🇨🇦CANADA


CANADA IS   VA.-  33       @VancouverOttawa

  • WHITE= Bacchus, Chardonnay, Chasselas, Chenin Blanc, Gerwurztraminer, Kerner, Muscat, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gri, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
    • Hybrids L’Acadie Blanc, Castel, Geisenheim, Ortega, Seyval Blanc, St. Pepin, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Merlot, Malbec, Petite Verdot, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Zweigelt
    • Hybrids Baco Noir, DeChaunac, Frontenac, Luci Kuhlman, Marechal Foch, Marquette, Mischurnitz

GEOGRAPHY HEMISPHERE-Northern, COUNTRY-Canada, LATITUDE: 50°- 56.3° N

  • BORDERS-North Pole(North), USA.(South)
  • Sub-Region- British Columbia(West), Ontario(East-Central), Nova Scotia(East)

TOPOGRAPHY  FEATURES- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced/ Benches

    • On~Coast~Pacific/ Atlantic~Oceans~
  • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS-
    • The Canadian Shield- Ice-Soured Area of Precambian Rocks Surrounding Hudson Bay and Covering Half the Country.
    • Niagara Escarpment-650 Mile Long Limestone Ridge From the Jurassic Period That Runs/ Arcs  From the Great Lakes Region (West of Lake Michigan) Up Into Canada and Back Down Into New York South of Lake Ontario.
      • Escarpment is Composed of the Lockport Formation of Silurian Age.
      • The Niagara Escarpment Contains the Lake Effect, Between the Two There’s a Constant Recirculating of the Warmer Air In the Winter and the Cooler Air In the Summer.
    • Rocky Mountains-
    • The Plateau Region-
    • Coastal Mountain Range-
  • VOLANISM~ ~Mount Boucherie~ British Columbia

SOILS Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary

  • **Refer to TERROIR/ Geology & Soil For Detailed Information On Soils.

CLIMATE  Maritime, Continental

VITICULTURE

  • Canada is: #31 In Grape Production, #26 In Wine Consumption In World.

VINICULTURE–  

    • ICE WINE    
  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling, Vidal Blanc, Saval Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc
    • Thick Skinned Grapes Do Better For Producing Ice Wine, the Thicker the Skin the Longer the Grape Can Stay On the Vine Without Rotting.
  • GEOGRAPHY- REGIONS-Niagara, Ontario, Similkameen Valley, British Columbia
  • VITICULTURE- First Canada Ice Wine In 1972
    • CHALLENGE– If Weather Doesn’t Freeze Fast Enough Grapes Rot and There’s a Chance For a Lost Harvest. Grapes Shouldn’t Be Effected by Botrytis Prior to Freezing, Only Healthy Grapes Stand Up to Freezing Temperatures.
    • In Late Fall Nets Have to Be Placed Over Vine For Protection of Birds, Boars and Deer.
    • Yields Are 5%- 10% of Normal Grapes. 10 Pounds of Grapes Are Needed to Produce 375 ml. Bottle
    • VINICULTURE-
      • Grapes Are Over Ripe, Late Harvest and Raisining When Freezing Starts.
      • Brix. Measurements Are Usually Between 38.5% and 41.5%.
      • Canada Requires Temperature at 17.6° F./ -8° C. or Lower For at Least 3 Days.  Before the Harvest of Frozen Grapes an Inspector Has to Access the Grapes For Approval.
      • Harvested Berries Are Immediately Crushed Using Heavy-Duty Hydraulic Basket Press.
    • Estate/ Producers- Cave Springs, Flat Rock, Jackson-Trigs, Mission Hill, Inniskillin, Peller, Pillitteri, Reif
  • PIONEERS~ ~Karl Kaiser~
    • Moved From Austria to Ontario, Canada, In Late 1960 and Started Growing Grapes to Make Ice Wine.
    • **Refer to WINE STYLES/ Ice Wine For Additional Information.

CULTURE

  • ACADEMICS~ ~Brock~   @Hamilton, Ontario
    • SpecializationCool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute CCOVI.

