Bevan, Chimney Rock*(E./105 ac.), Cliff Lede(22ac.), Clos Du Val(E.), Como No?, Futo 550, Hartwell, Husic, Joseph Phelps, Lindstom, Malk, Never Bend, Odette(E./45ac.), Opulentia, Pillar Rock, Pine Ridge(E.), Ragusci, Realm, Robert Sinsky, Robinson, Rose & Clay, Quixote, Schweizer, Shafer(E.), Silverado(E.), Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars*(E./100ac.), Stags’ Leap Winery(E.), Stelzner(E.), Stony Meadow, Taylor, Wild foote
    • Vineyards Alpine, Andelin(9ac.), Arrowhead, Baroza, Borderline, Cavus, Circle Hill, Cliff Lede”Estate“, Fay, Ganymede, Griffin, Hackett, Hermosa(20ac.), Hillside(14 Blocks), Hirondelle, Husic(7ac.), Imagine, K. Spicer, Locked Horns, Ne Cede Malis(Field Blend), Reed, Pegasus, Poetry, Robert Mondavi, Los Rocas, Schweizer, Silverado”Estate“, SLD., SLV., Stags Landing, Steltzner, Tomahawk, Twin Peak, Wappo Hill, White Pebble, White Rock, Wildfoote
  • CULTURE- 1870’s- First Vines Planted by T.L. Grigsby
    • 1976- Wine From Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars Takes 1st. at Judgement of Paris Tasting.
  • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ From Native Wappo Legend of a Stag Leaping to Escape Hunters.
    • ASSOCIATION~  ~Stags Leap District Winery Association~
      • ~Stags Leap WineGrowers~
    • PIONEERS~ ~Nathan Fay~ First to Plant Vine In Stags Leap District AVA..
    • Stags Leap/ Stag’s Leap/ Stags’ Leap) Apostrophe is Pivotal to Know.
      • Stags Leap District AVA., (No Apostrophe)
      • Stags Leap Wine Cellars (Apostrophe Before S)
      • Stags Leap Winery (Apostrophe After S)
  • GOING THERE-  WINE TOURS~ Stags Leap Wine Cellars
    • NON-WINE RELATED~  ~Hike the Palisades Trail~

OAK KNOLL DISTRICT AVA.     @Napa

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Ribolo Giallo, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Malbec, Petite Sirah, Sangiovese, Teroldego
  • GEOGRAPHY– California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(South)
    • North of Napa-City(7mi.),  @Hw.#29/ Silverado Trail/ Oak Knoll Ave
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ RollingSLOPES/ Mayacamus, Vacca Mountains, +Alt.100 ft.-800 ft.
    • On~Soda~Creek~Tributary~Napa~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Alluvial Fan, Schist
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean With Maritime Influence From San Pablo Bay
  • VITICULTURE- 8,300 ac./4,100 acPlanted,  2004- AVA. Officially Established.
    • Estates/ Producers Andretti, Aratas, Ashes & Diamonds, Black Stallion, Boyd, Celani, Dariush, Doyd, Hagafen Cellars, James Cole, Laird, Lobo, Luna, O’Brien, Razi, Reynolds Family, Robert Biale, Signorello, Silenus, Trefethen
    • Vineyards Bear Flat(3ac.), Gaspare(30ac.), Linda Vista, Silenus, Soda Creek, Sunshine Valley, Truchard, Voyager, Wooden Valley, Wulff
  • CULTURE-
  • GOING THERE–  WINE TOURS~
    • NON-WINE RELATED~

SILVERADO AVA. (Un-Official)    @Napa

  • WHITE= Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(South-East)
    • North-East of Napa City(5 mi.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly SLOPES/ Vaca Mountain Range, +Alt.?
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary
    • Clay Over Basalt/ Volcanic Ash, Loam, Cobblestone
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean, INFLUENCED/ Proximity to San Pablo Bay
  • VITICULTURE- ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers Beaucanon, Del Dotto, Judd’s Hill, Kitchak Cellars, Krupp Brothers, Patland, Whetstone, William Hill
    • Vineyards

