USA.-Atlantic North-East


ATLANTIC NORTH-EAST IS  STATES–  6

  • WHITE=   |   RED=  **Refer to “STATES”, For Detailed Grape Information.
  • 3  Types of Grapes Used to Produce Atlantic North-East Wines:
    • Vinifera Varieties,   French/ American Hybrids,   Native Species

GEOGRAPHY USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East

  • BORDER– Canada(North), Central United States(West), Atlantic South(South)
  • STATES– Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Maine

TOPOGRAPHY FEATURES Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly, On~Atlantic~Ocean~(East)

  • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS
    • Glaciation/ Episode- Glaciers Radically Altered the Topography of Atlantic North-West United States.

SOILSMetamorphic, Sedimentary

  • Limestone, Glacial Deposit-Moraine, Silt, Loam, Shale, Schist, Sandstone
  • North American Ice Sheet- Mass of Glaciers and Ice That Stretched Across Canada and the North-East United States.
    • Most of the Glacial Activity Took Place In the Pleistocene Epoch, Which is Relatively Resent.
    • Glacial Had Direct and Indirect Influences On Wine Regions Today.
    • The Ice Sheet and Glaciers Redefined Modern Topography as it Advanced Like Giant Bull Dozers as it Progressed.  As the Ice Sheet and Glaciers Regressed Massive Amounts of Melt Water, Some as Substantial as a River Leaving Different Soils and Debris. Often Times This Advance/ Regress Alternated and Repeated This Process Many Times.
  • Glacial Moraine- Glacially Formed Accumulation of Unconsolidated Debris That Was Transported and Deposited When the  Glaciers Regresses.
    • Unconsolidated Debris- Boulders, Clay, Cobble, Gravel, Pebble, Sand
  • Great Lakes- Carved by the Actions of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

CLIMATEContinental With Maritime” Influence

  • CHALLENGESWinter– Low Temperature, Spring Freeze     Summer– Disease, Mold
  • Lake Effect- Refers to stabilizing Temperature Influences Created by Large Lakes. Weather Change is Triggered by a Lake That Causes Temperature Changes In a Wine Growing Areas. During Winter the Lake Effect Keeps Temperature Warmer and In Summer the Proximity to the Lake Keeps Temperatures Slightly Cooler. Mosts Vineyards Grown Within 25 Miles of Large Lake.

VITICULTURE– 


  • GEOGRAPHIC DISCLAIMER~ To Understand the Wine World and Benefit From DtheV.com an Understanding of the Atlantic North-East United States Geography is Needed and the Ability to Visualize Its Topography.  This Chapter is Organized In a North to South / East to West Orientation and Intended to Be Researched and Memorized as So.

