WASHINGTON State


WASHINGTON IS    AVA.- 14    @Seattle

  • WHITE= Chardonnay 17%, Riesling 14%, Pinot Gris 3%, Sauvignon Blanc 2%, Aligote, Chenin Blanc, Falanghina, Fiano, Gewürztraminer, Marsanne, Muller-Thurgau, Muscat AKA=Ottonel Orange/ Canelli, Picpoul, Roussanne, Semillon, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon 23%, Merlot 18%, Syrah 7%, Cabernet Franc 2%, Aglianico, Agria, Barbara, Black Muscat, Carmenere, Cinsault, Dolcetto, Dunkelfelder, Garanoir, Garnacha, Golubok, Graciano, Lemberger AKA=Blaufrankisch, Madeleine, Malbec, Mourvedre, Nebbiolo, Petit Verdot, Petite Syrah, Pinot Noir, Primitivo, Regent, Sagrantino, Sangiovese, Siegerrebe, Tempranillo, Touriga Nacional, Zinfandel, Zweigelt
    • Hybrids Leon Millot, Marechal Foch

GEOGRAPHY USA., REGION-Pacific Northwest, STATE-Washington,  LATITUDE: 45° – 48° N

  • BORDERS- Canada(North), Oregon(South), Idaho(South-East)
  • MAJOR CITIES– Seattle, Spokane, Tacoma

TOPOGRAPHY  FEATURES

  •  Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced/ Valley(Columbia/ Yakama), Basin(Columbia), Plateau(Columbia)
  • On~Columbia~River~ Runs North-South Before Turns Westward to Form the Oregon and Washington Border.
  • ON PLATEAU/ East Palouse Plateau,   IN BASIN/ Columbia, Pasco, Quincy

TOPOGRAPHIC EVENETS

  • Missoula Floods~
    • A Series of 40 Major Floods That Washed Into Willamette Valley Over a 100,000 Year Period. Each Flood Stayed For a Period of 3 Weeks and Did Both Eroded and Laid Sediment Deposits Everywhere it Went.
    • **Refer to “PACIFIC NORTHWEST/ Missoula Floods” For Detailed Information
  • VOLCANSIM IN WASHINGTON
    • Cascade Mountain Range- Consists of 13 Volcanos That Runs From the Canadian Border to Northern California.
      • ~Bonanza Peak~   ~Glacier Peak~    ~Good Mountain~
      • ~Mt. Fernow~   ~Mt. St. Helen~   ~Mt. Rainier~
    • **Refer to “TECTONICS, VOLCANICS, WATER, WINDS” For Information
  • Glacier Activity– Some of Washingtons Topography Was Carved Out by Glacier Advancement and Regression.

SOILS Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary

    • Clay, Volcanic Basalt-Bedrock, Silt, Sand, Wind-Loess, Gravel
  • COLUMBIA VALLEY SOIL-SERIES
    • Alpowa Series–     –Anderly Series–     –Dallesport Series–     –Free Water Series
    • Lakesol Series–     –Lost Creek Series–     –Quincy Series–     –Walla Walla Series
    • **Refer to “TERROIR/ Geology & Soil” For Detailed Information On Soils

CLIMATE

  • East of Cascade Continental,  Summers– Sunny, Hot   |    Winters– Wet, Cold
  • West of Cascade Desert   Summers– Sunny Mild   |   Winters– Wet, Cold
  • On~Columbia~River~
    • Has Moderating Effect On Temperature, In Winter River Warms Temperature Preventing Vines From Freezing. In Summer River Cools Temperature Restricting Temperature From Exceeding 100.
  • CHALLENGE– ~Frost~ Runs Like Water and Pools In Lower Locations.

VITICULTURE– 11,000,000 ac./ 55,000 ac. Planted,  70 Different Varieties Grown

  • ADVANTAGE– Cascade Mountain Range Runs North-South Provide Massive Barrier to the Rain, Cold and Moisture That Washington is Subjected to.
    • At Higher Latitude That Washington Lies the Growing Season is Longer/ Amount of Sunlight Hours Per Day is Greater…In California the Growing Season Can Reach 15 Hours a Day, While In Columbia Valley the Growing Season Can Reach 17 Hours a Day.
    • Phylloxera Free and All of Vines Are Self Rooted
  • SOLAR RADIATION/ Promotes Growth Early In Season, Assists In Ripening In Fall

VINICULTURE–  Numbers of Wineries- 812 (772 Bonded/ 40  Virtual) “As of 2020”

  • #2 State Producer/ USA.  

HISTORY

  • 1825 @Washington Viticulture, First Vines Planted by Settlers.
  • 1900’s @Washington Growing Grapes For Juices, Jelly or Jams.
  • 1940’s @Washington Irrigation ProjectChanged Desert Into Profitable Farming Land.
  • 1960’s @Washington ViticultureModern Wine Era Started.
  • 1969 @Washington Wine LawLaw Was Repealed Allowing Imported Wines From Other States and Countries Into Washington.
  • 1974 @California  1972, Ste. Michelle Riesling Wins Best White In LA. Time Wine Competition.
  • 1981 @Walla Walla 1978, Woodward Cabernet Sauvignon Wins Best Wine In America Award.

