🇨🇦CANADA


CANADA IS   VA.-  33       @VancouverOttawa

  • WHITE= Bacchus, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Gerwurztraminer, Kerner, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gri, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
    • Hybrids– L’Acadie Blanc, Ortega, Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Merlot, Malbec, Petite Verdot, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Zweigelt
    • Hybrids– Marechal Foch

GEOGRAPHY HEMISPHERE-Northern, COUNTRY-Canada, LATITUDE: 50°- 56.3° N

  • BORDERS: North Pole(North), USA.(South)
  • Sub-Region- British Columbia(West), Ontario(East-Central), Nova Scotia(East)

TOPOGRAPHY  FEATURESFlat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced/ Benches

    • On~Coast~Pacific/ Atlantic~Oceans~
  • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS
    • The Canadian Shield~ Ice-Soured Area of Precambian Rocks Surrounding Hudson Bay and Covering Half the Country.
    • Niagara Escarpment-  650 Mile Long Limestone Ridge From the Jurassic Period That Runs/ Arcs  From the Great Lakes Region (West of Lake Michigan) Up Into Canada and Back Down Into New York South of Lake Ontario.
      • Escarpment is Composed of the Lockport Formation of Silurian Age.
      • The Niagara Escarpment Contains the Lake Effect, Between the Two There’s a Constant Recirculating of the Warmer Air In the Winter and the Cooler Air In the Summer.
    • Rocky Mountains~
    • The Plateau Region~
    • Coastal Mountain Range~
  • VOLANISM~ ~Mount Boucherie~ British Columbia

SOILSMetamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary

  • **Refer to “TERROIR/ Geology & Soil” For Detailed Information On Soils

CLIMATE  Maritime, Continental

VITICULTURE

  • #31 In Grape Production, #26 In Wine Consumption In World

VINICULTURE–  

    • ICE WINE    
  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling, Vidal Blanc, Saval Blanc
  • RED=  Cabernet Franc
    • Thick Skinned Grapes Do Better For Producing Ice Wine, the Thicker the Skin the Longer the Grape Can Stay On the Vine Without Rotting.
  • GEOGRAPHY– REGIONS– Niagara, Ontario, Similkameen Valley, British Columbia
  • VITICULTURE– First Canada Ice Wine In 1972
    • CHALLENGE– If Weather Doesn’t Freeze Fast Enough Grapes Rot and There’s a Chance for a Lost Harvest. Grapes Shouldn’t Be Effected by Botrytis Prior to Freezing, Only Healthy Grapes Stand Up to Freezing Temperatures.
    • In Late Fall Nets Have to Be Placed Over Vine For Protection of Birds, Boars and Deer.
    • VINICULTURE
      • Canada Requires Temperature at 17,6* or Lower For at Least 3 Days.  Before the Harvest of Frozen Grapes an Inspector Has to Access the Grapes For Approval.
      • Grapes Are Over Ripe, Late Harvest and Raisining When Freezing Starts.
    • Estate/ Producers– Cave Springs, Flat Rock, Jackson-Trigs, Mission Hill, Inniskillin, Peller, Pillitteri, Reif
    • **Refer to “WINE STYLES/ Ice Wine” For Additional Information.

CULTURE

  • ACADEMICS~ ~Brock~   @Hamilton, Ontario
    • Specialization~ Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute CCOVI.

WINE LAW & CLASSIFICATION

  • GOVERNING BODY-
    • ~Canada Vintners Quality Alliance~ VQA.
      • Mission~ Regulates Appellation System, Region of Origins, and Tasting Panel for Quality Assurance For Customers.
  • LAWS GOVERNING- Geography, Quality-Strict Lab-Standards Tests, Yields
    • -Label Requirement-
      • 85%- of Grapes Must Come From Stated Appellation
      • 100% From Sub-Appellation
    • Cellared In Canada– Certain Producers Are Grandfathered In” Under the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement and Are Legally Permitted to Produce Wines From a Blend of Foreign Grapes Not Grown In Canada But Imported In and “Cellared In Canada.”
    • WINES OF DISTINCTION– Second Classification, Less Stringent Quality Control

  • SUB-CHAPTERS Of CANADA
    • British Columbia
    • Ontario
    • Nova Scotia
  • **Refer to Proceeding Sub-Chatpers Below For Detailed Information


  • GEOGRAPHIC DISCLAIMER~To Understand the Wine World and Benefit From DtheV.com a Understanding of Canada’s Geography is Needed and the Ability to Visualize Its Wine Regions Topography.  Canada is Organized In a North to South, / East to West Orientation and Intended to Be Researched and Memorized as So.