WINE LAW & CLASSIFICATION

  • GOVERNING BODY-
    • ~Canada Vintners Quality Alliance~ VQA.
      • Mission~ Regulates Appellation System, Region of Origins, and Tasting Panel for Quality Assurance For Customers.
  • LAWS GOVERNING- Geography, Quality-Strict Lab-Standards Tests, Yields
    • -Label Requirement-
      • 85%- of Grapes Must Come From Stated Appellation
      • 100% From Sub-Appellation
    • Cellared In Canada- Certain Producers Are Grandfathered In Under the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement and Are Legally Permitted to Produce Wines From a Blend of Foreign Grapes Not Grown In Canada But Imported In and “Cellared In Canada.”
    • WINES OF DISTINCTION- Second Classification, Less Stringent Quality Control

  • SUB-CHAPTERS Of CANADA
    • British Columbia
    • North Canada
    • Ontario
    • Nova Scotia
  • **Refer to Proceeding Sub-Chatpers Below For Detailed Information.


  • GEOGRAPHIC DISCLAIMER~To Understand the Wine World and Benefit From DtheV.com a Understanding of Canada’s Geography is Needed and the Ability to Visualize Its Wine Regions Topography.  Canada is Organized In a North to South, / East to West Orientation and Intended to Be Researched as So.

BRITISH COLUMBIA


BRITISH COLUMBIA IS   VA.- 14     @Vancouver

  • WHITE= Bacchus, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Gerwurztraminer, Kerner, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gri, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
    • Hybrids L’Acadie Blanc, Castel, Chambourcin, Castel, Ehrenfelser, Felser, Geisenheim, Ortega, Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Malbec, Merlot, Petite Verdot, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Zweigelt
    • Hybrids Marechal Foch

GEOGRAPHY Canada(West), REGION-British Columbia, LATITUDE: 50°- 53° N

  • British Columbia is Considered Part of Pacific North West.

TOPOGRAPHY  FEATURES- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced

SOILS–  Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Sandy, Gravely, Silt, Clay, Limestone

CLIMATE West British Columbia- Maritime,  East British Columbia- Continental

  • *Summers– Mild, Dry During Growing   |  *Winters– Cold, Wet Season
  • RAIN SHADOW EFFECT/ ~Coast Mountain Range~

VITICULTURE 4,200 ha. Planted, (White 49%/ Red 51%),  97% Vitis Vinifera, 3% Hybrid

CULTURE

  • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Columbia Vintners Quality Alliance~
    • ~British Columbia Winegrowers ABCW~
      • Mission~ Collection of 57 Family Owned and Operated Wineries, Accounting For 70% of British Columbia Wine.

GOING THERE

  • FESTIVALS~ ~Vancouver International Wine Festival~ (February/Canada)

VANCOUVER ISLAND VQA.      @Duncan

  • WHITE= Auxerrois, Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
    • Hybrids Castel, Ortega, Siegerrebe
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah
    • Hybrid Marechal Foch
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-West), @Hw.#1
    • South-West of Vancouver-City(      km.), Multi-Appellation
    • Sub-Regions- Alberni Valley, Black Creek, Coutenay, Cowlchan Valley, Nanalmo, Parksville, Saarnich Peninsula, Sooke, Victoria
  • TOPOGRAPHYFlat/ RollingOn~Vancouver~Island~/ Saanich Bay~
    • On~Cowichan~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary
  • CLIMATE- Maritime
  • VITICULTURE- 432 ha. Planted
    • Many Wineries Produce Wines From Okanagan Valley Alongside Their Estate Wine.
  • VINICULTURE-
    • Estate/ Producers 40 Knots, Chase & Warren, Cherry Point, Blue Grouse, Vigneti Zanatta
    • Vineyards- Damali
  • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Vancouver Island Wine Trail~
    • FESTIVALS~ ~Winter Wine Festival~ (January/ Vancouver Island)
  • COWICHAN VALLEY VQA.     @
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
      • Hybrids Ortega
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-West), In Vancouver Island VA.
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat, Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Cowichan), On~Vancouver~Island~
    • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary
    • CLIMATE- Maritime
    • VITICULTURE-  ? haPlanted
      • Estate/ Producers 22 Oaks, Alderlea, Averill Creek, Blue Grouse, Cherry Point(24ac.), Damali, Deol, Divino, Emandare, Enrico(18ac,), Rocky Creek, Unsworth, Venturi-Schulze, Zanatta
    • CULTURE-  Many Wine Tours Companies
  • SAANICH PENNINSULA VQA.     @Victoria
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-West), In Vancouver Island VA.
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, On~Vancouver~Island~
    • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary
    • CLIMATE- Maritime
    • VITICULTURE-  ?  haPlanted
      • Estate/ Producers Church & State, Dragonfly Hill, Muse, Rochette, Symphony, De Vine