CULTURE– 

  • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Washington State Wine Commission~
    • Charges Wine Producers .14 Cents a Case For Promotion and Research.
    • ~Columbia Valley Winery~
    • ~Wine Grape Growers~
    • ~Washington State Grape Society~
    • ~Wines North-West~
  • FESTIVALS~  ~Somm Summit~ (July/ Seattle)
  • ACADEMICS~  ~Walla Walla Community College~     @Walla Walla, Washington
    • Specialization~ Enology & Viticulture Degree Program
  • ACADEMICS~ ~Washington State University~      @Pulman, Washington
    • Specialization~ Viticulture & Enology…Economic Impact on Wine Industry
  • ACADEMICS~  ~Yakima Valley Community College~     @Yakima, Washington
    • Specialization~ Viticulture & Enology Degree Programs
  • GASTRONOMY... Salmon, Dungeness Crab, Eastern Washington Beef


  • GEOGRAPHIC DISCLAIMERTo Understand the Wine World and Benefit From DtheV.com a Understanding of Washington’s Geography is Needed and the Ability to Visualize Its Wine Regions Topography.  Washington is Organized In a North to South, / East to West Orientation and Intended to Be Researched and Memorized as So.

WASHINGTON     @Washington(Greater)

  • VITICULTURE Wine Labeled “WASHINGTON” Are Non-Conforming to Specific AVA.

PUGET SOUND AVA.      @Seattle

  • WHITE= Aligote, Madeleine Angevine, Madeleine Sylvaner, Muller Thurgau, Muscat Canelli, Muscat Orange, Muscat Ottonel, Pinot Gris, Siegerrebe
  • RED= Agria, Dunkelfelder, Garanoir, Pinot Noir, Regent, St. Laurent, Zweigelt
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington(West of Cascade Mountains), Seattle(Greater)
    • BORDERS-Canada(North)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, “Volcanic
  • CLIMATE- Maritime
  • VITICULTURE- 100 ac. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers(Not Located In Demarcated Sub-Zone)- Dacon, Madsen, McCrea, Northwest Mountain Vina Salida
  • VINICULTURE- Botrytis
  • CULTURE-
    • The Majority of Washington Vineyards Are Located In Columbia Vally the Majority of Washington Wineries Are Located In Greater Seattle But Source Their Grapes From Vineyards They Own In Columbia Valley.
  • GOING THERE- The Wineries On the Islands Can Be Reached by a the Vast Ferry System That Runs the Area.
  • SUB-REGIONS Of PUGET SOUND
    • PENINSULA & COAST
      • Geography- In Puget Sound AVA.
      • Estate/ Producers- Camaraderie, Harbinger, Hoodsport, Olympic, Stottle
    • NORTH-WEST & ISLANDS
      • Geography- In Puget Sound AVA.(North-West), ISLANDS/ Lopez, Whidbey
      • Estate/ Producers- Lopez Island(E./6ac), San Juan(E./6ac.), Whidbey Island
    • BAINBRIDGE ISLAND
      • Geography- In Puget Sound AVA.(Central), On Bainbridge Island
      • Estate/ Producers- Amelia Wynn, Bainbridge(7ac.), Eagle Harbor, Eleven, Fletcher, Kinsfolk, Perennial, Red Wine Gal, Rolling Bay, Victor Alexander
      • Vineyards-
    • WOODINVILLE     @Seattle
      • Geography- In Puget Sound AVA.(East)
      • Estate/ Producers- Amavi, Brian Carter, Cadence, Columbia Crest, Columbia Winery, DiStefano, JM, Novelty Hill, Pepper Bridge, St. Michelle
      • Vineyards- Whidbey Island
      • Culture- ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Woodinville Vine Country~
        • Largest Concentration of Wineries In a Metro Area In the World. 100 Wineries and Tasting Rooms Within a 4 Mile Ratio, 30 Minutes Drive From Downtown Seattle.
    • SOUTH SOUND
      • Geography- In Puget Sound AVA.(South)
    • SNOQUALMIE VALLEY
      • Geography- In Puget Sound AVA.(East), @Hw.#90
        • CITIES– Carnation, Fall City, North Bend, Preston Snoqualmie

**Puget Sound Images Courtesy of Delong Maps, Purchase These Maps at Delongwine.com


SOUTH-WEST WASHINGTON AVA. (Un-Official)  @Wishram

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Madeleine Angevine, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington(South-West), COUNTY-Clark
    • Columbia Gorge East of Columbia Gorge AVA., (Dalles East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Columbia~River~(North)
    • In Columbia Basin(West)
  • CLIMATE- “Continental”, WithMaritime Influence
    • Weather East of Columbia Gorge AVA. Warms Considerably
  • SOILS- “Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary, Alluvial
  • VITICULTURE-  ? ac. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- English, Jacob Williams, Maryhill, Waving Tree, Rezabek, Salishan, Stavalaura
  • CULTURE- ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Southwest Washington Winery~