BRITISH COLUMBIA


BRITISH COLUMBIA IS   VA.- 14     @Vancouver

  • WHITE= Bacchus, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Gerwurztraminer, Kerner, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gri, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
    • Hybrids– L’Acadie Blanc, Castel, Chambourcin, Castel, Ehrenfelser, Felser, Geisenheim, Ortega, Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Malbec, Merlot, Petite Verdot, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Zweigelt
    • Hybrids– Marechal Foch

GEOGRAPHY Canada(West), REGION-British Columbia, LATITUDE: 50° – 53° ‘N’

  • British Columbia is Part of Pacific North West

TOPOGRAPHY  FEATURES– “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced”

SOILS–  Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary, Sandy, Gravely, Silt, Clay, Limestone

CLIMATE West British Columbia- Maritime“,      East British Columbia-Continental

  • Summers– Mild, Dry During Growing   |  Winters– Cold, Wet Season
  • RAIN SHADOW EFFECT/ ~Coast Mountain Range~

VITICULTURE 4,200 ha. Planted, (White 49%/ Red 51%),  97% Vitis Vinifera, 3% Hybrid

CULTURE

  • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Columbia Vintners Quality Alliance~
    • ~British Columbia Winegrowers ABCW~.
      • Mission~ Collection of 57 Family Owned and Operated Wineries, Accounting For 70% of British Columbia Wine.

GOING THERE

  • FESTIVALS~  ~Vancouver International Wine Festival(February/Canada)

VANCOUVER ISLAND VA.      @Duncan

  • WHITE= Auxerrois, Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
    • Hybrids– Castel, Ortega, Siegerrebe
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah
    • Hybrid– Marechal Foch
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-West), @Hw.#1
    • South-West of Vancouver-City(      km.), “Multi-Appellation”
    • Sub-Regions- Alberni Valley, Black Creek, Coutenay, Cowlchan Valley, Nanalmo, Parksville, Saarnich Peninsula, Sooke, Victoria
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Vancouver~Island~/ Saanich~Bay~
    • On~Cowichan~River~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary
  • CLIMATE=Maritime
  • VITICULTURE– 432 ha. Planted
    • Many Wineries Produce Wines From Okanagan Valley Alongside Their Estate Wine.
  • VINICULTURE- 
    • Estate/ Producers– 40 Knots, Chase & Warren, Cherry Point, Blue Grouse, Vigneti Zanatta
    • Vineyards– Damali
  • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Vancouver Island Wine Trail~
    • FESTIVALS~ ~Winter Wine Festival~ (January/ Vancouver Island)
  • COWICHAN VALLEY VA.     @
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
      • Hybrids– Ortega
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-West), In Vancouver Island VA.
    • TOPOGRAPHY-“Flat, Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Cowichan)”, On~Vancouver~Island~
    • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary
    • CLIMATE=Maritime
    • VITICULTURE–  ? haPlanted
      • Estate/ Producers– 22 Oaks, Alderlea, Averill Creek, Blue Grouse, Cherry Point(24ac.), Damali, Deol, Divino, Emandare, Enrico(18ac,), Rocky Creek, Unsworth, Venturi-Schulze, Zanatta
    • CULTURE–  Many Wine Tours Companies
  • SAANICH PENNINSULA VA.     @Victoria
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-West), In Vancouver Island VA.
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Vancouver~Island~
    • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary
    • CLIMATE=Maritime
    • VITICULTURE–  ?  haPlanted
      • Estate/ Producers– Church & State, Dragonfly Hill, Muse, Rochette, Symphony, De Vine

GULF ISLANDS VA.     @

  • WHITE= Chardonnay
  • RED= Cabernet Franc
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-West)
    • Sub-Islands- Denman Island, Hornby Island, Pender Island, Quadra Island, Salt Spring Island, Saturan Island, Thetis Island
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”, Georgia Strait, Separating Vancouver Island & Mainland
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary
  • VITICULTURE– 94 acPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers– Saturna, Quadra, Hornby