COOMBSVILLE AVA.     @Napa

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(South-East)
    • West of Napa-City(5mi.), @Hw.#121/ #221,  Sub-Zones- Alta Heights
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous
    • SLOPES/ Vaca Mountains, +Alt.100 ft.-1,000 ft.(Peak/ Mt. St. George 1900 ft.)
    • Ancient Volcanic Caldera/ Half Bowl-Depression(West-Facing)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Aiken Clay
    • Clay Over Basalt/ Volcanic Ash/ Tuff, Loam, Cobblestone, Alluvial Flows
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean With Maritime Influence
    • INFLUENCED: Proximity to San Pablo Bay & Petaluma Gap
  • VITICULTURE- 11,000 ac./ 390 acPlanted,  2011- AVA. Officially Established.
    • Estates/ Producers Ackerman, Arrow & Branch, Ancien, Azur, Black Cat, Caldwell(E./65 ac.), Covert, Farella-Park, Faustini, Favia, Frazier, Italics, Porter, Realm, Rooca, Sciandri, Shadybrook, Sodaro, Tournesol, Tulocay, Verismo
    • Vineyards Ancien Mink, Black Cat, Collinetta, Cork Tree, Farella, Haynes(32ac.),, Lunar Ridge, Mt. George, Musque Haynes, Omlin, Palmaz, Rancho Wieruszowski, Robert John, Soda Canyon, Teucer
  • CULTURE-
    • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Combsville Vintners & Growers~
    • PIONEERS~  ~John- Caldwell~  One of Coombville Originals, Vine Propagator/ Smuggler
  • GOING THERE–  WINE TOURS~
    • NON-WINE RELATED~ ~Hike the Rim of the Volcanic Caldera~
      • ~Napa Valley Horse Riding Ranch~

WILD HORSE VALLEY AVA.       @Napa

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(South-East)
    • (Laps)Solano Green Valley AVA., COUNTIES– Napa, (AVA. Laps)Solano
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Wild Horse), SLOPES/ Vaca Mountains, +Alt.850 ft.-2,130 ft.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Trimmer Series Rich In Minerals
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean” With Maritime Influence
  • VITICULTURE- 3,300 ac./ 110 acPlanted,  1988- AVA. Officially Established.
    • Estates/ Producers Heron Lake
    • Vineyards Clarke

LOS CARNEROS AVA.     @Napa

  • WHITE= Albarino, Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio, Vermentino
  • RED= Aleatico, Merlot, Nebbiolo, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(South)
    • South of Napa-City(5mi.),  (Southernmost Napa Valley AVA.),  @Hw.#12/ #121
    • Transitional Area of Sonoma Between Salt Plains/ Marshes and Foothills.
    •  COUNTIES– Napa, (AVA. Laps)Sonoma County(West)
    • **Refer to Sonoma, Carneros  For Additional AVA. Information.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling, SLOPES/ ? On~San Pablo~Bay~(Near/ 3 mi.)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary
    CLIMATE- Maritime, INFLUENCED: Fog, Proximity to San Pablo Bay

    • Coolest AVA. In Napa, Receives Moisture From Petaluma Gap & San Pablo Bay.
    •  +WIND/ Carneros Express…Originates San Pablo Bay
  • VITICULTURE- 1,100 acPlanted,  1983- AVA. Officially Established.
    • Estates/ Producers- Acacia, Adastra, Artesa, Bonneau, Bouchaine, Cuvaison, Domaine Carneros(E.), Etude, Hudson, Hyde, Kieu Hoang, Liana, Madonna, Mckenzie, Saintsbury, Shug(E.)*, Starmont
    • Vineyards Las Amigas, Las Brisas, Caneros Lake, Catherine’s, Cold Creek, Fotinos, Grace Benoist Ranch, Hudson, Larry Hyde & Son, Laurier, Mahoney Ranch, Moses-Hall, Stanley Ranch, Red Shoulder Ranch, Senemar, Stewart, Truchard, Winery Lake
  • CULTURE-
    • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Carneros Wine Alliance~
      • Mission~ Committed to Promoting the Distinction, Diversity and Quality of Grapes Grown In Carneros.
  • GOING THERE-
    • ~Etymology~ Los Carneros Meaning The Rams In Spanish Referring to the 1840’s When this Area Was Sheep Ranches and Dairies.
    • WINE TOURS~ Domaine Carneros(Sparkling), Saintsbury
    • NON-WINE RELATED~  ~Hike the Marsh Lands Sanctuary of San Pablo Bay~