COLUMBIA VALLEY*AVA.    @Yakima

  • WHITE= Pinot Gris 5%, Riesling 4%, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Symphony, Verdelho
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon 25%, Merlot 10%, Syrah 9%
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington(East of Cascade Mountains)
    • REGION-Columbia Valley AVA., BORDERS: Oregon(Laps), “Multi-Appellation”
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA.s Ancient Lakes AVA., Columbia Gorge AVA., Horse Heaven Hills AVA.,
      • Lake Chelan AVA., Rattlesnake Hills AVA., Naches AVA., Red Mountain AVA., Snipes Mountain AVA., Wahluke Slope AVA., Walla Walla Valley AVA., Yakima Valley AVA.
      • (Un-Offical) Burn of Columbia Valley AVA., Royal Slope AVA., Tri-Cities Area AVA., White Bluff AVA.
    • BOUNDARIES: Delimitated Along the Line Where the Slack-Water Deposit Levels Left by the Missoula Floods.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Features- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Valley(Columbia/ Yakima/ Walla Walla)
    • High Desert-Valley-  +Alt.1,846ft.
    • Columbia Valley Basin- The Weight of Lava and Ice Caused Land to Sink Creating a Basin Between Cascades and Bitter Root Mountains.
    • Columbia Valley Plateaux- Post Missoula Floods, Water and Erosion Cut Canyons Below Surface of Basin Creating Plateaux.
    • Glacier Activity- Some of Washingtons Topography Was Carved Out by Glacier Advancement and Regression.
    • Yakima Fold Belt- Series of Topographical Folds Raised by Tectonic Compression In the Western Columbia Plateau.
      • Effected AVA.-‘s- Royal Slope, Horse Heaven Hills, Red Mountain, Snipes Mountain, Rattlesnake Hills.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic,  Sedimentary, Alluvial, Wind-Loess
    • Generally Soils In the Columbia Valley the Bedrock Consist of Volcanic Basalt of Miocene Age.
    • Below 1,200 Feet Bedrock is Overlaid by Ancient Gravels
      • Missoula Flood Sediments(Silt, Sand, Gravel), and Wind-Deposited Silt(Loess)
    • Above 1,200 Feet Bedrock is Overlaid by Loess of Varying Thickness.
    • Aridisols– Classification of Soil Found In Arid Climates/ Desert and Xeric Scrublands, Low Concentration of Organic Matter, Deep, Well Drained
    • Columbia Valley Soil-Series
      • Alpowa Series–     –Anderly Series–      –Lakesol Series
      • Lost Creek Series–     –Quincy Series–     –Walla Walla Series
  • CLIMATE- Continental WithDesert Influence,  Degree-Days- 1,465…76°
    • RAIN SHADOW EFFECT/ ~Olympic Mountain & Cascade Mountain Ranges~
    • Rain Fall/ Precipitation is Localized and Varies Across Walla Walla Valley.
    • CHALLENGE– ~Frost~ Runs Like Water and Pools In Lower Locations
    • Shrub-Steppe- Type of Low Rainfall Natural Grassland. Shrub-Steppes are Prevalent In Deserts Which Are Too Dry to Support Perennial Grasses or Other Shrubs.
  • VITICULTURE- 2,178 ac. Planted
    • CHALLENGE+RAIN: -7 Inches/ Year Irrigation Needed
      • OBTAINING WATER- In Certain Regions Water/ Snow Melt From Andes Mountains is Carried by Various Rivers to the Vineyards Below That Can Be Diverted Off In Channels and Canals and Used For Irrigation.
    • +WIND/ ~Howlers~ Wind That Blows Through Columbia River Valley.
    • PRACTICE– -Trellising- Fan Shaped
    • ADVANTAGES– Little Bug and Mildew Issues/ No Reason to Spray
    • WINNER Worlds Best~ DtheV.com “Worlds Best Terroir”  (2nd. Place)
      • **Refer to “WINE CULTURE/ Derek’s Top 6 List” For Detailed Information.
  • VINICULTURE- Columbia Valley Wineries Have a Culture of Not Owning Vineyard (or Owning Small Vineyards) But Sourcing Grapes From Their AVA. as Well as AVA’s Across the Entire Columbia Valley.
    • Estate/ Producers- Betz, Ste. Michelle, Dusted Valley, Gramercy, Illusion, Kontas, Maryhill, Stephenson, Tamarack
    • Vineyards- Conner Lee, Dionysus, Elephant Mountain, Southwind, Stillwater Creek, Stone Tree

**Columbia Valley Images Courtesy of “Delong Maps”, Purchase Maps at Delongwine.com


LAKE CHELAN AVA.     @ChelanManson

  • WHITE= Riesling 30%, Chardonnay, Gewurztraminor, Marsanne, Muscat, Pinot Gri, Riesling, Rousanne, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • RED= Barbera, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Dolcetto, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Tempranillo, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA.(North), @Hw.#97
    • COUNTY-Chelan    (50 Miles Long)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hllly”, SLOPES/ Frenchman Hills, +Alt.570 ft.-1,912 ft.
    • On~Lake~Chelan~(South-East)(1,400 Feet Deep)
    • Glacier Activity– Lake Chelan’s Topography Was Carved Out by Glacier Advancement and Regression.
  • SOILS- “Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary“, Alluvial, Wind-Loess
    • Granite Bedrock, Glacier Moraine/ Deposits, Quartz, Mica
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Desert, Influence,  LAKE EFFECT/ Lake Chelan
  • VITICULTURE- 24,050 ac./ 325 ac. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Atam, Benson, Cairdeas, Cedergreen, C.R., Fielding Hills, Four Lakes, Hard Row to Hoe, Karma(Sparkling), Lake Chelan(E.), Mellisoni, Navarre Coulee, Rocky Pond, Sanridge, Tunnel Hill, Tsillan Cellars, Ventimiglia, Vin du Lac, Wine Girl
    • Vineyards- Clos CheValle, Hard Row to Hoe
  • CULTURE- AGRICULTURE~  History of Apples, Pears, Peaches, Cherrie Production.
    • ~Etymology~ Historically Referred to as Tsillan Lake, Referring to the Native American Spelling.
  • GOING THERE- 3 Hour Drive From Seatle.
    • WINE TRAILS~ ~Lake Chelan Wine Trail~