NEW YORKState’     @New York

  • WHITE= Riesling 3%, Chardonnay 3%, Chenin Blanc, Fruilano, Gewurtztraminer, Grüner Veltliner, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Refosco, Sauvignon Blanc
    • Native
    • Hybrids– Aurore, Bianco, Elvira, Cayuga, Chardonnel, Elvira, Seyval Blanc, Traminette, Verdelet, Vidal Blanc, Vignoles
  • RED= Merlot 3%, Blaufrankisch, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Legrein, Lemburger, Petite Verdot, Pinot Noir, Rkataseli, Saperavi, Sereksiya Charni, Syrah, Teroldego
    • Native Concord 60%, Niagara 9%, Catawba
    • Hybrids Baco Noir, Chancellor, Chambourcin, DeChanac, Marechal Foch, Frontenac, Iona, Leon Millot, Noiret, Rougean
  • GEOGRAPHY USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New York, Series of 11 Long/ Narrow Lakes
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA’s- Cayuga Lake AVA., Champlain Valley AVA., Hamptons of Long Island AVA., Hudson River AVA., Finger Lakes AVA., Lake Erie AVA., Long Island AVA., Niagara Escarpment AVA., North Fork of Long Island AVA., Seneca Lake AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY “Flat/ Rolling”
    • TOPOGRAPHICAL EVENTS- Much of the Terrain of New York Was Caused by Glaciers Advancing From the North Cutting Its Was Through the Land and Leaving Moraine Deposits of Clay, Silt.
    • “Northern Margin” Which is a Raised Land Mass South of Lake Ontario.  This Margin Shields New York From a Small Percentage of Harsh Weather.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary
    • Limestone, Glacial Deposit-Moraine, Silt, Loam, Shale, Schist, Sandstone
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Maritime Influence
    • Summers– Warm Days, Cool Nights, Wet   |    Winters– Cold, Snow
    • CHALLENGESWinter– Low Temperature, Spring Freeze     Summer– Disease, Mold
  • VITICULTURE- #3 Producer/ USA.
    • CHALLENGES– Rain at Harvest, Frost, Snow
    • Native Vines– PossessNatural Resistance to Disease and Cold and Have Made Possible to Grow Grapes In the Atlantic Northwest and Canada.
  • VINICULTURE  Numbers of Wineries- 411 (384 Bonded/ 27 Virtual) “As of 2020”, #4 State/ USA.
    • Estates/ Producers-(Not In AVA.) Anirondack, Black Willow, Torrey Ridge
  • CULTURE
    • PIONEERS~ ~Dr. Frank Konstantin~
      •  Grafted Old World Cold Climate Vitis Vinifera Varietal to New World Vitis Rootstock. This Allowed the Production of Quality Grapes to be Grown On Cold Climates.
    • ECONOMY~ A Portion of Grapes Produced For Eating/ Jelly.
    • FESTIVALS~~New York Drinks New York~ (March/ New York City)
      • ~United States Trade Tasting~ (May/ New York City)
      • ~International Volcanic Wine Festival~ (June/ New York City)
        • Misssion-Primary Purpose is to Establish a Volcanic Wine Movement and Provide Opportunities For Volcanic Wine Producers Around the World.
      • ~New York Wine Experience(October/ New York City)
      • ~Raw Wine Fair~ (November/ New York City)
      • ~Pinknic~ (September/ New York City/ Governors Island) Rose Wine Party
    • ACADEMICS~  
      • ~Cornell University~     @GenevaNew York
        • Specialization~ Viticulture and Enology Degree Programs
      • ~Finger Lakes Community College~     @Finger Lakes, New York
        • Specialization~ Viticulture & Enology Degree Program
      • ~New York State Agricultural Experiment Center~   @Geneva, New York

LAKE ERIE AVA.      @Fredonia

  • WHITE= Diamond(Indigenous), Pinot Gri, Riesling
    • Hybrid Chambourcin, Concord, Noiret, Seyval Blanc, Traminette, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvigon, Delaware(Indigenous), Ives(Indigenous), Merlot
    • Hybrid Concord, Marechal Foch, Niagara
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New York(West), @Hw.#5/ #60
    • (AVALaps)Pennsylvania(North-West), (AVALaps)Ohio(North-East)
      • **Refer to These States For Additional AVA. Information.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Lake~Erie~(South), PLATEAU/ Allegheny
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, Gravel, Shale
  • CLIMATE- “Continental With MaritimeInfluence, LAKE EFFECTLake Erie
    • CHALLENGESWinter– Low Temperature, Spring Freeze     Summer– Disease, Mold
  • VITICULTURE- 18,684 ac. Planted
  • VINICULTURE- Ice Wine,  Juice,  Eating Grapes
    • Estates/ Producers- 22 Brix, Johnson Estate, Liberty, Mazza Chautauqua, Merritt, Noble, Ten Thousand Wines, Vetter, Willow Creek, Woodbury
  • CULTURE- Lake Erie is Also Known as Chautauqu.
    • ECONOMICS~ Welch’s Food is Located Here and Produces Jelly From Grapes.

NIAGARA ESCARPMENT AVA.     @Lockport, Niagara Falls

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir
    • Hybrid Concord, Niagara
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New York(North-West), @Hw.#18/ #78
    • BORDERS: Canada(Continuation of Ontario’s Niagara Peninsula)
    • Sub-Zones- Huron Plains(South)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Lake~Ontario~(South), On~Niagara~River~
    • SLOPES/ Niagara Escarpment, +Alt. ?
    • Niagara Escarpment-  650 Mile Long Limestone Ridge From the Jurassic Period That Runs/ Arcs  From the Great Lakes Region (West of Lake Michigan) Up Into Canada and Back Down Into New York South of Lake Ontario.
      • Escarpment is Composed of the Lockport Formation of Silurian Age.
      • The Niagara Escarpment Contains the Lake Effect, Between the Two There’s a Constant Recirculating of the Warmer Air In the Winter and the Cooler Air In the Summer.
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Maritime” Influence, +Humidity, LAKE EFFECT/ Lake Ontario
    • CHALLENGESWinter– Low Temperature, Spring Freeze     Summer– Disease, Mold
  • SOILS- “Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Dolomitic, Limestone, Glacial Moraine
  • VITICULTURE-  18,000 ac./ 883 acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers- Arrowhead Spring, Eveningside, Freedom Run, Leonard Oakes, Marjim Manor, Midnight Run, Niagara Landing, Schulze, Victorianbourg, Vizcarra, Warm Lake
  • CULTURE- History of Apple, Cherry and Pear Production.
  • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS– ~Niagara Wine Trail~

FINGER LAKES AVA.     @

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Riesling

    • Native
    • Hybrids Aurora, Bianca, Cayuga, Chardonnel, Seyval Blanc, Traminette, Verdelet, Vidal Blanc, Vignoles
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Lagrein, Lemberger, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Rkataseli, Saperavi, Sereksiya Charni, Syrah, Teroldego
    • Native Catawba, Concord, Niagara
    • Hybrids Baco Noir, Chambourcin, DeChaunac, Marechal Foch, Iona, Leon Millot, Rougeon
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New York(East), “Multi-Appellation”
      • Sub-Zones/ AVA.’s-
      • 11 Long, Narrow Lakes
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Features- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”
    • Topographic Events Form From 2 Million Years Ago to 20,000 Years Ago by Glaciers Carved Out Land and River Valleys That Where Left Behind.   The “Ice-Age” Was Actually a Series of Glaciers/ Ice Sheets(2 Miles Thick) That Advanced and Retreated Over Time.
      • Drumlins- Moraines and Streamlined Elongated Hills
  • SOILS- “Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Glacial Moraine
  • CLIMATE-  Continental With Maritime Influence, +Humidity, LAKE EFFECT/ Finger Lakes
    • CHALLENGESWinter– Low Temperature, Spring Freeze     Summer– Disease, Mold
  • VITICULTURE-  9,300 acPlanted
    • CHALLENGES– Rain at Harvest, Frost, Snow
    • Second Oldest Pinot Noir Vineyard In USA.(Dr. Konstantin Frank)
    • Finger Lakes Stated Grafting Vitis Vinifera to Hardy Root-Stock In the 1960’s
  • VINICULTURE-
    • Estates/ Producers-(Not Located Within Demarcated Sub-Zone) Americana, Bagleys, Bellangelo, Damiani, Fulkerson, Forge, Fox Run, Gatto Rosa, Gold Seal, Goose Watch, Hillick & Hobbs, Pleasant Valley(9ac.)(1st. Bonded Winery In America), Ravines, Sheldrake Point, Stony Lonesome, Three Brothers
    • Vineyards-(Not Located Within Demarcated Sub-Zone)Argetsinger, Caywood, Gibson, Humphrey’s, Josef, Keuka Lake, Knoll Lahoma, Leidenfrost, Red Oak, Round Rock, Sawmill Creek, Sunrise Hill, Tango Oaks, White Springs, Yellow Dog
      • ICE WINE
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling, Vidal Blanc, Saval Blanc
    • RED=  Cabernet Franc
      • Thick Skinned Grapes Do Better For Producing Ice Wine, the Thicker the Skin the Longer the Grape Can Stay On the Vine Without Rotting.
    • CHALLENGE– If Weather Doesn’t Freeze Fast Enough Grapes Rot and There’s a Chance for a Lost Harvest. Grapes Shouldn’t Be Effected by Botrytis Prior to Freezing, Only Healthy Grapes Stand Up to Freezing Temperatures.
    • In Late Fall Nets Have to Be Placed Over Vine For Protection of Birds, Boars and Deer.
    • VINICULTURE- Grapes Are Over Ripe, Late Harvest and Raisining When Freezing Starts.
      • Canada Requires Temperature at 17,6° or Lower For at Least 3 Days.  Before the Harvest of Frozen Grapes an Inspector Has to Access the Grapes For Approval.
      • **Refer to “WINE STYLE/ Ice Wine” For Additional Information.
  • HISTORY-  NATIVE AMERICAN~  ~Iroquois~ Native Americans Inhabited the Area Before Colonization.
  • CULTUREASSOCIATIONS~ ~Finger Lakes Wine Alliance~
    • PIONEERS~ ~Dr. Frank Konstantin~ Championed Techniques For Growing Vitis Vinifera In New York/ Cold Weather.
    • FESTIVALS~  ~Finger Lakes Wine Festival(July)
  • CONESUS LAKE     @Conesus
    • GEOGRAPHY- Finger Lakes AVA.(NorthWest), @Hw.#15
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”
    • VITICULTURE-
      • Estates/ Producers- Deer Run
  • HEMLOCK LAKE     @Livonia
    • GEOGRAPHY- Finger Lakes AVA.(NorthWest), @Hw.#15A
      • COUNTIES- Livingston, Ontario
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”
  • HONEYE  LAKE     @Honeye
    • GEOGRAPHY- Finger Lakes AVA.(NorthWest), @Hw.#20A
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”
  • CANANDAIGUA LAKE     @Canandaigua
    • GEOGRAPHY- Finger Lakes AVA.(West), @Hw.#21
      • LAKE EFFECT/ Canandaigua, 300 ft./ Deep
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”
    • VITICULTURE-
      • Estates/ Producers- Arbor Hill, Casa Larga, Onspire Moore, Raymond, Red Cat
    • CULTURE-  FESTIVALS~  ~Naples Grape Festival(September)
      • ~Etymology~ Canadaigua Meaning “The Chosen Spot” In Iroquois/ Native American.
  • KEUKA LAKE        @Branchport, Hammondsport, Penn Yann
    • GEOGRAPHY- Finger Lakes AVA.(South-Central), @Hw.#54
      • LAKE EFFECT/ Keuka Lake, (19 Miles Long & 2 Miles Wide & 190 ft./ Deep)
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”
    • VITICULTURE-
      • Estates/ Producers- Barrington, Bully Hill, Dr. Konstantin Frank, Heron Hill, Hunt County, Keuka Lake, Keuka Springs, LeSeurre, McGregor, Point of Bluff, Ravines Wine, Stever Hill, Weis
      • Vineyards- Argetsinger, Falling Man, Ingle
    • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ Keuka Meaning “Canoe Landing” In Iroquois/ Native American.
      • ACADEMICS~ ~New York Wine & Culinary Center~     @Canandaigua, Finger Lakes
  • SENECA LAKE AVA.     @Watkins Glen
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Grüner Veltliner, Pinot Gris, Riesling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Lagrein, Lemberger, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Teroldego
      • Native Catawba, Concord, Niagara
      • Hybrids Baco Noir, Chancellor, Chambourcin, DeChanac, Frontenac, Iona, Leon Millot, Marechal Foch,  Noiret, Rougean
    • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New York(North), @Hw.#14/ #414
      • In Finger Lakes AVA.(Central), (38 Miles Long & 3 Miles Wide)
      • CITIES– Dresden, Hector, Geneva, Himrod, Lodi, Watkins Glen
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
    • CLIMATE- Continental With Maritime Influence, +Humidity
      • LAKE EFFECT/ Seneca, 618 ft./ Deep/ Bottom Below Sea Level
      • CHALLENGESWinter– Low Temperature, Spring Freeze     Summer– Disease, Mold
    • VITICULTURE-  3,700 acPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- Anthony Road, Atwater, Barnstormer, Barry Family, Billsboro, Bloomer Creek, Element(17ac.), Forge Cellars, Fox Run(55ac.), Glenora, Hermann Wiemer, Lacey MaGruder, Lakewood(70ac.), Lamoreaux Landing, Popous Ass, Red Newt, Rock Stream, Shaw, Standing Stone, Wagner(E./250ac.)
      • Vineyards- Gibson, HJW, Josef, Kaiser, Kashong Glen, Magdalena
    • CULTURE-  ACADEME~ ~Cornell University~ Specializes InGrape Research Facilities
      • ~Etymology~ Seneca Meaning “Place of Stone” In Iroquois/ Native American.
    • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Seneca Lake~
      • NON-WINE~ ~Watkin Glen State Park~ Hike Through the Gorges and Picnic.
  • CAYUGA LAKE AVA.     @Ithaca
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Resiling
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Gamay, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New York, @Hw.#89/ #90
      • In Finger Lakes AVA.(East-Central), (40 Miles Long & 3.5 Miles Wide),
      • CITIES: Aurora, Cayuga, Interlaken, Ithaca, Kings Ferry, Seneca Falls, Trumansburg, Union Springs
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”
    • CLIMATE- Continental With Maritime Influence, +Humidity
      • LAKE EFFECT/ Cayuga, 435 ft./ Deep/ Bottom Below Sea Level
      • CHALLENGESWinter– Low Temperature,  Spring Freeze     Summer– Disease, Mold
    • VITICULTURE-  460 acPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- Bet the Farm, Bright Leaf, Goose Watch, Hosmer(E./ 70ac.), King Ferry(27ac.), Knapp, Lakeshore, Six Mile Creek, Swedish Hill
    • CULTURE– ~Etymology~ Cayuga Meaning “Boat Landing” In Iroquois/ Native American.
  • OWASCA LAKE     @Auburn
    • GEOGRAPHY- Finger Lakes AVA.(East), @Hw.#36
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”
  • SKANEATELES LAKE     @Skaneateles
    • GEOGRAPHY- Finger Lakes AVA.(East)
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”
  • OTISCO LAKE     @Marietta      
    • GEOGRAPHY- Finger Lakes AVA.(East), @Hw.#41
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”