GULF ISLANDS VQA.     @

  • WHITE= Chardonnay
  • RED= Cabernet Franc
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-West)
    • Sub-Islands- Denman Island, Hornby Island, Pender Island, Quadra Island, Salt Spring Island, Saturan Island, Thetis Island
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, Georgia Strait, Separating Vancouver Island & Mainland
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary
  • VITICULTURE- 94 acPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Saturna, Quadra, Hornby

FRASER VALLEY VQA.     @Abbotsford, Langley

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Kerner, Pinot Gri, Semillon, Siegerrebe
    • Hybrids Bacchus
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Madeleine Angevine, Merlot, Syrah, Zweigelt
    • Hybrids
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia(South-West), @Hw.#A1/# 12
    • East of Vancouver-City(20km.), BORDERS-America(South)
    • Sub-Zones- Abbotsford, Delta, Langley/ Aldergrove, New Westminster, Richmond, Sachelt, Surrey, Vancouver
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Fraser)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Sandy Loam, Red Clay
  • CLIMATE- Maritime
  • VITICULTURE- 63 acPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Artisan Sakemaker, Blackwood Lane, Chaberton, Lotusland, Lulu Island, Maple Creek, Township 7(Sparkling)
  • CULTURE- HOME MARKET~ ~Vancouver~ 45 Minute Drive to the West
    • WINE TRAILS~ ~Fraser Valley Wine Trail~

SIMILKAMEEN VALLEY VQA.      @Keremeos, Osoyoos

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Reisling
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-West),  @Hw.#3/ #38
    • South-West of Vancouver-City(150km.), BORDERS-America(South)
    • Sub-Zones-  Cawston, Keremeos,
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Similkameen)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary
  • CLIMATE- Maritime
  • VITICULTURE- 691 acPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Burrowing Owl, Cerelia, Clos du Soleil, Corcelettes, Crowsnest, Herder, Orofino(5.5 ha.), Robin Ridge, Severn Stones
  • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Similkameen Valley Wine Trail~


OKANAGAN VALLEY VQA.      @British Columbia

  • WHITE= Chambourcin, Chardonnay, Chasselas, Chenin Blanc, Ehrenfelser, Gewurztraminor, Muscat, Pinot Gri, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Zweigelt
    • Hybrid Marechal Foch
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia(Central),  LATITUDE: 49°- 50° N
    • BETWEEN-Vancouver & Calgary, East of Vancouver-City(400km.) Multi-Appellation
    • (140km. Long), Northern End of Sonora Desert, +RAIN/ 12+ Inches/ Year
    • Sub-Zones- North Okanagan      Mid Okanagan      South Okanagan
    • Sub-VA.’s- Black Sage/ Osoyoos VA., Kelowna-Mount Boucherie VA., Kelowna-North Okanagan VA., Naramata Bench VA., Okanagan Falls VA., Oliver/ Golden Mile VA., Peachland VA., Penticton VA., Summerland VA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- FEATURES– “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced, +Alt.1,000 ft.-2,000 ft.
    • SLOPES/ Columbia Mountain Range(Cariboo, Monashee, Purcell, Selkirk),  Cascade Mountain Range(Hozameen, Okanagan, Skagit),  Coastal Mounain Range
    • On~Okanagan~Lake/ Okanagan~River~Tributary~Columbia~River~
    • Area is Comprised by a Series of Lakes With Okanagan Being the Largest at 84 Miles Long, 3 Miles Wide.
      • Other Lakes: Kalamalka, Osoyoos, Skaha, Swan, Wood, Vaseux
    • ON BENCH/ Golden Mile, Naramata, Skaha
    • ON PLATEAU/ British Columbia Interior
    • Topographic Events- Formed by the Advance/ Regress of Glacial Ice Sheet In Teritary and Quaternay Periods Between 9,000 & 11,000 Years Ago.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Glacial Moraine/ Sediment
    • Alluvial Gravel, Silt, Over Bedrock Sub-Soil,  Lost Creek Series
  • CLIMATE- Continental/ Cool(North), Continental/ Warm(South)
    • *Summers– Hot, Long Growing Season   |   *Winters– Cold, Wet,  +Diurnal Shifts(40°)
    • LAKE EFFECT/ Okanagan, Lake Tapers Weather by 5°- 7° In Summer and Winter.
      • Vineyards Surrounded by Snow Covered Peaks Moderated by the Body of Water.
  • VITICULTURE- 3,575 ha.,
    • CHALLENGES– Irrigation Needed, by Glacier Fed Lake.
      • Birds(Stallings), Racoons, Beer, Deer
    • ADVANTAGES– Warmest Region In Canada, +Photosynthesis by +Latitude/ +2 Hour Growing Days
    • Estate/ Producers-(Not Found In Demarcated Sub-Zone) Checkmate, Lariana Cellars, Okanagan Crush Pad, Phantom Creek
  • VINICULTURE-  Ice Wine- **Refer to CANADA/ Home For Details On Ice Wine.
    • BOTRYTIS– WHITE= Optima, Riesling
    • VERGLAS– +BLENDED/ Ice Wine,  Botrytis Wine
    • SPARKLING/ Methode: Traditional,  Ancestrale
  • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ Okanagan Meaning Place of Water In Native Salish Dialect.
  • GOING THERE- FESTIVALS~ ~Okanagan Wine Festival(September)
    • FESTIVALS~ ~Festival of the Grape~ (October/ Oliver, Okanagan Valley)