ANCIENT LAKES*AVA.     @Quincy

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Viognier, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Rousanne, Viognier
  • RED= Barbera, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Syrah, Tempranillo
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA.(North), COUNTY– ?
    • Sub-Zones-  Benches, Foothills, Coulees, Ridges(Babcock/ Evergreen)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling”
    • SLOPES/ Beezley Hills(South)/ Frenchman Hills(North), +Alt.570 ft.-1,900 ft.
    • In Columbia/ Quincy Basin(West), On~Columbia~River~(East)
    • Accumulation of 35 Lake In the Area
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary, Aridisols, Wind-Loess
    • Quincy Series
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Desert Influences, “River Effect/ Columbia
  • VITICULTURE- 162,000 ac./ 1,600 ac. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Cave B*(E.), Beaumont Cellars, Efeste, Horan, Kung Fu Girl, Jones of Washington, Milbrant, White Heron
    • Vineyards- Evergreen, Ryan Patrick, Spanish Castle, Two Gun

ROYAL SLOPE AVA.       @Royal City

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Roussanne, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cinsault, Garnacha, Malbec, Merlot, Mourvedre, Petit Verdot, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Syrah, Tempranillo
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA.(North)
    • BORDERS– Ancient Lakes AVA.,  North of Wahluke Slope AVA.(10mi.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, In Columbia Basin(West), On~Columbia~River~
    • SLOPES/ Frenchmans Hills(30 Mile South Facing, West to East Ridge), +Alt. 610 ft. to 1,756 ft
    • Located On Yakima Fold Belt.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Alluvial, Wind-Loess
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Desert Influences
  • VITICULTURE- 156,389 ac., 1,900 ac. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Alleromb, Novelty Hill,
    • Vineyards- Corfu Crossing, Gard, Lawrence, Stillwater Creek, Stoneridge
  • HISTORY- 1960’s- First Vineyard Planted

WAHLUKE SLOPE AVA.     @Milbrandt, Mattawa

  • WHITE= Chardonnay 10%, Chenin Blanc, Gewurztraminor, Grenache Blanc, Picpoul, Riesling, Roussanne, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon 40%, Merlot 30%, Syrah 5%, Barbera, Cabernet Franc, Carmenere, Garnacha, Malbec, Mourvedre, Petite Sirah, Petit Verdot, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Tempranillo, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA.(North), COUNTY-Grant
    • South of Ancient Lakes AVA.(25mi.), North of Yakima Valley AVA.(25mi.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly”
    • SLOPES/ Cascade Mountain Range/ Saddle Mountains, +Alt.425 ft.-1,480 ft., ASPECT/ 8%
    • On~Lower Crab~Creek~Tributary~Columbia~River~, GAP/ Sentinel
    • Broad South-Facing Slopes With Constant Grade of 8% Over Alluvial Fan
  • SOILS- “Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary, Alluvial, Wind-Loess
    • Wahluke Gravel Bar- 30 Mile Long Alluvial Fan, Sandy Loam, Alkaline Hardpan
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Desert Influences, Dry, Hot, “River Effect/ Columbia“, +Diurnal Shifts(+40°)
  • VITICULTURE- 80,490 ac./ 8,900 ac. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Casasmith, Bunnell, Desert Wind, Fielding Hills, Finn Hill, Fox(E.), Forgeron, Fries(540ac.), Ginko Forest(E.), Januik, Jones of Washington, Millbrandt’s, Pouillin, Seven Falls, Syncline, Tamarack
    • Vineyards- Cold Creek(731ac,), Clifton Hill, Desert Wind ‘Estate“(540ac.), Four Feathers, Indian Wells, Jeff Jones, Jones Brothers, Katherine Leone, Lucky Bohemian, Milbrandt, Mrachek, Northridge, Pheasant, Riverbend(22ha.), Rosebud, Shaw, Stone Tree, Sundance, Talcott, Wahluke, Weinbau
  • VINICULTURE Many Producers Source Grapes From Wahluke Slope For Their Urban Wine Production.
    • Varietal,  Ice Wine
  • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ The Name “Wahluke” Comes From Native American Word Meaning “Watering Place”.
    • PIONEERS~ ~Jerry Fox~ First to Plant Vines In Wahluke Slope.
    • 2006 @Wahluke Slope– Establishment of AVA.