AMERICAN CANYON AVA. (Un-Official)    @American Canyon

  • WHITE= Chardonnay
  • RED= Merlot, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, South-East of Napa-City(3mi.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.100  ft.-400 ft.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic”, “Volcanic”, “Sedimentary, Shale
  • CLIMATE- “MediterraneanWithMaritimeInfluences 
  • VITICULTURE-  ? acPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers Bourassa, Elkhorn Peak, Falcor, Holman, Jamieson Ranch, Napa Smith, Rocca,  Spelletich, #Trendingwine, Trinitas
    • Vineyards Watson

Napa Valley Mountain Appellations

  • GEOGRAPHY California, REGION-Napa
    • 5 Mountain AVA. Spread Over 2 Mountian Ranges
  • TOPOGRAPHY-  “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced”
    • West Valley Mayacamas Mountains +Alt.2,600 ft.  +RAIN/ 40 in.-55 in.
    • East Valley Vacca Mountains +Alt.2,590 ft.  +RAIN/ 18 in.-24 in.

DIAMOND MOUNTAIN AVA.     @Calistoga

  • WHITE= Grunner Veltliner, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(North-West)
    • (Northernmost Mountain AVA.), South of/ Above Calistoga,  @Hw.#29
    • BORDERS: Sonoma County(West), (15 ac. Cross Into Sonoma County)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”
    • SLOPES/ Mayacamas Mountains, +Alt.400ft.Min., -2,100ft.(Peak-2,300ft.)
  • SOILS- “Metamorphic”, “Volcanic, Red Volcanic, Loamy, White-Grey Ash, Volcanic Glass
  • CLIMATE- “Mediterranean INFLUENCED: Above Fog, Inversion Layer
    • +RAIN: 40in.-55in./ yr.
  • VITICULTURE– 5,000 ac./ 500 acPlanted,  2001- AVA. Officially Established.
    • Estates/ Producers Andrew Jeffery, Cardinale, Diamond Creek(25ha.), Diamond Terrace, Frisson, J Davies, Joseph Cellars, Lokoya, Reverie, Schramsberg*, Teachworth, Von Strasser
    • Vineyards Agira, Andrew Geoffrey, Constant, Dyer, Ebiner, Gravelly Meadow(5ac.), Lake, Post, Red Rock Terrance(7ac.), Sori Bricco, Volcanic Hill(8ac.), Wallis
  • HISTORY 1892- First Vines Planted by Jacob Schram/ First Mountain Vineyard In Napa.
  • CULTURE- Names After Small Pieces of Volcanic Glass Found In Soils.
    • PIONEERS~ ~Jacob Schram~ “1868”, Planted First Vines On Diamond Mountain.
  • GOING THERE-  WINE TOURS~  Schramsberg(Sparkling), J Davies, Diamond Creek
    • NON-WINE RELATED~Take a Drive and Stop and Smell the Air & Vineyards~

SPRING MOUNTAIN AVA.       @St. Helena

  • WHITE= Sauvignon Blanc 4%, Chardonnay 3%, Riesling, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon 25%, Merlot 5%, Cabernet Franc 3%
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(North-West)
    • West of/ Above St. Helena, Sub-Zones Sulphur Canyon
    • BORDERS: St. Helena AVA.(East), Sonoma County(West)(153 ac. Cross Into Sonoma County)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced”
    • On~Mill/ Ritchie/ Sulphur/ York~Creeks~
    • SLOPES/ Mayacamas Mountains, +Alt.400 ft.-2,600 ft.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic”, “Volcanic ”, “Sedimentary“, Alluvial Fan, Andesite, Aiken Clay Loam
      • Franciscan Sedimentary Rock(Sandstone & Conglomerate)
    • SOIL SERIES–   Aiken Series–     –Felton Series–     –Forward Series
      • Hambrigh Series–     –Boomer Series–     –Millsholm Series
  • CLIMATE- “Mediterranean, INFLUENCED: Above Fog, Inversion Layer
    • +RAIN: 25-55 in./ yr.
  • VITICULTURE  8,600 ac./ 1,050 ac. Planted,   1993- AVA. Officially Established.
    • *Generally– Draught Resistant Rootstock, Trellis: Bilateral Cordon/ Vertical Shoot Positioning
    • Estates/ Producers Andesite, Anomaly, Barnett, Behrens, Behrens & Hitchcock, Cain(E./88ac.), Charbay, Chase, Eeden, Guliam’s, Juslyn, Keenan, Luscher-Ballard, Marston, Meander, Murphy, Newton, Paloma, Peacock Family, Phillip Togni, Pride Mountain(E.), Ritchie Creek, Ruston, School House, Sherwin, Smith-Madrone(E.), Stottswoode, Spring Mountain(226ac.), Stony Hill, Terre Valentine, York Creek
    • Vineyards Barnett”Estate“,  Big K, Chateau Chevalier, Draper/ La Perla, Newton, Patzimaro, Pluribus(7ac.), Spring Mountain/ Miravalle, Streblow/ Alba(33ac.), Vineyard 7 & B, Wurtele
  • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ Named For the Many Seasonal Springs That Cross the Mountain.
  • GOING THERE- NON-WINE RELATED~Take a Drive On Mountain/ Stop and Smell the Vineyards~