  • KELOWNA-NORTH OKANAGAN VQA.     @Kelowna
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chasselas, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA.,  @Hw.#33
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(North)
    • VITICULTURE-   ?  haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- 50th. Parallel(20ha.), Boucherie, Cedar Ridge, House of Rose Sperling, Rust Wine Co., Tantalus
      • Vineyards- Tantalus
  • KELOWNA-MOUNT BOUCHERIE VQA.     @Kelowna
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chasselas, Gruner Veltliner, Muscat, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Syrah
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA.(North-East), @Hw.#97
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(North-West)
    • VITICULTURE-  ?  haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- Cedarcreek(100ha.), Martin’s Lane, Mission Hills, Mainie, Qualls’ Gate(79ac.), Summerhill Pyramind(21ha./Bio.-Dyn.)
      • Vineyards– Fritzi’s
    • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Kelowna Wine Trail~
  • PEACHLAND VQA.     @
    • WHITE= Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gri, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA., @Hw.#97
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(West-Central)
    • VITICULTURE-  ?  haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- Greata Ranch, Hainle
  • SUMMERLAND VQA.     @Summerland
    • WHITE= Gewurztraminer, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA., @Hw.#97
      • Sub-Zones- Prairie Valley
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, +Alt. 680mt., On~Okanagan~Lake~(West-Central)
    • VITICULTURE-  ?  haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- 8th. Generation, Bonitas, Dirty Laundry, Haywire, Heavens’s Gate, Hollywood & Wine, Saxon, Sleeping Giant, Sonoran, Summerhill Pyramid, Summerland Heritage, Valentine Farm
  • NARAMATA BENCH VQA. (Un-Official)     @Naramata, Penticton
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA., @Hw.#33
      • Bench Between Penticton Creek and Okanagan Mountain Park.
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(East-Central)
    • VITICULTURE- 618 haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- Bella Wines, Bench 1775, Black Widow, Daydreamer, Deep Roots, Howling Bluff, Kettle Valley, Lang, Laughing Stock, Poplar Grove(10ac.), Red Rooster, Terra Vista, Tightrope
      • Vineyards- McGraw, Nichol, Therepy, Monster, Poplar Grove, Serendipity, Terravista, Van Westen
    • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Naramata Bench Wine Trail~
  • PENTICTON VQA. (Un-Official)     @
    • WHITE= Gewurztraminer, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA., @Hw.#33
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(East-Central)
    • VITICULTURE-  ?  haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers-  3 Mile Estate, Clean Slate, La Frenz, Hill Side, Perseus, Red Rooster, Terravista, Upper Bench
      • Vineyards-
  • OKANAGAN FALLS VQA.     @Okanagan Falls
    • WHITE= Autumn Gold, Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Blanc, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA.,  @Hw.#97
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(South-East)
    • VITICULTURE-  539 haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- Alto Wine, Black Dog, Blue Mountain, Hester Creek(70ac.), Jackson Triggs, Liquidity, Meyer Family, Noble Ridge, Road 13, Se Ya Later Ranch, Stag’s Hollow, Stoneboat(50ac.), Synchromesh, Tangled Vines, Tinhorn Creek, Wild Goose
    • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Southern Okanagan Wine Trail~
  • OLIVER/ GOLDEN MILE VQA.     @Oliver
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminor, Muscat, Pinot Gris, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA.,  @Hw.#97
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly/ Bench(Golden Mile), On~Okanagan~Lake~(South-East)
    • VITICULTURE- 3,543 haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- Antelope Ridge, Black Hills, Burrowing Owl(180ac.), Coyote Bowl, Golden Beaver, Money Pit, Moon Curser, Platinum Bench, Stoneboat, Willow Hill
  • BLACK SAGE/ OSOYOOS VQA.    @Osoyoos
    • WHITE= Pinot Gri
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA.,  @Hw.#97/ #3
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(South)
    • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Clay
    • CLIMATE- Continental
    • VITICULTURE- 1,510 haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- Adega On 45th., Inniskillin Okanagan, Golden Mile, Gold Hill, Nk’Mip, Phamtom Creek, Young and Wyse
  • KOOTENAYS VQA.     @Creston
    • WHITE= Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris
    • RED= Marechal Foch, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia(South-East)
      • East of Okanagan Valley(50km.), But Isn’t Considered Part of Okanagan Valley.
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling
    • SOILS- Metamorphic
    • VITICULTURE-acPlanted
      • Estate/ Producers-