NACHES*AVA.    @Tieton

  • WHITE= Albariño, Gewurztraminer, Grunner Veltliner, Muscat, Pinot Grigio, Riesling, Rousanne, Viognier
  • RED= Barbera, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cinsault, Malbec, Merlot, Mourvedre, Nebbiolo, Sagrantino, Sangiovese, Syrah, Touriga Nacional, Zweigelt
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA., COUNTY-Yakima
    • North-West of Yakima(2 mi.), @Hw.#12
  • TOPOGRAPHY “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Cascade Mountain Range, +Alt.1,200 ft.-2,100 ft.
    • Eastern Ridge of Volcanic Rock Plateau, Above Missoula Flood Level
    • On~Tipton/ Cowiche~Rivers~Tributary~Naches~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, “Volcanic, Bedrock(Andesite-Lava)/ Goat Rock Volcano
    • Sedimentary“, Alluvial, Wind-Loess
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Desert Influence
  • VITICULTURE- 13,250 ac./ 39 ac. Planted
      • Entire AVA. Organically, Sustainably or Bio-Dynamically Farmed
    • Estate/ Producers- Aecetia, Harlequin, Keller, Kalkruth, Wilridge Winery(E.), Naches Heights(E.), Strand
    • Vineyards- Aecetia, Harlequin, Naches Heights, Strand, Wilridge

YAKIMA VALLEY*AVA.     @Yakima

  • WHITE= Pinot Gris 15%, Aligote, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Marsanne, Picpoul, Riesling, Roussane, Sauvigon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
  • RED= Barbera, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Garnacha, Graciano, Lemberger, Malbec, Merlot, Mourvedre, Petit Verdot, Petite Sirah, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Syrah, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA., COUNTY-Yakima,  @Hw.#82
    • BORDERS: Ahtanum Ridge(North), Horse Heaven Hills AVA.(South)
    • (80 Miles Long & 20 Miles Wide), “Multi-Appellation”
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA.’S Rattlesnake Hills AVA., Red Mountian AVA., Snipes Mountain AVA.,
    • CITIES– Proser, Sunnyside, Wapato,  Zillah
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Yakima)”, +Alt.900ft.-1,300ft., -Anticline Range
    • On~Yakima/ Snake~Rivers~Tributary~Columbia~River~
    • GAP/ Selah(North), Union Gap(South)
  • SOILS- “Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary
    • Silt, Loam Top Soil Over Stone
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Desert Influence
    • RAIN SHADOW EFFECT/ Snipes Mountain Range
  • VITICULTURE- 18,000 ac. Planted,  Botrytis(Influenced by Yakima River)
    • Estate/ Producers- Agate Field, Airfield, Beeman’s Backacres, Barnard Griffin, Black Wood, Bonair, Boshey, Claar, Cote Bonneville, Desert Hill, Gilbert Cellars, Hyatt(180ac.), James Rain, Kestrel, Lip Stinger, Olsen, Oasis, Owen Roe, Piety Flats,  Sagelands, Snoqualmie, Van Armen
    • Vineyards- Boushey, Brother Copeland, Den Hoed, DuBrual, French Creek, Good Earth, Kestrel, Lonesone Springs Ranch, Merchant, Otis(75ac.), Olsen, Phil Church, Red Willow, Rothrock, Two Blonds, Willard Farms(250ac.)
  • CULTURE-  AGRICULTURE~ History of Grapes, Apples, Hops and Stone Fruit(Cherries, Peaches) Production.
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Yakima Valley Wine~
    • ACADEMICS~ ~Yakina Valley Community College~     @Yakima, Washington
      • Specialization~ Viticulture & Enology Degree Programs

RATTLESNAKE HILLS*AVA.     @Zillah

  • WHITE= Aligote, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Gewurztraminer, Madeline Angevine, Marsanne, Muller-Thurgau, Muscat Canelli, Muscat Ottonel, Muscat Orange, Riesling, Roussanne, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Siegerrebe, Viognier
  • RED= Barbera, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha, Lemberger, Merlot, Malbec, Petite Sirah, Petit Verdot, Sangiovese, Syrah, Tempranillo, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA., @Hw.#82,  LATITUDE: 46.40° N
    • COUNTY-Yakima, In Columbia Valley AVA./ Yakima Valley AVA.(North)
    • Sub-Zones- Roza Hills
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly/ Ridges/ Terraced, Located On Yakima Fold Belt.
    • SLOPES/ Cascade Mountain Range/ Ahtannum Ridge, +Alt.850 ft.-3,085 ft., On~Yakima~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary Alluvial, Wind-Loess, Silt-Loam
    • SOIL SERIES– Warden, Harwood-Burke
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Desert Influence
  • VITICULTURE- 68,500 ac./ 1,750 ac. Planted
    • CHALLENGES– Spring Frost, Winter Kill
  • VINICULTURE-  White 44%/ Red 56%
    • Estate/ Producers- Agate Ranch(7ac.), Andrew Will(25ac.), Bonair(35ac.), Bosma, Cote Bonneville, Cultura, Horional Edge(18ac.), Hyatt(147ac.), Knight Hill, Maisson de Padgett, Masset, Owen Roe, Paradisos del Sol, Portteus, Savage, Severino(14ac.), Sheridan(65ac.), Silver Lake(260ac.), Two Mountain, Tanjuli, Van Arnam
    • Vineyards- Allechant(21ac.), Angiolina Farm(60 ac.), BuBrul(45ac.), Dineen(42ac.), Elephant Mountain(60ac.), Garrison(10ac.), Hyatt ‘Estate“, Konnowac(15ac.), Monahan(6ac.), Morrison(6ac./1968), Outlook(98ac.), Portteus ‘Estate‘, Spring Creek(10ac.), Two Bluffs(5ac.), Union Gap(60ac.), Verhey(8ac.), Whisky Canyon, Zillah Bluffs(17ac.), Zirkle(600ac.)
  • HISTORY- 2006- AVA. Officially Established
  • CULTURE- WINE TRAILS~ ~Rattlesnake Hills~ Yakima Valley