MOUNT VEEDER AVA.     @Yountville

  • WHITE= Albarino, Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Gruner Veltliner, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon 64%, Cabernet Franc, Carignan, Garnacha, Malbec, Merlot, Mondeuse, Petit Verdot, Sangiovese, Syrah, Tribidrag, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa,  In Napa Valley AVA.(South-West)
    • South-West of Yountville-City(2mi.), (Southernmost Mountain AVA.)
    • BORDERS: Carneros AVA.(South), Sonoma Valley AVA.(West)
    • Sub-Zones- Browns Valley, Pickle Canyon
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling, Hilly/ Mountainous”, Veiw of San Francisco From Vineyards
    • SLOPES/ Mayacamas Mountains(South), +Alt.400ft.-2,400ft.(Peak/2,677ft.)
    • BORDERS: Carneros AVA.(South), Above Yountville AVA.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic”, “Volcanic”, ”Sedimentary
    • Ancient Up-Lifted Clay Sea-Bed, Sandstone, Shale(Fractured), Sub-Soil is Gravelly Loam, Cobbles, Stony Loam.
    • SOIL SERIES–  –Aiken Series
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean, Coolest of Napa Mountain Appellation
    • INFLUENCED: Above Fog, Inversion Layer, +RAIN: 35 in./ yr.
  • VITICULTURE 15,000 ac./ 1,000 ac. Planted,  1990- AVA. Officially Established.
    • CHALLENGE– Vertically/ Labor Intensive
    • Estates/ Producers Aaron Pott, Black Cordon, Bolden Family, Craine, Devil’s Canyon, Fontanella, Godspeed, Guffy, Hendry Yates, Hess Collection*, Lagier Meredith(4.5ac.), Mayacamas, Mt. Brave, Mt.Veeder, Reid, Rudd, Sky, Tesseron, Wing Canyon, Yates, Young Ridge
    • Vineyards Allomi, Bradlin, Chateauneuf-DuPott, Langtable, Phoenix, Pym-Rae(24ac.), Round Table, Scaggs, Summit, Su’skol, Veeder Crest, Veeder Peak, Veeder Summit, Wing Canyon
  • CULTURE- PIONEERS~ ~Peter Vedeer~ 1864, Planted First Vines On Mount Veeder.
    • PIONEERS~ ~Carole Meredith~ Owner Winemaker Lagier Meredith.
      • Phd./ Grape Geneticist(DNA Fingerprinting), Helped Solved Mystery of Zinfandel.
  • GOING THERE-  WINE TOURS~ Hess Collection
    • NON-WINE RELATED~  ~Westwood Hills Park Hike~