FRASER VALLEY VA.     @Abbotsford, Langley

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Kerner, Pinot Gri, Semillon, Siegerrebe
    • Hybrids– Bacchus
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Madeleine Angevine, Merlot, Syrah, Zweigelt
    • Hybrids
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia(South-West), @Hw.#A1/# 12
    • East of Vancouver-City(20km.), BORDERS-America(South)
    • Sub-Zones- Abbotsford, Delta, Langley/ Aldergrove, New Westminster, Richmond, Sachelt, Surrey, Vancouver,
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Fraser)”
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary“, Sandy Loam, Red Clay
  • CLIMATE=Maritime
  • VITICULTURE– 63 acPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers– Artisan Sakemaker, Blackwood Lane, Chaberton, Lotusland, Lulu Island, Maple Creek, Township 7(Sparkling)
  • CULTURE- HOME MARKET– ~Vancouver~ 45 Minute Drive to the West
    • WINE TRAILS~ ~Fraser Valley Wine Trail~

SIMILKAMEEN VALLEY VA.      @Keremeos, Osoyoos

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Reisling
  • RED=Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-West),  @Hw.#3/ #38
    • South-West of Vancouver-City(150km.), BORDERS-America(South)
    • Sub-Zones-  Cawston, Keremeos,
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Similkameen)”
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary
  • CLIMATE= Maritime
  • VITICULTURE– 691 acPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers– Burrowing Owl, Cerelia, Clos du Soleil, Corcelettes, Crowsnest, Herder, Orofino(5.5 ha.), Robin Ridge, Severn Stones
  • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Similkameen Valley Wine Trail~


OKANAGAN VALLEY VA.      @British Columbia

  • WHITE= Chambourcin, Chardonnay, Chasselas, Chenin Blanc, Ehrenfelser, Gewurztraminor, Pinot Gri, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Zweigelt
    • Hybrid– Marechal Foch
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia(Central),  LATITUDE: 49°- 50° N
    • BETWEEN: Vancouver & Calgary, East of Vancouver-City(400km.) “Multi-Appellation”
    • (140km. Long), Northern End of Sonora Desert, +RAIN/ 12+ Inches/ Year
    • Sub-Zones- North Okanagan      Mid Okanagan      South Okanagan
    • Sub-VA.’s- Black Sage/ Osoyoos VA., Kelowna-Mount Boucherie VA., Kelowna-North Okanagan VA., Naramata Bench VA., Okanagan Falls VA., Oliver/ Golden Mile VA., Peachland VA., Penticton VA., Summerland VA.
  • TOPOGRAPHYFEATURES– Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced, +Alt.1,000 ft.-2,000 ft.
    • SLOPES/ Columbia Mountain Range(Cariboo, Monashee, Purcell, Selkirk),  Cascade Mountain Range(Hozameen, Okanagan, Skagit),  Coastal Mounain Range
    • On~Okanagan~Lake/ Okanagan~River~Tributary~Columbia~River~
    • Area is Comprised by a Series of Lakes With Okanagan Being the Largest at 84 Miles Long, 3 Miles Wide.
      • Other Lakes: Kalamalka, Osoyoos, Skaha, Swan, Wood, Vaseux
    • ON BENCH/ Golden Mile, Naramata, Skaha
    • ON PLATEAU/ British Columbia Interior
    • Topographic Events Formed by the Advance/ Regress of Glacial Ice Sheet In Teritary and Quaternay Periods Between 9,000 & 11,000 Years Ago.
  • SOILS= Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Glacial Moraine/ Sediment
    • Alluvial Gravel, Silt, Over Bedrock Sub-Soil,  Lost Creek Series
  • CLIMATE= Continental/ Cool(North), Continental/ Warm(South)
    • Summers– Hot, Long Growing Season   |   Winters– Cold, Wet
    • +DIURNAL SHIFTS(40°)
    • LAKE EFFECT/ Okanagan, Lake Tapers Weather by 5°-7° In Summer and Winter.
      • Vineyards Surrounded by Snow Covered Peaks Moderated by the Body of Water.
  • VITICULTURE– 3,575 ha.,  CHALLENGES– Irrigation Needed, by Glacier Fed Lake
    • ADVANTAGES– Warmest Region In Canada, +Photosynthesis by +Latitude/ +2 Hour Growing Days
    • -Estate/ Producers-(Not Located In Delimated Sub-Zone) Checkmate, Lariana Cellars, Okanagan Crush Pad, Phantom Creek
  • VINICULTURE–  Ice Wine– **Refer to “CANADA/ Home” For Details On Ice Wine.
    • BOTRYTIS– WHITE= Optima, Riesling
    • VERGLAS–  +BLENDED/ Ice Wine,  Botrytis Wine
    • SPARKLING/ Methode: Traditional,  Ancestrale
  • CULTURE ~Etymology~ Okanagan Meaning Place of Water In Native Salish Dialect.
  • GOING THERE-  FESTIVALS~ ~Okanagan Wine Festival(September)