**Yakama Images Courtesy of “Delong Maps”, Purchase Wine Maps at Delongwine.com


SNIPES MOUNTAIN*AVA.      @Sunnyside, Granger

  • WHITE= Aligote, Gewurztraminer, Muscat Alexandria, Pinot Gris, Semillon, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Cinsault, Grenache, Pinot Noir, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA., COUNTY-Yakima
    • In Yakima Valley AVA.(Central), @Hw.#82
    • Sub-Zones- Harrison Hill(East Side of Hw.#82)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, SLOPES/Cascade Mountain Range, +Alt.+750 ft.-1,300 ft.
    • *Anticline-Range 7 Miles Long,
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary, Alluvial
    • “Aridisol”, River Worn Rocks, Gravel, Compact Schist, Wind-Loess
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Desert Influence, +WIND/
    • RAIN SHADOW EFFECT/ Cascade Mountains
  • VITICULTURE- 4,145 ac./ 800 ac. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Bunnell, DeLille, Eaton Hill, Latta, Robert Ramsay, Rolling Bay, Steppe, Tefft, Upland
    • Vineyards- Harrison Hill, New House, Upland
  • CULTURE– Vines Since 1914
    • PIONEERS~ ~Ben Snipes~ Cattle Farmer Who First Settled In the Area.

TRI-CITIES AREA*AVA. (Un-Official)      @Kennewich, Richland, Pasco

  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA., COUNTY-Yakima
    • In Yakima Valley AVA.(South-East),  @Hw.#82
    • Sub-Zones- KENNEWICH,  RICHLAND,  PASCO
  • VITICULTURE- Many Columbia Valley Produces Use Tri-Cities to House Their Wineries. There Are +200 Wineries Within Its 50 Mile Radius.
    • Estate/ Producers- 14 Hands, Airfield, Badger Mountain, Barnard Griffin, Columbia Crest, Cooper Wine, Coyote Canyon, Double Canyon, Fidelitas, Goose Ridge, Gordon, Hogue, Longship, Mercer, Thurston Wolfe, Waterbrook
    • Vineyard- Goose Ridge “Estate” (1,900ac.)

WHITE BLUFF AVA. (Un-Official)     @White Bluff

  • WHITE= Pinot Gris, Riesling, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA., COUNTY-Franklin
    • North of Pasco-City(    mi.), North of Tri-Cities(     mi.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly, On~Columbia~River~
  • CLIMATE- Continental
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, Sedimentary“, Alluvial Escarpment
  • VITICULTURE- 93,738 ac./ 1,100 ac. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Claar Cellars, Sagemore  Vineyards-  Bacchus, Dionysus, Gamache(220 ac.), Sagemoor, White Bluffs

RED MOUNTAIN*AVA.      @Benton City

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Marsanne, Pinot Gri, Riesling
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon 70%, Cabernet Franc, Lemburger, Malbec, Merlot, Petite Verdot, Sangiovese, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA., COUNTY-Yakima
    • In Yakima Valley AVA.(South-East),  @Hw.#82
  • TOPOGRAPHY “Hilly/ Ridge, Mountainous”, SLOPES/ Cascade Mountain Range/ Red Mountain, +Alt.1,500 ft.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Desert Influence, +Diurnal Shifts(+40°)
    • *Generally– Considered Hottest AVA. In Washington/ Heat Moderated by Altitude.
  • VITICULTURE- 700 ac. Planted,  CHALLENGE– Over Ripeness, Spring Frost
  • VINICULTURE- Ice Wine
    • Estate/ Producers- Artz, Burrell, Betz Family, Canvasback, Col Solare*(29ha.)(Colaboration/Ste. Michelle & Antinori), Copper Wine, Corvus, Fidelitas(3.5ac.), Frichette, Hamilton*, Heart of the Hill, Hedges*, Henry Earl, Hightower(10ac.), Kiona, Klipsun, Tapteil, Upchurch
    • Vineyards- Ambassador, Bel’Villa, Ciel du Cheval, Jolet, Klipsun, Les Gosses, Magdalena, Olsen, Ranch at the End of the Road, Red Heaven, Quintessence, Terra Blanca
  • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ Takes Name From Seasonal Hue From the Native Cheek Grass.
    • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Red Mountain AVA. Alliance~
    • PIONEERS~ ~Founding Fathers of Red Mountain~  ~John Williams~ ~Jim Holmes~  @Kiona Vineyards