CHAMPLAIN VALLEY AVA.     @Poughkeepsie

  • WHITE= Riesling         –Hybrid– La Crescent, St. Pepin
  • RED= Frontenac, Marquette
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New York(North-East)
    • North of New York-City(     km.), BORDERS– Vermont
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Champlain)”, SLOPES/ Adirondacks Mountains, +Alt.?
    • On~Lake~Champlain~
  • CLIMATE-  “Continental”, +Humidity, RIVER EFFECT/ Champlain
    • CHALLENGESWinter– Low Temp.,  Spring Freeze     Summer– Vine Disease, Mold
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary“, +Glacier Deposits, Shale, Schist, Slate, Limestone
  • VITICULTURE-  100 acPlanted
  • VINICULTURE-
    • Estates/ Producers- Amazing Grace, Four Maples, Stone House, Vesco Ridge
  • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Adirondack Coast Wine Trail~

HUDSON RIVER AVA.     @Poughkeepsie

  • WHITE= Albarino, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling
    • Hybrid Seyval Blanc, Noiret, Dechaunac
  • RED= Cabernet Franc
    • Hybrid Baco Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New York(South-East)
    • COUNTY- Dutchess, North of New York-City(60mi.
    • Sub-Zones- Hudson River West,  Hudson River East
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Features- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Hudson)”, SLOPES/ Shawangunk Mountains
    • On~Hudson~River~
    • Topographic Events- Hudson River Valley Was Carved Out by Glacier Activity.
  • CLIMATE- “Continental With Maritime Influence, +Humidity, RIVER EFFECT/ Hudson
    • CHALLENGESWinter– Low Temperature,  Spring Freeze     Summer– Disease, Mold
  • SOILS- “Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Glacier Moraine, Shale, Schist, Slate, Limestone
  • VITICULTURE-  235 acPlanted
  • VINICULTURE-
    • Estates/ Producers- Applewood, Baldwin, Benmarl, Brimstone Hill, Brotherhood, Brunel & Rafael, Clearview, Clermont, Clinton(15ac.), Glorie Farm, Milea, Millbrook(30ac.), Robibero, Stoutridge, Tuthilltown, Warwich Valley, White Hill
  • CULTURE-  Brotherhood Winery…Oldest Continuously Operating Winery In America.
    • PIONEERS~ ~French Huguenots~ Immigrates Brought Wine Culture to the Area.
  • GOING THERE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Dutchess Wine Trail~   ~Shawangunk Wine Trail~

LONG ISLAND AVA.    @Long Island

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Fruilano, Gruner Veltliner, Gewurtztraminer, Refosco, Sauvignon Blanc

    • Hybrid Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Blaufrankisch, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Petite Verdot
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East,  STATE-New York(       ), East of New York-City(     mi.)
    • “Multi-Appellation”/ Sub-Zones/ AVA’s North Fork AVA., Hamptons AVA., South Fork
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
    • Topographic Events Different Areas of Long Island Were Formed During Glacial Periods by the Wisconsin Glacier.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary, Alluvial, Coarse Sand, Gravel, Glacial Moraine(Ronkonkoma)
    • North Fork- Sandy, Well Drained Soils   |   South Fork- Deeper Heavier Soils
  • CLIMATE- “Continental WithMaritime Influence, +Humidity
    • CHALLENGESWinter– Low Temperature, Spring Freeze     Summer– Disease, Mold
  • VITICULTURE-  2,800 acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers-(Not Located In a Demarcated Sub-Zone)  Lenz
  • CULTURE-  ~Etymology~ AKA=Paumanok Amount the Native Americans
    • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Long Island Merlot Alliance~
      • Mission~ To Promote the Merlots Wines From Long Island as Well as the Island Itself.
    • PIONEERS~ ~Alex Hargraves~  First to Plant Vineyards In 1973

  • NORTH FORK Of LONG ISLAND AVA.     @Cutchogue
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Gruner Veltliner, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New York(         ), @Hw.#58
      • In Long Island AVA.(East), East of New York-City(     mi.)
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat, Rolling”, On~Peconic~Bay/ Long Island~Sound~
    • VITICULTURE-   ? acPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- Bedell Cellars, Castello di Borghese, Jason’s, Macari, Paumanok, Pellegrini, Raphael, Shinn
    • HISTORY- Grape Growing Since 1960’s, First Winery 1973
  • HAMPTONS Of LONG ISLAND AVA.      @Bridgehampton
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Friulano, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
      • Hybrid– Vidal Blanc
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
    • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New York(         ), @Hw.#27
      • In Long Island AVA.(East)
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
      • On~Peconic~Bay/ Atlantic~Ocean~, On Southern Fork of River
    • VITICULTURE-  ?  acPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- Channing Daughters(25ac.), Southold Cellars, Wolffer
    • CULTURE- FESTIVALS~  ~Bounty of the Hudson(July)

MASSACHUSETTSState

  • WHITE=   |    RED=  **Refer to “STATES”, For Detailed Grape Information.
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Massachusetts, LATITUDE: 42.4° N
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA.’s- Martha’s Vineyard AVA., South-Eastern New England AVA., West Connecticut Highlands AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
  • CLIMATE- “Continental WithMaritime Influences
  • VINICULTURE-  Numbers of Wineries- 61 (59 Bonded/ 3  Virtual) “As of 2020”, #27 State/ USA.

SOUTHEASTERN NEW ENGLAND AVA.     @

  • WHITE= Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gri, Riesling,
    • Hybrid Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc, Vignoles
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Lemberger, Merlot, Pinot Noir
    • Hybrid Baco Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Massachusetts(         )
    • (AVALaps)Connecticut, (AVALaps)Rhode Island **Refer to This State For Additional AVA. Information.
    • Sub-Zone/ AVA’s Martha’s Vineyard AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Maritime Influences
  • VITICULTURE-  ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers- Coastal Vineyards, Running Brook, Westport Rivers

MARTHA’S VINEYARD AVA.     @

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Viognier
  • RED= Merlot, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Massachusetts(         )
    • COUNTY– Dukes,  In Southeastern New England AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
    • On~Martha’s Vineyard/ Chappaquiddick~Island~, In~Nantucket/ Vineyard~Sound~
  • CLIMATE- “Maritime”, Influenced by Warm Gulf Stream Water
  • VITICULTURE-  ? acPlanted,  1985- AVA. Officially Established
    • Estates/ Producers-
  • CULTURE- FESTIVALS~ ~Martha’s Vineyard Wine Festival~ (May)

CONNECTICUT ‘State‘        @

  • WHITE=  ?  Hybrids~
  • RED=    ?  Hybrids
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Connecticut, LATITUDE:N
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA.’s- South-Eastern New England AVA., Western Connecticut Highlands AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
  • CLIMATE- Continental
  • VITICULTURE- 
    • Estate/ Producers-

WESTERN CONNECTICUT HIGHLANDS AVA.     @

  • WHITE= Chardonnay
    • Hybrid Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Connecticut(North-West)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling’ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Appalachian Mountains(Litchfield Hills)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, Glacial Schist, Gneiss, Granite
  • CLIMATE- Continental
  • VITICULTURE-acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers– Haight-Brown, Hopkins, Sunset Meadow

SOUTHEASTERN NEW ENGLAND AVA.     @

  • WHITE=
    • Hybrid
  • RED=
    • Hybrid
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Connecticut(South-East)
    • (AVALaps)Massachusetts, (AVALaps)Rhode Island **Refer to These States For Additional AVA. Information.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Maritime Influences
  • VITICULTURE-  ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers-

ROAD ISLAND ‘State‘        @

  • WHITE=  ?  Hybrids~
  • RED=    ?  Hybrids
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Road Island, LATITUDE:N
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA.’s- South-Eastern New England AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
  • CLIMATE- Continental
  • VITICULTURE- 
    • Estate/ Producers-

SOUTHEASTERN NEW ENGLAND AVA.     @

  • WHITE=
    • Hybrid
  • RED=
    • Hybrid
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Road Island(South-East)
    • (AVALaps)Massachusetts, (AVALaps)Connecticut **Refer to These States For Additional AVA. Information.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Maritime Influences
  • VITICULTURE-  ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers-

PENNSYLVANIA ‘State’

  • WHITE=   |  RED=  **Refer to “STATES”, For Detailed Grape Information.
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Pennsylvania, LATITUDE: 41.2° N
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA.’s- Central Delaware Valley AVA., Cumberland Valley AVA., Landcaster Valley AVA., Lehigh Valley AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Lake Erie~
  • CLIMATE- “Continental,   Summers– Hot, Humid   |   Winters– Cold, Rain
  • VINICULTURE-  Numbers of Wineries- 308 (300 Bonded/ 8  Virtual) “As of 2020”, #6 State/ USA.
    • Estate/ Producers- Galer, Karamoor

LEHIGH VALLEY AVA.      @Bethlehem

  • WHITE= Albarino, Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Grunner Veltliner, Riesling
    • Hybrid– Chambourcin, Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Barbera, Cabernet Dorsa,  Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Concord(Indigenous), Lemberger, Merlot, Petite Syrah, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Zweigelt
    • Hybrid
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Pennsylvania(South-East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Lehigh)”
    • SLOPES/ Appalachian Ranges(North-East)
    • On~Lehigh~River~Tributary~Delaware~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic”, ”Sedimentary, Limestone, Moraine Deposits, Berks Shaly Loam
  • CLIMATE- “Continental,   Summers– Hot, Humid   |   Winters– Cold, Rain
  • VITICULTURE-  ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers- Blue Mountains, Chaddsford, Clover Hill, Galen Glen(19ac.),Paradocx(30ac.), Va La, Vynecrest

CENTRAL DELAWARE VALLEY AVA.     @

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Pennsylvania(South-East)
    • North of Philadelphia-City(    mi.)
    • (AVALaps)New Jersey **Refer to This State For Additional  AVA. Information.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley”, On~Delaware~River~
  • CLIMATE- “Continental,   Summers– Hot, Humid   |   Winters– Cold, Rain
  • VITICULTURE-  ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers- Briar Valley, Sand Castle

LANDCASTER VALLEY AVA.     @Landcaster

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Pinot Gri, Riesling
    • Hybrid Catawba, Niagara, Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot
    • Hybrid Chancellor
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Pennsylvania(South-East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Landcaster)”, On~Susquehanna~River~
    • Depression Between Ridges of Appalachian Mountains/ Pocono Mountains
  • SOILS- Metamorphic”, ”Sedimentary”, Limestone, Moraine Gravel
  • CLIMATE- “Continental,   Summers– Hot, Humid  |   Winters– Cold, Rain
  • VITICULTURE- 400 acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers- Cullari, Nissley, Waltz

CUMBERLAND VALLEY AVA.     @Harrisburg

  • WHITE= ?
    • Hybrid– Niagara, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Pennsylvania(South)
    • (AVALaps)Maryland **Refer to This State For Additional AVA. Information.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Cumberland)”, SLOPES/ Appalachian Mountains
  • CLIMATE- “Continental,   Summers– Hot, Humid   |   Winters– Cold, Rain
  • VITICULTURE- 100 acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers-

LAKE ERIE AVA.      @Erie

  • WHITE=
    • Hybrid
  • RED=
    • Hybrid
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Pennsylvania(North-West)
    • (AVALaps)New York, (AVALaps)Ohio **Refer to These States For Additional  AVA. Information.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Lake~Erie~
  • SOILS= Metamorphic
  • CLIMATE=Continental With MaritimeInfluence, LAKE EFFECTLake Erie
  • VITICULTURE–  ? ac. Planted
  • VINICULTUREIce Wine,  Juice,  Eating Grapes
    • Estates/ Producers

NEW JERSEY ‘State’      @

  • WHITE=   |   RED=  **Refer to “STATES”, For Detailed Grape Information.
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New Jersey, LATITUDE: 40° N
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA.’s- Central Delaware Valley AVA., Warren Hills AVA.
    • BORDERS: New York(North), Pennsylvania(West)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Maritime Influence
  • VINICULTURE-  Numbers of Wineries- 67  (62 Bonded/ 5  Virtual) “As of 2020”, #24 State/ USA.
  • CULTURE-
    • Archeology  & Wine
    • Centuries Old Madeira– Found Behind a Demolished Wall of Kean University/ Liberty Hall Museum In New Jersey. 3 Sealed Cases From as Far Back as 1796 and Early 1800’s

CENTRAL DELAWARE VALLEY AVA.     @

  • WHITE= ?
  • RED= Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New Jersey(West)
    • (AVALaps)Pennsylvania(South-East**Refer to This State For Additional AVA. Information.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley”
  • CLIMATE- Continental
  • VITICULTURE-  ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers

WARREN HILLS AVA.      @

  • WHITE= Chardonnay
    • Hybrid Seyval Blanc, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-New Jersey(West)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Appalachian Mountians(North)
    • On~Tributaries~Delaware~River~
  • CLIMATE- Continental
  • VITICULTURE- 100 ac. Planted
    • Estates/ Producers– Alba, Brook Hollow, Four Sisters, Vacchiano Farm, Willa Milagro

MARYLANDState

  • WHITE=   |   RED**Refer to “STATES”, For Detailed Grape Information.
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Maryland, LATITUDE: 39* “N’
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA.’s- Catoctin AVA., Cumberland Valley AVA., Linganore AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”
    • Topographic Sub-Zones- Western Mountains, Piedmont Plateau, Southern Plain, Eastern Shore
  • CLIMATE- Continental,   Summers– Hot, Humid   | Winters– Cold, Rain
  • VINICULTURE-  Numbers of Wineries- 86 (81 Bonded/ 5  Virtual) “As of 2020”, #18 State/ USA.
  • GOING THERE-  FESTIVALS~ ~Maryland Wine Festival~ (September)

CUMBERLAND VALLEY AVA.      @Hagerstown

  • WHITE=
    • Hybrid Niagara, Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Maryland(North)
    • (AVALaps)Pennsylvania(South**Refer to This State For Additional AVA. Information.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Cumberland)”, SLOPES/ Appalachian Mountains
  • CLIMATE- Continental“,   Summers– Hot, Humid  |    Winters– Cold, Rain
  • VITICULTURE- 100 acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers- Dodon

CATOCTIN AVA.     @

  • WHITE= Albarino, Muscat Canelli, Riesling

    • Hybrid Vidal Blanc
  • RED= Barbera, Tannat, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Maryland(North)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
  • CLIMATE- “Continental”,   Summers– Hot, Humid   | Winters– Cold, Rain
  • VITICULTURE-  ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers

LINGANORE AVA.     @Frederich

  • WHITE= Chardonnay
    • Hybrid Cardonel, Traminette
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Maryland(North-Interior)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”, ON PLATEAU/ Piedmont
  • CLIMATE- Continental”, Summers– Hot, Humid   |   Winters– Cold, Rain
  • VITICULTURE-   ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers-

Other Atlantic North-West United States Not Demystified

MAINE ‘State

  • WHITE= Frontenac Blanc, Frontenac Gris    RED= Marquette, Petit Peral
  • GEOGRAPHY- USA., REGION-Atlantic North-East, STATE-Maine, LATITUDE: 43.4° N
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
  • CLIMATE- “Continental WithMaritime Influences
  • VITICULTURE-
  • VINICULTURE-  Numbers of Wineries- 33 (33 Bonded/ 0  Virtual) “As of 2020”, #34 State/ USA.
    • Estate/ Producers- Cellardoor


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.