  • KELOWNA-NORTH OKANAGAN VA.     @Kelowna
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chasselas, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA.,  @Hw.#33
    • TOPOGRAPHYRolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(North)
    • VITICULTURE–   ?  haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers– 50th. Parallel(20ha.), Cedar Ridge, House of Rose Sperling, Tantalus
      • Vineyards– Tantalus
  • KELOWNA-MOUNT BOUCHERIE VA.     @Kelowna
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chasselas, Gruner Veltliner, Muscat, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Syrah
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA.(North-East), @Hw.#97
    • TOPOGRAPHYRolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(North-West)
    • VITICULTURE–  ?  haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers– Cedarcreek(100ha.), Martin’s Lane, Mission Hills, Mainie, Qualls’ Gate(79ac.), Summerhill Pyramind(21ha./Bio.-Dyn.)
      • Vineyards– Fritzi’s
    • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Kelowna Wine Trail~
  • PEACHLAND VA.     @
    • WHITE= Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gri, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA.,  @Hw.#97
    • TOPOGRAPHYRolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(West-Central)
    • VITICULTURE–  ?  haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers–  Greata Ranch, Hainle
  • SUMMERLAND VA.     @Summerland
    • WHITE= Gewurztraminer, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA.,  @Hw.#97
      • Sub-Zones-  Prairie Valley
    • TOPOGRAPHYRolling/ Hilly, +Alt.680mt., On~Okanagan~Lake~(West-Central)
    • VITICULTURE–  ?  haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers– 8th. Generation, Bonitas, Dirty Laundry, Haywire, Heavens’s Gate, Hollywood & Wine, Saxon, Sleeping Giant, Sonoran, Summerhill Pyramid, Summerland Heritage, Valentine Farm
  • NARAMATA BENCH VA. (Un-Official)     @Naramata, Penticton
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA., @Hw.#33
      • Bench Between Penticton Creek and Okanagan Mountain Park.
    • TOPOGRAPHYRolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(East-Central)
    • VITICULTURE– 618 haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers– Bella Wines, Bench 1775, Black Widow, Daydreamer, Deep Roots, Howling Bluff, Kettle Valley, Lang, Laughing Stock,  Poplar Grove(10ac.), Red Rooster
      • Vineyards– McGraw, Nichol, Therepy, Monster, Poplar Grove, Serendipity, Terravista, Van Westen
    • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Naramata Bench Wine Trail~
  • PENTICTON VA. (Un-Official)     @
    • WHITE= Gewurztraminer, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA., @Hw.#33
    • TOPOGRAPHYRolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(East-Central)
    • VITICULTURE–  ?  haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers–  3 Mile Estate, Clean Slate, La Frenz, Hill Side, Perseus, Red Rooster, Terravista, Upper Bench
      • Vineyards
  • OKANAGAN FALLS VA.     @Okanagan Falls
    • WHITE= Autumn Gold, Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Blanc, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA.,  @Hw.#97
    • TOPOGRAPHYRolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(South-East)
    • VITICULTURE–  539 haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers– Alto Wine, Black Dog, Blue Mountain, Hester Creek(70ac.), Jackson Triggs, Liquidity, Meyer Family, Noble Ridge, Road 13, Se Ya Later Ranch, Stag’s Hollow, Stoneboat(50ac.), Synchromesh, Tangled Vines, Tinhorn Creek, Wild Goose
    • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Southern Okanagan Wine Trail~
  • OLIVER/ GOLDEN MILE VA.     @Oliver
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminor, Muscat, Pinot Gris, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA.,  @Hw.#97
    • TOPOGRAPHYRolling/ Hilly/ Bench(Golden Mile), On~Okanagan~Lake~(South-East)
    • VITICULTURE– 3,543 haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers– Antelope Ridge, Black Hills, Burrowing Owl(180ac.), Coyote Bowl, Golden Beaver, Money Pit, Moon Curser, Platinum Bench, Stoneboat, Willow Hill
  • BLACK SAGE/ OSOYOOS VA.    @Osoyoos
    • WHITE= Pinot Gri
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia, In Okanagan Valley AVA.,  @Hw.#97/ #3
    • TOPOGRAPHYRolling/ Hilly, On~Okanagan~Lake~(South)
    • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Clay
    • CLIMATE=Continental
    • VITICULTURE– 1,510 haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers– Adega On 45th., Inniskillin Okanagan, Golden Mile, Gold Hill, Nk’Mip, Young and Wyse
  • KOOTENAYS VA.     @Creston
    • WHITE= Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris
    • RED= Marechal Foch, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia(South-East)
      • East of Okanagan Valley(50km.), But Isn’t Considered Part of Okanagan Valley.
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”
    • SOILS=Metamorphic
    • VITICULTURE– ? acPlanted
      • Estate/ Producers


North Canada

LILLOOET VA.     @Lillooet

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Riesling
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-Central), SUB-REGION-Cariboo Chilcotin
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”
  • SOILS=Metamorphic
  • VITICULTURE– 29 acPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers– Fort Berens

THOMPSON VALLEY VA.     @Kamloops

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling
  • RED= Marechal Foch, Marquette
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-Central)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Valley(Thompson)”, On~Thompson~River~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic
  • VITICULTURE– 107 acPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers– Harpers Trail

SHUSWAP VA.     @Salmon Arm

  • WHITE= Gewurztraminer, Kerner, Ortega, Siegerrebe
  • RED= Marechal Foch
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-British Columbia(North-East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”, On~Shuswap~Lake~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic
  • VITICULTURE– 102 acPlanted, Viticulture Since  1997
    • Estate/ Producers– Larch Hills

 



CANADAOntario


ONTARIO IS    VA5      @Ontaro

  • WHITE= Riesling 20%, Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, Kerner, Muscat Ottonel, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
    • Hybrids– Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc 15%, Baco Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Tannat, Zweigelt
    • Hybrids Chambourcin, Frontenac, Marechal Foch

GEOGRAPHY Canada(East), REGION-Ontario, LATITUDE: 51.2° ‘N’

  • Sub-Zones/ VA.’s
  • Most of Ontario’s Vineyards Are at Lower Latitudes and Close Proximity to Lakes and Rivers

TOPOGRAPHYFEATURES “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Erie/ Ontaria Lakes, On~Niagara~River~

  • Sub-Zones- Flat Area,  The Bench, Ontario Lake
  • Niagara Escarpment-  650 Mile Long Limestone Ridge From the Jurassic Period That Runs/ Arcs  From the Great Lakes Region (West of Lake Michigan) Up Into Canada and Back Down Into New York South of Lake Ontario.
    • Escarpment is Composed of the Lockport Formation of Silurian Age.
    • The Niagara Escarpment Contains the Lake Effect, Between the Two There’s a Constant Recirculating of the Warmer Air In the Winter and the Cooler Air In the Summer.
  • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS
    • The Canadian Shield~ Ice-Soured Area of Precambrian Rocks Surrounding Hudson Bay and Covering Half the Country.
    • Northern Margin-  Which is a Raised Land Mass South of Lake Ontario.  This Margin Shields New York From a Small Percentage of Harsh Weather.

SOILS  Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary

CLIMATE Continental, LAKE EFFECT/ Moderated by Surrounding Lakes

  • Summers– Warm, Humid   |   Winters– Cold, Snow

VITICULTURE

  • CHALLENGES– Fungal Diseases, Frost, Snow

VINICULTURE

  • Ice Wine**Refer to “CANADA/ Home” For Details On Ice Wine.

CULTURE

  • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Vintners Quality Alliance Ontario~
    • Mission~ Agency Responsible For maintaining the Integrity of Local Wine Appellations and Enforcing Winemaking and Labelling Standards.

LAKE ERIE NORTH SHORE VA.     @Chatam-Kent

  • WHITE= Riesling
    • Hybrids– Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-Ontario(South)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Lake~Erie~(North-West)
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Glacial Deposits, Sandy Loam, Clay
  • CLIMATE= Continental“, LAKE EFFECT/ Lake Erie
  • VITICULTURE–  ? haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers– Johnson Estate, Liberty Vineyards, Merritt Estate, North 42 Degrees, Woodbury

NIAGARA PENINSULA VA.     @Niagara-On-the-Lake

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
    • Hybrids– Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir, Sirah, Tannat
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-Ontario(South-Central), South of Toronto-City(    km.)
    • CITIES: Hamilton, Niagara Falls,
    • Sub-Zones/ VA.’s (10) Beansville Bench VA., Creek Shore VA., Four Mile Creek VA., Lincoln Lakeshore VA., Niagara Lakeshore VA., Niagara River VA., Short Hills Bench VA., St. David’s Bench VA., Twenty Mile Bench VA., Vinemount Ridge VA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Lake~Ontario~(South-West)
    • SLOPES/ Niagara Escarpment, +Alt150 mt., (From Grimsby to St. Catharines) Follows Shoreline of Lake.
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Queenstown Formation, Limestone, Clay
  • CLIMATE= Continental“, LAKE EFFECT/ Lake Ontario
  • VITICULTURE–  13,600 ac  haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers(Not Located In Demarcated Sub-Zone)- 13th. Street, Charmes(International/279ac.), Foreign Affair, Inniskillin, Jackson-Triggs, Konzelmann, Pearl Morissette(Nat.Pro.), Peller, Reif, Reimer, Riverview, Pillitteri, Ravine, Reif, Southbrook, Strewn, Stratus, Trius, Wayne Gretzky
    • Vineyards- Delaine
  • VINICULTUREIce WineWHITE= Vidal Blanc, Must Be 100% From VQA.
      • **Refer to “CANADA/ Home” For Details On Ice Wine.
  • GOING THERE- FESTIVALS~ ~Niagara Icewine Festival(January)
    • WINE TRAILS~ ~Niagara-On-the-Lake Wine Trail~

  • LINCOLN LAKESHORE VA.     @
    • GEOGRAPHYREGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(West), On~Lake~Ontario~
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”, At Foot of Bench, On Lake Iroquois Plain
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • -Estate/ Producers– Fielding, Greenlane, Hillebrand Trius, Redstone, Tasse Van Bers
  • CREEK SHORE VA.     @Jordan
    • GEOGRAPHY- REGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(West)
      • On~Lake~Ontario~(Near/ 5km.)
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling” On Lake Iroquois Plain
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • -Estate/ Producers– 13th. Street, Creekside, Pearl Morissette
  • BEANSVILLE BENCH VA.      @Beansville
    • GEOGRAPHYREGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(West)
      • On Niagara Escarpment(West),  @Hw.#81
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly” On Terrace
    • SOILSMetamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Limestone, Gravel, Sand, Silt
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • -Estate/ Producers– Cave Springs(90ha.), Fielding, Hidden Bench, Malivoire, Mike Weir, Organized Crime, Peninsula Ridge, Thirty Bench
      • Vineyards– Felseck, Steel Post(1.6ha.)
  • TWENTY MILE BENCH VA.      @Vineland
    • GEOGRAPHYREGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(West)
      • On Niagara Escarpment(Central), @Hw.#81
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • -Estate/ Producers– Bachelor Niagara, Big Head, Le Clos Jordanne, Flat Rock(30ha.), Tawse, Vineland(101ha.)
  • SHORT HILLS BENCH VA.       @
    • GEOGRAPHYREGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(West)
      • On Niagara Escarpment(East)
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • -Estate/ Producers– Henry of Pelham(121ha.)
  • VINEMOUNT RIDGE  VA.      @
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ontario, REGION-Niagara Peninsula(West)
      • Interior Area Behind Escarpment
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • -Estate/ Producers
  • NIAGARA LAKESHORE  VA.        @
    • GEOGRAPHYREGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(East), On~Lake~Ontario~
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • -Estate/ Producers
  • FOUR MILE CREEK  VA.         @
    • GEOGRAPHYREGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(East), Below Bench
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”, SLOPES/ Niagara Escarpment, +Alt. 89mt. – 105mt.
    • SOILS– Queenstown Formation,  Red Slate, Silt
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • -Estate/ Producers– North 42 Degrees
  • ST. DAVID’S BENCH  VA.       @
    • GEOGRAPHYREGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(East)
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • -Estate/ Producers– Ravine
  • NIAGARA RIVER VA.        @
    • GEOGRAPHYREGION-Ontario, Niagara Peninsula(East)
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • -Estate/ Producers