HORSE HEAVEN HILLS*AVA.     @Patterson

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Rousanne, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Carmenere, Merlot, Syrah, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA., COUNTY-Benton
    • In Yakima Valley AVA.,(South), BORDERS: Yakima Valley AVA.(North)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced”, -Anticline Range- +Alt.200 ft.-1,800 ft.
    • GAP/ Walulua, On~Columbia~River~, Located On Yakima Fold Belt.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary“, Alluvial, Wind-Loess
    • Sandy Loam Over Sand Over Flood Gravel.
  • CLIMATE- “Continental With Desert Influence
  • VITICULTURE– 13,215 acPlanted
    • Estate-Producers- Beresan, Columbia Crest, Conue Ridge, Destiny Ridge, Double Canyon(E.), Houge, Mercer, Robert Ramsey, Thurston Wolfe
    • Vineyards- Alder Ridge, Andrew Hill, Alderveiw, Champoux, Desert Hills, Destiny Ridge, Discovery, Gorgeous Destiny Ridge, Lady Hawk, May’s Discovery, McKinley Springs, Palengat, Phinny Hills, Wallula, Zephyr Ridge
      • The Benches 37 Geologically Formed “Benches” Created by the Missoula Floods.Ranging From 560 Feet to 1,350 Feet In Altitude. From a Distance They Resemble a Series of Benches Stepping Up From the Columbia River.
        • Vineyards- 1 Vineyard, AKA= Wallula Vineyards 675 ac., 60 Blocks, 15 Varietals
          • Long Shadow
          • WHITE= Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Riesling
          • RED= Barbera, Cabernet Sauvignon, Docetto, Mourvedre, Malbec, Syrah

The BURN Of COLUMBIA VALLAY AVA. (Un-Official)       @

  • WHITE= Chardonnay
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Sangiovese, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA., COUNTY-Klickitat
    • West of Horse Heaven Hills
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly”
    • On~Rock Creek/ Chapman Creek~Tributary~Columbia River~
  • CLIMATE- Continental
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, Volcanic“, Wind-Loess, Silt Loam
  • VITICULTURE- 16,870 ac./ 1,261 ac. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers

COLUMBIA GORGE*North AVA.    @Underwood

  • WHITE= Riesling 12%, Chardonnay 4%, Chenin Blanc, Falanghina, Fiano, Gewurtraminer, Grenache Blanc, Grunner Veltliner, Pinot Gris, Semillon
  • RED= Pinot Noir 47%, Tempranillo 2%, Barera, Cabernet Franc, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel
    GEOGRAPHY- Washington, In Columbia Valley AVA.(South-West), @Hw.#14/ #141

    • TRANSITION-ZONE-BETWEEN: Willamette Valley and Columbia Basin
    • BORDERS: Oregon(Laps/ South), 20 Mile Stretch from Hood River to Dalles
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley” SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.160 ft.-2,000 ft.
    • On~White Salmon~River~Tributary~Columbia~River~(North), Where River Dissects to Cascade Mountain Range
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary“, Alluvial, Loess
    • Greatest Variety of Soil In Pacific North-West…31 Soil Series
  • CLIMATE- Continental, +WIND/ Howlers
    • Western– Wet, Green   |   Eastern– Dry, Golden
  • VITICULTURE- 166 acPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Aniche Cellars, Cascade Cliffs(23ac.), Cor Cellars, Hiyu, Marshalls, Maryhill, Memaloose, Pouillon, Salilo, Savage Grace(E.), Syncline, Teutonic, Underwood Mountain, Wind River
    • Vineyards- Bacchus, Celilo, Dionysus, Goose Ridge, Sagemoore, Pear Blossom, White Salmon
  • SUB-REGIONS Of COLUMBIA GORGE
    • UNDERWOOD       LYLE