North Canada

LILLOOET VQA.     @Lillooet

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Riesling
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-Central), SUB-REGION-Cariboo Chilcotin
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling
  • SOILS- Metamorphic
  • VITICULTURE- 29 acPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Fort Berens

THOMPSON VALLEY GI.     @Kamloops

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling
  • RED= Marechal Foch, Marquette
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-Central)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Valley(Thompson), On~Thompson~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic
  • VITICULTURE- 107 acPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Harpers Trail
    • Vineyards- Thadd Springs

SHUSWAP VQA.     @Salmon Arm

  • WHITE= Gewurztraminer, Kerner, Ortega, Siegerrebe
  • RED= Marechal Foch
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling, On~Shuswap~Lake~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic
  • VITICULTURE- 102 acPlanted, Viticulture Since  1997
    • Estate/ Producers- Larch Hills


CANADAOntario


ONTARIO IS    VQA5      @Ontaro

  • WHITE= Riesling 20%, Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, Kerner, Muscat Ottonel, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
    • HybridsVidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc 15%, Baco Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Tannat, Zweigelt
    • Hybrids Chambourcin, Frontenac, Marechal Foch

GEOGRAPHY Canada(East), REGION-Ontario, LATITUDE: 51.2° N

  • Sub-Zones/ VA.’s- Lake Erie North Shore, Niagara Peninsula, Prince Edward County
  • Most of Ontario’s Vineyards Are at Lower Latitudes and Close Proximity to Lakes and Rivers

TOPOGRAPHYFEATURES Flat/ RollingOn~Erie/ Ontaria Lakes, On~Niagara~River~

  • Sub-Zones- Flat Area,  The Bench, Ontario Lake
  • Niagara Escarpment- 650 Mile Long Limestone Ridge From the Jurassic Period That Runs/ Arcs  From the Great Lakes Region (West of Lake Michigan) Up Into Canada and Back Down Into New York South of Lake Ontario.
    • Escarpment is Composed of the Lockport Formation of Silurian Age.
    • The Niagara Escarpment Contains the Lake Effect, Between the Two There’s a Constant Recirculating of the Warmer Air In the Winter and the Cooler Air In the Summer.
  • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS
    • The Canadian Shield- Ice-Soured Area of Precambrian Rocks Surrounding Hudson Bay and Covering Half the Country.
    • Northern Margin-  Which is a Raised Land Mass South of Lake Ontario.  This Margin Shields New York From a Small Percentage of Harsh Weather.

SOILS Metamorphic, Sedimentary

CLIMATE Continental, LAKE EFFECT/ Moderated by Surrounding Lakes

  • *Summers– Warm, Humid   |   *Winters– Cold, Snow

VITICULTURE

  • CHALLENGES– Fungal Diseases, Frost, Snow

VINICULTURE

  • Ice Wine- **Refer to CANADA/ Home For Details On Ice Wine.

CULTURE

  • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Vintners Quality Alliance Ontario~
    • Mission~ Agency Responsible For maintaining the Integrity of Local Wine Appellations and Enforcing Winemaking and Labelling Standards.

LAKE ERIE NORTH SHORE VQA.     @Chatam-Kent

  • WHITE= Riesling
    • Hybrids– Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-Ontario(South)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ RollingOn~Lake~Erie~(North-West)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, “Sedimentary, Glacial Deposits, Sandy Loam, Clay
  • CLIMATE- ContinentalLAKE EFFECT/ Lake Erie
  • VITICULTURE-  ? haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Johnson Estate, Liberty Vineyards, Merritt Estate, North 42 Degrees, Woodbury

NIAGARA PENINSULA VQA.     @Niagara-On-the-Lake

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Gewurztraminer, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
    • Hybrids– Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Sirah, Tannat
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-Ontario(South-Central), South of Toronto-City(    km.)
    • CITIES-Hamilton, Niagara Falls
    • Sub-Zones/ VA.’s(10) Beansville Bench VA., Creek Shore VA., Four Mile Creek VA., Lincoln Lakeshore VA., Niagara Lakeshore VA., Niagara River VA., Short Hills Bench VA., St. David’s Bench VA., Twenty Mile Bench VA., Vinemount Ridge VA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ RollingOn~Lake~Ontario~(South-West)
    • SLOPES/ Niagara Escarpment, +Alt. 150mt.
      • (From Grimsby to St. Catharines) Follows Shoreline of Lake.
    • Events- Queenstown Formation
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Queenstown Formation, Limestone, Clay
  • CLIMATE- ContinentalLAKE EFFECT/ Lake Ontario
  • VITICULTURE-  13,600 ac  haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers-(Not Located In Demarcated Sub-Zone) 13th. Street, Adamo, Charmes(International/279ac.), Foreign Affair, Inniskillin, Jackson-Triggs, Konzelmann, Pearl Morissette(Nat.Pro.), Peller, Ravinevineyard, Reif, Reimer, Riverview, Pillitteri, Ravine, Reif, Southbrook, Strewn, Stratus, Trius, Wayne Gretzky
    • Vineyards-(Not Located In Demarcated Sub-Zone)Adamo“Estate”(25ac.),Delaine, Dick, Glenlake, Lepp, Lepp Ember Path, McNab, Wiens
  • VINICULTURE- Ice WineWHITE= Vidal Blanc, Must Be 100% From VQA.
      • **Refer to CANADA/ Home For Details On Ice Wine.
  • GOING THERE- FESTIVALS~ ~Niagara Icewine Festival(January)
    • WINE TRAILS~ ~Niagara-On-the-Lake Wine Trail~

  • LINCOLN LAKESHORE VQA.     @
    • GEOGRAPHY- REGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(West), On~Lake~Ontario~
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling, At Foot of Bench, ON PLAIN/ Lake Iroquois
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers- Fielding, Greenlane, Hillebrand Trius, Meldville, Redstone, Tasse Van Bers
  • CREEK SHORE VQA.     @Jordan
    • GEOGRAPHY- REGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(West)
      • On~Lake~Ontario~(Near/ 5km.)
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling, ON PLAIN/ Lake Iroquois
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers- 13th. Street, Creekside, Pearl Morissette
  • BEANSVILLE BENCH VQA.      @Beansville
    • GEOGRAPHY- REGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(West)
      • On Niagara Escarpment(West),  @Hw.#81
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, On Terrace
    • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Gravel, Sand, Silt
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers- Cave Springs(90ha.), Fielding, Hidden Bench, Malivoire, Mike Weir, Organized Crime, Peninsula Ridge, Thirty Bench
      • Vineyards- Felseck, Steel Post(1.6ha.)
  • TWENTY MILE BENCH VQA.      @Vineland
    • GEOGRAPHY- REGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(West)
      • On Niagara Escarpment(Central), @Hw.#81
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers- Bachelor Niagara, Big Head, Le Clos Jordanne, Flat Rock(30ha.), Tawse, Vineland(101ha.)
      • Vineyards- Carly’s
  • SHORT HILLS BENCH VQA.       @
    • GEOGRAPHY- REGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(West)
      • On Niagara Escarpment(East)
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers- Henry of Pelham(121ha.)
  • VINEMOUNT RIDGE  VQA.      @
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY- Ontario, REGION-Niagara Peninsula(West)
      • Interior Area Behind Escarpment
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers- Charles Baker, Fogolar, Westcott
      • Vineyards- Picone
  • NIAGARA LAKESHORE  VQA.        @
    • GEOGRAPHY- REGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(East), On~Lake~Ontario~
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers-
  • FOUR MILE CREEK  VQA.         @
    • GEOGRAPHY- REGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(East), Below Bench
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling, SLOPES/ Niagara Escarpment, +Alt. 89mt.- 105mt.
    • SOILS- Queenstown Formation,  Red Slate, Silt
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers- North 42 Degrees, Trius
      • Vineyards- Ghost Creek
  • ST. DAVID’S BENCH  VQA.       @
    • GEOGRAPHY- REGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(East)
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers- Des Charmes, Ravine, Queenston Mile
      • Vineyards- St. David’s Bench, Queenston Mile“Estate
  • NIAGARA RIVER VQA.        @
    • GEOGRAPHY- REGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(East)
    • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling, On~Niagara~River~
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers- Reif

PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY VQA.     @Picton

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurtztraminer, Riesling
    • Hybrids– Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Pinot Noir
    • Hybrids– Chambourcin, Frontenac Noir, Marechal
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-Ontario(East), COUNTY– ?, @Hw.#33
    • CITIES– Bloomfield, Hillier, Milford, North Marysburgh, Picton, Wellington
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt. ?
    • On~Lake~Ontario~(North-East)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Gravel, Sandy Loam
  • CLIMATE- ContinentalLAKE EFFECT/ Lake Erie
  • VITICULTURE- ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE- Ice WineWHITE= Vidal Blanc
    • Estate/ Producers- Black Prince, Broken Stone, By Chadsey’s Cairns, Casa-Dea, Closson Chase, Del-Gatto, Grange, Harwood, Huff, Keint-He, Lacey, Long Dog, Norman Hardie, Rosehall Run, Sandbanks, Sugarbush, Three Dog, Trail
  • CULTURE- ECONOMICS~ History of Cheese Production.

PELEE VQA.     @Ontario

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
    • Hybrids– Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Baco Noir, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Zweigelt
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-Ontario(East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling, On~Lake~Erie~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Clay
  • CLIMATE- ContinentalLAKE EFFECT/ Lake Erie
  • VITICULTURE-  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE-  Ice WineWHITE= Vidal Blanc
    • Estate/ Producers- Pelee Island Winery


NOVA SCOTIA     @Halfax

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chasselas, Muscat, Pinot Gri, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc

    • Hybrids L’Acadie Blanc, Castel, Geisenheim, Ortega, Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Gamay, Pinot Noir
    • Hybrids Baco Noir, DeChaunac, Luci Kuhlman, Marechal Foch, Mischurnitz
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(North), On~ ~Bay~
    • Sub-Zones- Annapolis Valley(Bay of Fundy), Cape Breton Island, Northumberland Shore, South Shore
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling
  • CLIMATE- Continental
  • VITICULTURE- 632ac. Planted
  • VITICULTURE- Sparkling,  White,  Red,   Ice Wine
    • Tidal Bay- Produced From Specific Grape Varieties Grown Exclusively In Nova Scotia
  • CULTURE- ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Wine Association of Nova Scotia~

ANNAPOLIS VALLEY VQA.     @Windsor, Kentville

  • WHITE=  Muscat, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc

    • Hybrids L’Acadie Blanc, Ortega, Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc
    • Hybrids
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(North), @Hw.#101
    • On~Fundy~Bay~
    • Sub-Zones- Bay of Fundy, BETWEEN 2 Mountain Ranges
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Gaspereau)
  • CLIMATE- Continental
  • VITICULTURE-  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE- Ice Wine- WHITE= Ortega
    • Estate/ Producers- L’Acadie(Sparkling), Benjamin Bridge, Gaspereau(37ac.), Grand Pre

  • AVON RIVER VALLEY     @
    • WHITE=
    • RED= ?
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(South-West)
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers-
  • BEAR RIVER     @Digby
    • WHITE=
    • RED= ?
    • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(West)
    • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers-

MALAGASH PENINSULA VQA.    @

  • WHITE= Vidal
  • RED= Macechal,  Foch
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(North), SUB-ZONE-Northumberland Shore
    • On~Northumberland~Strait~
  • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Jost

LAHAVE RIVER VALLEY VQA.     @Bridgewater

  • WHITE=
  • RED= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(South-Central), SUB-ZONE-South Shore
  • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers-

CAP BRETON ISLAND     @Port Hawkesbury/ Sydney

  • WHITE=
  • RED= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY- Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(East)
  • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Eileanan Breagha


**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.