🇨🇱CHILE 


CHILE IS  Regions- 6     DO.- 25     @Santiago

  • WHITE= Sauvignon Blanc #2, Chardonnay #3, Riesling, Gewurztraminer, Moscatel de Alexandria, Sauvignonasse AKA=Friulano, Sauvignon Vert, Semillon, Torontel, Torrontes
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon #1, Merlot #4, Carignan #5, Syrah #6, Pinot Noir #7, Carmenere 8%, Alicante Bouschet, Cinsault AKA=Cargadora, Merlot, Pais AKA=Listan Prieto 7%, Romano AKA=Cesar, Zinfandel

GEOGRAPHY HEMISPHERE-Southern, REGION-South America, COUNTRY-Chile, LATITUDE: 53°- 17° S

  • BORDERS-Peru(North), Pacific Ocean(West), Argentina(East)/ Andes Mountains Range(+Alt. 6,000mt.),  Cordillera del Paine/ Fjords/ Glaciers(South)
  • Sub-Zones-  (North to South)
    • Norte Grande,  Norte Chico,  Zona Central,  Zona Sur,  Zona Austral
    • **Refer to THESE SUB-ZONES For Detailed Information On Chile.
  • Sub-Zones- (West to East)
    • Costa–  Coastal Strip(4,300km. Long & 350km. Wide)
    • Entre Cordillera– Intermediate Depression
    • Andes  Mountains

TOPOGRAPHY FEATURES- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous

  •  SLOPES/ Coastal Mountain Range(West), +Alt. 900mt.
    • Andes Mountains(East), +Alt. to 3,100mt.
  • ON PLATEAU/ 1,000km. Long
  • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS–  Chile– Shaped by Chile’s Geographically Located In a Subduction Zone Cause by the South American Plate and Nazca Plate.  This Causes Chile’s Topographic Features: The Andes Mountain(Volcanic Arc and Part of “Ring of Fire”, Intermediate Depression(Chilean Central Valley), Graben, Foreland Basin, Coastal Range and Peru-Chile Trench(Off Coast).
  • VOLCANISM~
    • Cordillera de los Andes- Earths Longes, Mountain Chain Running 7,000km. From Venezuela To Teirra del Fuego Down the Western Edge of South America.  
      • Andean Volcanic Belt- Includes Chile and Its 400 Volcanoes 
      • Southern Volcanic Zone- Most Active Segment of Andean Belt
      • San Jose Volcanic Group-  Group of Volcanos Along the Chile/ Argentina Border…Includes: Espirtu Santo, Maipo, Ojos Del Salado(6,893 mt.,), San Jose, Payun Matru, Planchon-Peteroa, Tupungatito, Tupungato
      • Southern Chile- Lonquimay, Nevada’s de Chillan, Villarrica

SOILS Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary

  • Basalt/ Andesite, Sedimentary, Granite, Schist, Slate, Clays
  • **Refer to CHILE/ Sub-Chapters For Detailed Information On Soils
  • **Refer to TERROIR/ Geology & Soil For Detailed Information On Soils

CLIMATE Desert, Mediterranean, Maritime

  • *Summers– Warm, Dry     |     *Winters– Cool, Wet,   +Diurnal Shifts(  °)
  • Chilean Climate is Based On the Confluence of Western Coastal Influence and Eastern Elevation.  Think of the Grape Growing Areas of Chile Between 2 Refrigerators…The Cold Pacific Ocean With Its Humboldt Current In the West and the Andes Mountain Range to the East.
  •  +RAIN SHADOW/  ~Coastal Range~,   ~Andes Mountains~
  • +GAPS– From Many Rivers Flow From Andes Break Through Coastal Range Moderated by Air-Flow Down From Andes and Air-Flow In From Pacific.

VITICULTURE  137,000 ha. Planted,  (White 27%/ Red 73%)

  • Chile is- 8th. In Wine Consumption/ 5th. In Grape Production In the World.
  •  CHALLENGES– ~Irrigation From Andes~  Made Possible In Early 1900’s by System of Rivers, Tributaries, Channels
    • ~Obtaining Water~ In Certain Regions Water/ Snow Melt From Andes Mountains is Carried by Various Rivers to the Vineyards Below That Can Be Diverted Off In Channels and Canals and Used for Irrigation.
    • ~Aspect~ Vineyards Face North, Rather Than South In the Northern Hemisphere.
    • +WINDS/ Zonda– During Fruit-Set is an Issue
  • ADVANTAGES–  ~Geographical Isolation~
    • As a Result They Don’t Rely On Pesticide and Herbicides to Produce Healthy Fruit.
    • Absence of Most Pest & Disease That Plague A Lot of the Wine World.
    • Phylloxera Free -90% Vines Original Root Stock, Old-Vines/ +100 yr.
    • Humboldt Antarctic Current Influences Coastal Areas.
    • Hybrid Grapes Prohibited.

VINICULTURE +11.5% ABV.,  Reserva(+12% ABV.),  Gran Reserva(+12.5 ABV.)

  • Wines Must Ve Products of Fermentation of Fresh Must Obtained From Vitis Vinifera Grapes.
  • SUSTAINABILITY– Chile as a Country is Committed to Protecting its Environment, and Has Taking a Leading Role In its Country’s and the World’s Sustainability. Chile Has Developed and Sponsored the Development of a National Sustainability Code That Establishes Definitions and Guidelines for Environmental and Social Responsibility. Wineries That Meet the Rigorous Standards are Officially Labeled with “Accredited Sustainable-Wine of Chile” Seals On Their Bottles.
  • CHILEAN PISCO Elqui Valley 2013 100 Million Liters Produced
    • VINICULTURE
      • WHITE= Muscatel AKA=Muscat Alexandria, Moscatel Rosado, Mosacatel Austria AKA=Torrontes Sanjuanino, Pedro Jimenez, Torontel AKA=Moscatel Amarillo
      • +DISTILLED/ Copper Stills, Never Diluted, Bottled Immediately.
      • Corriente o Tradicional – 30%- 35% ABV.
      • Especial– 35%- 40% ABV.
      • Reservado– 40%- 43% ABV.    Grand Reservado– 43% ABV.
    • CULTURE- 400 Year Battle Over who Originated Pisco…Chile vs. Peru

HISTORY  400 Year Wine Culture

  • 1554 @Chile First Plantings by Spanish Missionaries & Conquistador Juan Jufre
  • 1850 @Santiago Vina Ochagavia, Chile’s First Commercial Winery
  • 1900 @Chile Got “Discovered” In Europe In Late 1900 During Phylloxera
  • 1939 @Santiago January 24 th., Magnitude 8.3 Earthquake/ 50,000 People Die
  • 1978 @Chile Torres “Modern Movement” Modernized Industry
  • 1994 @Chile Jean-Michel Boursiquot Identified Merlot as Carmenere In Chile.
  • 2004 @Berlin The Berlin Tasting
  • 2014 @Santiago February 27th., Magnitude 8.8 Earthquake
  • FOUNDING WINERIES
    • 1850  Vina Ochagavia          1856  Cousino Macul
    • 1865  Vina San Pedro           1870  Vina Errazuriz
    • 1875  Santa Carolina             1880  Santa Rita
    • 1883  Concha y Toro             1885  Undurraga

CULTURE  

  • PIONEERS~  ~Huaso/ Chilean Cowboy~ “Chile’, Countrymen, Horsemen
    • ~Ochagavia, Silvestra~ “Chile”, 1850,Started Vina Ochagavia In Santiago
    • ~Montes, Aurelio~ “Chile”, Godfather of Chilean Wine, Quality Viniculturist
    • ~Espinoza, Alvaro~ “Chile”, Leader of Chilean Biodynamic Movement
    • ~Errazuriz, Maximiano~“Chile”, 1870, Founded Errazuriz Winery
    • ~Macul, Cousino~ 1856- Planted Oldest Vineyard In Chile, With Cuttings From Bordeaux and Burgundy
    • ~Parra, Pedro~ Wine Consultant/ Soil Expert/ Masters Degree In Precision Agriculture
    • ~Valdivieso, Alberto~ “Chile”, 1879, Introduced Sparkling In Chile
    • ~Melchor, Don~ “Chile”, Started Concha y Toro Winery, Chile’s Largest Producer
  • GASTRONOMY Spanish Influenced, Fish, Crustaceans, Mollusks
    • CHEESE Chanco(Maule), Panquehue(Aconcagua), Quesillo(Cochabamba)
  • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Movimiento de Vinateros Independientes~ MOVI.
    • Mission~ Organization of Small, Quality-Oriented Produces to Promote Their Wines.
  • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Wines of Chile~ 
    • Mission~ Non-Profit Entity Represents the Viticulture Producers of Chile.  To Promote Chilean Wine In a National and International Environment to Encourage Research and Development In New Technologies, to Promote the Development of Workers In the Industry.
  • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~National Sustainability Code of the Chilean Wine Industry~ (Chile)
  • EVENTS~ ~The Berlin Tasting
    • Blind Wine Tasting Which Took Place In 2004 In Berlin, Germany Judged by 36 of Europe’s Most Highly Regarded Wine Experts.
      • #1 -Vinedo Chadwick- 2000     #2 Sena- 2001
      • #3 Chateau Latour 2000       #4 Lafita-Rothschild 2000
      • #5 Chateau Margaux 2000
  • CHILE WINE LAW 
    • GOVERNING BODY- National Institute of Viticulture/ Instituto Nacional Vitiviniculture
    • LAWS GOVERNING- Since 1995, Geographic Boundaries, Topography
      • Label Requirement– – Region+75%, Vintage+75%, Varietal+75%
  • CHILE WINE CLASSIFICATION
    • Regions- 6
    • Sub-Regions- 17
    • Zones-
    • Area-

  • GEOGRAPHIC DISCLAIMER~ To Understand the Wine World and Benefit From DtheV.com a Understanding of Southern Hemisphere’s Geography is Needed and the Ability to Visualize Its Wine Regions Topography.  Southern Hemisphere is Organized In a North to South / East to West Orientation and Intended to Be Researched as So.

  • SUB-CHAPTERS Of CHILE
    • North
    • Aconcagua
    • South
  • **Refer to These Proceeding Sub-Chapters For Detailed Information.


**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.