HOWELL MOUNTAIN AVA.     @Angwin

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Carmenere, Garnacha, Gros Verdot, Malbec, Merlot, Nebbiolo, Pelsousin, Petit Verdot, Petite Sirah, St-Macaire, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(North), LATITUDE: 38.55° N
    • BORDERS: Sugarloaf Mountain(North), @Deer Park Rd./ Howell Mountain Rd.
    • BOUNDARIES- Above 1,400 ft.     Sub-Zones Bell Canyon, Jamison Canyon, Conn Valley
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced/ Plateua
    • SLOPES/ Vacca Mountains, +Alt.1,400 ft.-2,400 ft. (Not a Mountain/ More of a Plateau)
    • On~Conn~Creek~Tributary~Napa~River~, On~Deer/ Henne~Lake~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Red Clay(High In Iron), Weathered Basalt
    • White Volcanic Ash AKA=Rhyolitic Tuff/ Tufa, Aiken Stoney Clay
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean, With Continental” Influences
    • INFLUENCED: Above Fog, Inversion Layer
  • VITICULTURE- 14,000 ac./ 1,500 acPlanted, 
    • Estates/ Producers Adamvs(76ac.), Anderson’ s Eagle Trace, Angwin, Arcudi, Arkenstone, Beatty Ranch, Black Sears, Bravante, Bremer, Buehler, Burgess(65ac.), Cade, Charles Krug, Cimarossa, Clark-Claudon, Dunn(E.), Haber, Howell Mountain, La Jota(E.), kristodd, Ladera*(E.), Merus, Mole Hill, Neal, O’Shaughnessy(121ac.), Outpost, Pine Ridge, Red Cap, Retro, Robert Craig, Sbragia, Seavey, Somnium(Danica Patrick)(24 ac.), Summit Lake, Valance, Viader(E./28ac.), White Cottage, WH Smith
    • Vineyards Alta Tierra, Amizetta, Bancroft Ranch, Beatty Ranch, Black Oak, Black Sears, Bracey “Estate“, Burgess, Candlestick, Cimarossa, Coyote, Frank, J & K Lake, Lail, Linda Falls, Park Muscatine, Rattlesnake Ridge, Santori, Stone Ridge, Stout, True, WS Keyes(66ac.)
  • CULTURE- 1983 AVA. Officially Established (Napa’s First Mountain AVA.)
    • PIONEERS~ ~Randy Dunn~ One of Howell Mountain Original Grape Grower.
      • Philanthropist In Napa Land Trust(To Protect Above the Valley Floor Land.)
    • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Howell Mountain Vinters & Growers~
  • GOING THERE-  WINE TOURS~  Ladera
    • NON-WINE RELATED~  ~Mount Saint Helena Radio Towers Trail~

POPE VALLEY AVA. (Un-Official)    @Pope Valley

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Petite Sirah, Sangiovese, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(North-East)
    • East of Calistoga-City(10 mi.), @Hw.#Pope Valley Rd., Sub-Zones- Butts Canyon
    • Boundaries Are the Same as the Putah Creek Watershed.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Pope)
    • SLOPES/ Mayacamas Mountain Range/ Howell Mountain(North), +Alt.500 ft.-1,400 ft.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Shale
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean With Continental Influences
  • VITICULTURE- 3,400 ac., Planted
    • Estate/ Producers Aetna Springs, Calla Lily(E./20ac.), Dollarhide, Flora Springs, Heibel Ranch, James Creek, Pope Valley
    • Vineyards Allomi, Eakle Ranch(80ac.), Julianna
  • CULTURE PIONEERS~ ~William Pope~ 1841, First to Be Granted Property In the Area.

CHILES VALLEY AVA.     @Pope Valley

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Garnacha Bianco, Muscadelle, Sauvignon Blanc, Sémillon
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Primitivo, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(North-East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Chiles), West of Lake Berryessa(15 mi.)
    • SLOPES/ Vacca Mountains, +Alt.600 ft.-1,250 ft.
    • On~Maxwell/ Chiles~Creek~ 
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Los Gatos Formation
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean
  • VITICULTURE- 6,000 ac./ 1,000 acPlanted,  1999- AVA. Officially Established.
    • Estates/ Producers Brown, Calacula Lake, Eagle & Rose, Green & Red, Kuleto, Maxville Lake, Nichelini, Rustridge Ranch, Somerston(230ac.), Volker Eisele
    • Vineyards Deerhound, Elder Valley, Priest Ranch
  • CULTURE-
    • PIONEERS~ ~Joseph Chiles~ 1841, Awarded Original Land Grant, Planted First Vines.

PRITCHARD HILL AVA. (Un-Official)     @Pope Valley

  • WHITE= Chardonnay
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Petit Verdot
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(East-Central)
    • North-West of Atlas Peak AVA., South-East of Lake Hennessy
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Hilly/ Mountainous, SLOPES/ Vacca Mountains, +Alt.800ft.-1,200ft.
    • Bowl Between Oak Knoll, Stags Leap & Chiles Valley
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, –Sobrante Series– Red Volcanic, Clay, Loam
  • CLIMATE- MediterraneanINFLUENCED: Above Fog, Inversion Layer
  • VITICULTURE-  340 acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers Bryant Family, Colgin, Continuum, Chappellet, Del Dotto, Dalla Valle, David Author, Gandona, Melanson, Montagna, Ovid, Villa del Lago
    • Vineyard- Herb Lamb, Hideaway, Long, Martinez, Sage Mountain
  • CULTURE-
    • PIONEERS~ ~Charles Pritchard~ 1890, Planted First Vines On Pritchard Mountain

ATLAS PEAK AVA.     @Napa

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Marsanne, Roussanne, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon 54%, Merlot 10%, Cabernet Franc 4%, Syrah 3%, Garnacha, Malbec, Pinot Noir, Petit Verdot, Petite Sirah, Sangiovese, Tempranillo, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, REGION-Napa, In Napa Valley AVA.(East-Central)
    • Sub-Zone Foss Valley,  @Hw.#Soda Canyon Rd.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced, East of/ Above Stags Leap AVA.
    • SLOPES/ Vacca Mountains, +Alt.760 ft.-2,590 ft.(Peak 2,663 ft.)
    • On~Foss~Creek~Tributary~Napa~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Gravel Loam, Red Basalt
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean, INFLUENCED: Above Fog, Inversion Layer
    • +RAIN: 38 in./ yr.,  10°-15° Cooler Than Valley Floor
  • VITICULTURE- 11,400 ac./ 1,5000 ac., Planted,  1992- AVA. Officially Established.
    • Grapes Ripen 2 Weeks Later Than Valley Floor
    • In Order to Prepare Vineyard Sites Dynamite and Bulldozers Are Needed to Remove the Large Rock Outcrops
    • Estates/ Producers- Antica*(E./ Collaboration/ Antinori), Ardente Expressions, Astrale & Terra, Atlas Peak, Bialla, Cobblestone, Dominari, Jarvis, Jocelyn Lonen, Kenzo, Krupp Brothers, Vin Rock
    • Vineyards- Animo, Backer, Bella Quiercia, Bianchini Family, Dern, Edcora, Elan, Hendrickson Family, Hill Family, Jackie Cordes, Krupp Brothers, Manfree, Meadowrock(32ha.), Odyssey, Pahlmeyer, Rivera, Soda Canyon Ranch, Stagecoach(640ac.), Townsend, Windy Flat
  • CULTURE- ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Atlas Peak Appellation~
  • GOING THERE-  WINE TOURS~ Antica Estate(Antinori)
    • NON-WINE RELATED~ Drive Up to See View of Napa Valley/ Bay Area.

Mountain vs. Valley Floor

  • GEOGRAPHY Napa Mountains are Considered the Vacca Mountains(East) and the Mayacaymas Mountains(West). The Valley Floor is the Medium In-between
  • TOPOGRAPHY +Altitude, Increase Aspect
    • *Generally– Differences Between Mountain and Valley Can Be Defined In Topography, Viticulture, Style and Winemaking
    • Floor Accumulates Water…Grapes Increase Size/ Thin Skin
    • Hillsides- Exposed to Greater Winds, Less Frost Potential, Better Drainage, Aspect, Grapes Don’t Regain Water, Smaller Grapes, Thicker Skin, More Expensive to Farm
  • GRAPES- Hillside Vineyards Are More Stressed: by Wine, Exposure, Lack of Water, Less Vigorous, Later Bud Break, Later Harvest(2 Weeks), Smaller Grapes/ Increase Skin to Juice Ration
  • SOILS- Shallow, Porous Rocky, Better Drainage
  • CLIMATE- Temperature: 10°-15° Cooler During Day, 10*° Warmer at Night
    • +WIND Afternoon/ +Stress, +RAIN: 10-14 Inches More Than Valley Floor
    • Above Fog-Line/ Less Fog, Increase Light Intensity, Shorter Diurnal Shirts
  • VITICULTURE-
    • Generally- Valley Side/ Hills Are the Best for Grape Growing, Base of Valley Side/ Hills is Good, But Valley Floor Can Be Too Vigorous
    • Lower Average Temperature, But More Sunlight Hours.
    • **Refer to “CLIMATE/ Altitudes” For Additional Information.
  • VINICULTURE-
    • Wine= Increase Structure, Deeper Color, Firmer Tannins, Mineral Character, +Minimality, +Ageibility, +Acidity
    • Yields= Mountains- 1-3 Tons/ Acres Valley Floor-5-7 Tons/ Acres
    • Brix: 25 vs. 27 (Cabernet Sauvignon)
    • Economy– Increase Cost Production, Less Quantity

NORTH COAST AVA.   @Lake County

  • WHITE=   |   RED= **Refer to AVA. For Grape Information
  • GEOGRAPHY California, Northern California
    • COUNTIES: (AVA. Laps)Lake County, Mendocino County, Sonoma County
  • VITICULTURE Wine Produced In NORTH COAST Non-Conforming to an AVA.
    • Grapes Can Source From Mendocino, Sonoma, Lake and Napa Counties.


SOLANO COUNTY    @Entire County

  • VITICULTURELabeled SOLANO Refers to Wines Non-Conforming to an AVA.
  • GEOGRAPHIC DISCLAIMER~ Solano County is Not Napa, But I Put it at End of the Napa Chapter Because of Proximity and Similarities In Topography and Climate.

SOLANO GREEN VALLEY AVA.       @Napa

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Merlot, Petit Sirah Syrah, Valdiquie, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, COUNTY-Solano, Napa(Laps), South-East of Napa-City(   mi.)
    • (Laps)Wild Horse AVA.
    • (4 mi. Long & 1 mi. Wide), North-East of San Pablo Bay(12 mi.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Green)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic”, “Volcanic”, “Sedimentary, Deep and Well Drained
  • CLIMATE- Maritime, INFLUENCED/  Proximity to San Pablo Bay(12 Miles)
  • VITICULTURE- 800 ac. Planted
    • Estates/ Producers- Artesa, Acacia, Broc Cellars, Patz & Hall, Silverado, Volkhardt, Wirth, Z.D.
    • Vineyards

SUISUN VALLEY AVA.     @Suisun

  • WHITE= Albarino, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Colombard, Gewurztraminer, Grenache Blanc, Malvasia, Sauvignon Blanc, Verdejo
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Petite Sirah, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Syrah, Valdiguie, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, COUNTY-Solano, East of Napa-City(   mi.), @Hw.#80
    • (Laps)Napa, (8 mi. Long & 3 mi. Wide)
    • Boundaries Are the Same as the Suisun Creek Watershed.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Suisun)”, On~Suisun/ Ledgewood~Creeks~
    • SLOPES/ Vaca Range/ Mt. George Range
  • SOILS- Metamorphic”, “Volcanic”, “Sedimentary, Clay, Silt

    • Brentwood Clay-Loam        San Ysidro Sandy-Loam
    • Sycamore Silty-Loam          Rincon Clay-Loam
  • CLIMATE- Maritime”, INFLUENCED: Fog, Proximity to San Pablo Bay
  • VITICULTURE- 15,000 ac./ 3,000 acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers BackRoad, Blue Victorian, Galvan Family, Gouger Cellar, GV Cellars, Mangels, Mankas Hills, Onward, Suisun Valley(Co.-Op.), Tenbrink, Tolenas, Vezer Vineyards, Wooden Valley
    • Vineyards Lanza, Mangels, Rancho Chimiles
  • CULTURE- ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Suisun Valley Vinters & Grower~
  • GOING THERE- FESTIVALS~ ~Suisun Valley Passport Wine Festival~ (April)
    • CAPELL VALLEY
      • GEOGRAPHY- California, COUNTY-Solano, In Suisun Valley AVA.(North), @Hw.#128
    • WOODED VALLEY
      • GEOGRAPHY- California, COUNTY-Solano, In Suisun Valley AVA.(South-West), @Hw.#121
    • GORDON VALLEY
      • GEOGRAPHY- California, COUNTY-Solano, In Suisun Valley AVA.(South-East)


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.