PRINCE EDWARD COUNTY VA.     @Picton

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurtztraminer, Riesling
    • Hybrids– Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Pinot Noir
    • Hybrids– Chambourcin, Frontenac Noir, Marechal
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-Ontario(East), COUNTY– ?, @Hw.#33
    • CITIES– Bloomfield, Hillier, Milford, North Marysburgh, Picton, Wellington
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Lake~Ontario~(North-East)
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Limestone, Gravel, Sandy Loam
  • CLIMATE= Continental“, LAKE EFFECT/ Lake Erie
  • VITICULTURE– ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTUREIce WineWHITE= Vidal Blanc
    • Estate/ Producers– Black Prince, Broken Stone, By Chadsey’s Cairns, Casa-Dea, Closson Chase, Del-Gatto, Grange, Harwood, Huff, Keint-He, Lacey, Long Dog, Norman Hardie, Rosehall Run, Sandbanks, Sugarbush, Three Dog, Trail
  • CULTURE- ECONOMICS~ History of Cheese Production.

PELEE VA.     @Ontario

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
    • Hybrids– Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Baco Noir, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Zweigelt
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-Ontario(East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Lake~Erie~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Limestone, Clay
  • CLIMATE= Continental“, LAKE EFFECT/ Lake Erie
  • VITICULTURE–  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE Ice WineWHITE= Vidal Blanc
    • Estate/ Producers– Pelee Island Winery


NOVA SCOTIA     @Halfax

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chasselas, Muscat, Pinot Gri, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
  • Hybrids L’Acadie Blanc, Castel, Geisenheim, Ortega, Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Gamay, Pinot Noir
    • Hybrids Baco Noir, DeChaunac, Luci Kuhlman, Marechal Foch, Mischurnitz
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(North), On~ ~Bay~
    • Sub-Zones- Annapolis Valley(Bay of Fundy), Cape Breton Island, Northumberland Shore, South Shore
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”
  • CLIMATE= Continental
  • VITICULTURESparkling,  White,  Red,   Ice Wine
    • Tidal Bay– Produced From Specific Grape Varieties Grown Exclusively In Nova Scotia
  • CULTUREASSOCIATIONS~ ~Wine Association of Nova Scotia~

ANNAPOLIS VALLEY VA.     @Windsor, Kentville

  • WHITE=  Muscat, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc

    • Hybrids L’Acadie Blanc, Ortega, Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc
    • Hybrids
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(North), @Hw.#101
    • On~Fundy~Bay~
    • Sub-Zones- Bay of Fundy, BETWEEN 2 Mountain Ranges
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Gaspereau)”
  • CLIMATE= Continental
  • VITICULTURE–  ?  haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE– Ice Wine- WHITE= Ortega
    • Estate/ Producers– L’Acadie(Sparkling), Benjamin Bridge, Gaspereau(37ac.), Grand Pre

  • AVON RIVER VALLEY     @
    • WHITE=
    • RED= ?
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(South-West)
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers
  • BEAR RIVER     @Digby
    • WHITE=
    • RED= ?
    • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(West)
    • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
      • Estate/ Producers

MALAGASH PENINSULA VA.    @

  • WHITE= Vidal
  • RED= Macechal,  Foch
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(North), SUB-ZONE-Northumberland Shore
    • On~Northumberland~Strait~
  • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Jost

LAHAVE RIVER VALLEY VA.     @Bridgewater

  • WHITE=
  • RED= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(South-Central), SUB-ZONE-South Shore
  • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers

CAP BRETON ISLAND     @Port Hawkesbury/ Sydney

  • WHITE=
  • RED= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, REGION-Nova Scotia(East)
  • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Eileanan Breagha


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.