**Columbia Gorge Images Courtesy of Delong Maps, Purchase Maps at Delongwine.com


WALLA WALLA VALLEY* ‘North AVA.    @Walla Walla

  • WHITE= Chardonnay 15%, Chenin Blanc, Gewurztraminer, Grenache Blanc, Orange Muscat, Picpoul, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Roussane, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon 38%, Merlot 18%, Syrah 17%, Cabernet Franc 6%, Malbec 4%, Aglianico, Barbera, Dolcetto, Petit Verdot, Sangiovese, Tempranillo, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington(South-East), REGION-Columbia Valley AVA.(South), @Hw.#12
    • COUNTY-Walla Walla, BORDERS: Oregon(Laps 30%/ South), LATITUDE: 46° ‘N’
    • 70% of Land Acres Are In Washington, But 57% of the Vineyards Acres
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Bowl/ Valley(Walla Walla)”
    • Minimum Elevation 400 ft./ Maximum  2,000 ft., Grapes +Alt.500ft.-1,500ft.
    • TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES
      • SLOPES/ Palouse Mountains/ Blue Mountains
      • On~Walla-Walla/ Snake~Rivers~Tributary~Columbia~River~
      • Basin 30-Miles Wide Running East-West Across Valley, Vineyards Are Found Along the River Plain and Stretching Up Into the Foothills.
      • Wallula Gap- Area Where Walla Walla and Columbia Rivers Converge.
      • Palouse Formation- Gentle Rolling Hills Formed Tens of Thousands of Years Ago From Wind Blown Dust and Silt/ Loess
      • Touchet Formation/ Touchet Beds- Large Distinct Quantities of Layered Loess, Gravel and Sediment That Overlay Volcanic Basalt In South-Central Washington and North-Central Oregon. The Touchet Formation Originally Formed at the Confluence of the Touchet River and Walla Walla Rivers.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary
    • Valley Floor- Wind-Deposited Silt/Loess, Over Missoula Flood Sediments
    • Foothills- Thick Wind Deposited Silt/ Loess, Over Basalt Bedrock
    • FloodPlains of Walla Walla River- Basalt Cobblestone Gravels
    • Slopes In Foothills/Canyons- Thin Wind-Deposited Silt/ Loess Over Basalt Bedrock
      • SOIL SERIES–    Alpowa Series–     –Anderly Series–     –Lakesol Series
        • Lost Creek Series–     –Walla Walla Series–     –Freewater Series
  • CLIMATE- “Continental With Desert, Influence, Coolest, Wettest/ Columbia Valley
    • Rain Fall/ Precipitation is Localized and Varies Across Walla Walla Valley
    • CHALLENGE– ~Frost~ Runs Like Water and Pools In Lower Locations
  • VITICULTURE- 130.630 ac./ 1,200 ac. Planted, 57% Washington/ 43% Oregon
    • Estate/ Producers- Amavi, Browne, Canoe Ridge, Charles Smith, Cougar Crest, Dusted Valley, Gramery Cellars, Kerloo, L’Ecole*, Kontos, Leonetti, Mullan Road(Cakebread), Northstar*(E.), Pepper Bridge(E.), Reininger, Reynvaan, Seven Hills, Sleight of Hand, Va Pinao(E.), Walla Walla Vintners, Waterbrook, Woodward Canyon(E.), Zerba
    • Vineyards- Abeja, Aria, Bergen Springs, Braden Heights, Blue Mountain, Caprio, Cockburn Ranch, Les Collines, Davidson, Deux Soldants, Dwelley, Double Bridge, Elevation, Figgins “Estate“, Fjellene, Funk, Goff, GH-!, GH-2, Golden Ridge, Hors Categorie, Jex, Kenny Hill, Loess, Maria Glen, McClellan, Mill Creek Upland, Minnick Hills, Mission Hills, Moonlight Drive, Morrison Lane, Northstar “Estate“, Orchard, La Paciencia, Pellet, Pepper Bridge “Estate“, Pheasant Run, Powerline, River Rock, Sconni Block, Saviah Cellars, Sconni Black, SJR, Southside, Southwind, Spring Valley, Stan Clarke, Stones Speak, Tokar, Va Piano, Walla Faces, Waterbrook, Whistling Hills, Yellow Bird, Yellow Jacket
    • Long Shadow Vintners(Collaborations)
      • Sequel/ Syrah(John Duval/ Penfolds)
      • Poet’s Leap/ Riesling(Armin Diel/ Nahe)
      • Chester-Kidder/ GSM. Blend(Gilles Nicault/ Rhone Valley)
      • Pedestal/ Merlot(Michel Rolland/ Bordeaux)
      • Pirouette/ Blend(Philippe Melka/ Bordeaux/ Napa Consultant)
      • Saggi/ Super Tuscan(Giovanni Folonari/ Tuscany)
      • Feather/ Cabernet Sauvignon(Randy Dunn/ Napa)
  • HISTORY
    • 1981 @Walla Walla 1978 Woodward Cabernet Sauvignon Wins Best Wine In America Award.
  • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ Walla Walla is the Native American Name For Many Waters.
    • PIONEERS~ ~Founding Fathers of Walla WallaModern Post-Prohibition Starts In Late 70’s
      • ~Rick Small~  @Woodward Canyon                                   ~Casey McClellan~
      • ~Gary/ Nancy Figgins~ @Leonetti                                    ~ Gordy Venneri~
      • ~Baker/ Jean Ferguson~ @L’Ecole                                   ~Dr. Myles Anderson~
      • ~Alex/ Jeannette Golitzin~ @Quilceda Creek
    • PIONEERS~  ~Italian Immigrants of Walla Walla~ First to Plant Grapes In Valley In 1850’s.
    • AGRICULTURE~ History of Wheat, Sweet Onion and Apple Production.
    • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Walla Walla Valley Wine Alliance~
    • ACADEMICS~ ~Walla Walla Community College~
      • Specialization~ Enology & Viticulture Degree Program
  • **Refer to “OREGON/ Walla Walla “South” For Additional Information

**Walla Walla Images Courtesy of “Delong Maps”, Purchase These Maps at Delongwine.com


LEWIS-CLARK VALLEY AVA.     @Clarkson

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Gris, Riesling
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington(East), In Snake River Valley AVA.
    • Area Surrounding Lewiston & Clarkson, BORDERS: Idaho(Laps/ 72%)
    • Near Washington/ Oregon/ Idaho “Tri-Border”
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling” “Canyon & Bench-Lands”, +Alt.960ft. -1,100ft.
    • On~Clearwater~River~Tributary~Snake~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary, Alluvial, Wind-Loess
  • CLIMATE- “Continental WithDesert Influence
  • VITICULTURE- 81 ac. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Clearwater Canyon Cellars, Colters Creek
    • Vineyards- Arnett, Rock ‘N’ J, Wasem
  • CULTURE- ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Lewis & Clark Valley Wine Alliance~

GOOSE GAP AVA. (Un-Official)       @

  • WHITE= ?
  • RED= Malbec
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA., COUNTY-Benton
  • TOPOGRAPHY-“Rolling”
  • CLIMATE- Continental
  • VITICULTURE-  ?   ac. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers-

CANDY MOUNTAIN AVA. (Un-Official)       @

  • WHITE= ?
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, REGION-Columbia Valley AVA., COUNTY-Benton
    • West of Red Hills(     mi.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly”
  • CLIMATE- Continental
  • VITICULTURE– ?  ac. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers-


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced