• WHITE=   |   RED=  **Refer to “STATES” For Detailed Grape Information


  • BORDER– West Region(West), Mexico(South), Central United States(East)
  • STATES-Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas

TOPOGRAPHY  FEATURES– “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”

  • SLOPES/ Rocky Mounains

SOILSMetamorphic“, “Volcanic




  • While Producing Wine From Estate Grown Grape, South-West United States Has a History of Sourcing Grapes From California, Oregon and Washington and Shipping the Harvest by Refrigerated Freight to Produce Out of State Wine.

  • GEOGRAPHIC DISCLAIMER: To Understand the Wine World and Benefit From an Understanding of the South-West United States Geography is Needed and the Ability to Visualize Its Topography.  This Chapter is Organized In a North to South / East to West Orientation and Intended to Be Researched and Memorized as So.

COLORADO State’       @Denver

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurtztraminer, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cinsault, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Colorado, LATITUDE: 39.5* “N”
    • BORDERS: Utah(West), New Mexico(South)
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA’s- Grand Valley AVA., West Elks AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Hilly/ Mountainous”, SLOPES/ Rocky Mountains/ Front Range, +Alt.6,416 ft.
    • On~Gunnison~River~Tributary~Colorado~River~
  • VITICULTURE– 450 ac. Planted
  • VINICULTURENumbers of Wineries- 150 (145 Bonded/ 5  Virtual) “As of 2020”, #12 State/ USA.
    • Estates/ Producers-(Not Located In Demarcated AVA.)- Balistreri, BookCliff, Boulder Creek
  • CLIMATE=Continental   Summers– Short Growing Season
    • **Refer to “CLIMATE/ Altitudes” For Additional Information

GRAND VALLEY AVA.     @Grand Junction

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurtztraminer, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Sangiovese, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Colorado(West), LATITUDE– 39.06° ‘N’
    • COUNTY-Mesa, @Hw.#70
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Grand)”, SLOPES/ Rocky Mountains/ Front Range, +Alt.?
    • ON PLAIN/ Western High Plain, On~Gunnison~River~Tributary~Colorado~River~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic,  Sandy
  • CLIMATE=Continental“,   Summers– Warm/ Dry    |   Winters– Cold/ Wet, Snow
  • VITICULTURE–  ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers– BookCliff, Canyon Wild, Colterris, Infinite Monkey, Storm Cellar, Two Rivers
    • Vineyards– Ferrante

WEST ELKS AVA.     @Paonia

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Riesling
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Colorado(West-Central), COUNTY-Delta
    • @Hw.#92/ #133
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Hilly/ Flat-Basin/ Valley(Gunnison)”
    • SLOPES/ Rocky Mountains/ West Elks Mountains/ Front Range, +Alt.5.000 ft.-6,400 ft.
    • ON PLAIN/ Western High Plain
  • SOILS=Metamorphic, Loam
  • CLIMATE= Continental
  • VITICULTURE–  ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers– Black Ridge, Terror Creek
    • Vineyards– Terror Creek ‘Estate'(Highest Vineyard In America 6,400 ft.)


  • WHITE=    |   RED= **Refer to AVA. For Grape Information
  • GEOGRAPHY– USA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Arizona, LATITUDE: 31*-36° ‘N’
    • BORDERS: California(West), Mexico(South)
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA’s- Sonoita AVA., Verde Valley AVA., Willcox AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilling”
  • CLIMATE= Arid With Continental Influences
  • VINICULTURENumbers of Wineries- 92 (77 Bonded/ 15 Virtual) “As of 2020”, #17 State/ USA.

VERDE VALLEY AVA.  (Un-Official)     @Cornville

  • WHITE= Malvasia Bianca, Viognier
  • RED= Barbera, Carignan, Mourvedre, Petite Sirah, Sangioviese, Syrah, Tannas
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Arizona(North), COUNTRY– ?
    • Near Sedona-City(10mi), CITIES-Clarkdale, Cottonwood, @Hw.#260 & 89
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Valley(Verde)”, On~Oak~Creek~Tributary~Verde~River~
    • SLOPES/ Mingus Mountains, +Alts 3,700 ft.-3,800 ft.
  • CLIMATE=Dersert WithContinental Influences
  • VITICULTURE–  ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers– Alcantara, Arizona Stronghold, Burning Tree, Clear Creek, Echo Canyon, Javelina Leap, Oak Creek, Page Springs(E./ 20ac.), Tumbleweed
    • Vineyards– Dos Padres, Home
  • CULTUREACADEMIC~ ~Yavapai College~ ~Viticulture & Enology Program~

SONOITA AVA.     @Sonoita

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Malvasia, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Arizona(South-East), COUNTRY– ?
    • South-East of Tucson-City(     mi.), @Hw.#83
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Basin”
    • SLOPES/ Santa Rita/ Huachuca/ Whetstone Mountains, +Alt.4,500 ft.-5,000 ft.
  • SOILS= Metemorphic“, Gravelly Loam
  • CLIMATE= Desert WithContinental Influences
  • VITICULTURE–  ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers– Callaghan, Flying Leap, Rancho Rosso, Sonoita, Village of Elgin

WILLCOX AVA.      @Willcox

  • WHITE= Malvasia Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Petite Sirah, Tempranillo
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Arizona(South), COUNTY– ?
    • East of Tucson-City(    mi.),  @Hw.#10
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, SLOPES/ Chiricahua Foothills, +Alt.5,200 ft.
    • On~Turkey~Creek~
  • SOILS= Metemorphic“, Loamy, Sand
  • CLIMATE= Desert With Continental Influences
  • VITICULTURE– ?  acPlanted
    • CHALLENGES: Humidity, Monsoon Rain
    • Estates/ Producers– Aridus(E.?40ac.), Carlson Creek, Deep Sky, Fort Bowie, Keeling Schaefer, Lawrence Dunham, Passion Cellars, Pillbury, Sand-Reckoner, Zarpara


  • WHITE=   |   RED= **Refer to AVA. For Grape Information
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-New Mexico, LATITUDE: 31°-37° ‘N’
    • BORDERS: Arizona(West), Texas(South-East)
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA’s- Mesilla Valley AVA., Middle Rio Grande Valley AVA., Mimbres Valley AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Melilla, Rio Grande, Mimbres)”
    • SLOPES/ ?,  +Alt. 5,000 ft.
  • CLIMATE= Arid with Continental Influences
  • VINICULTURENumbers of Wineries- 55 (53 Bonded/ 2 Virtual) “As of 2020”, #29 State/ USA.


  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Malvasia, Muscat Alexandria, Riesling, Viognier
  • RED= Black Muscat, Cabernet Sauvignon, Dolcetto, Merlot, Mourvedre, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-New Mexico(        ), COUNTRY– ?
    • (Laps)Texas
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Mesilla)”
    • SLOPES/ Organ Mountains, On~Rio~Grande~River~
  • CLIMATE=Arid WithContinental Influences,     Summer- Hot, Dry
  • VITICULTURE– *40  ac.
    • Estates/ Producers– La Vina Winery, St. Clair Winery


  • WHITE= Riesling
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-New Mexico(Central), COUNTRY– ?
    • Rio Grande Valley From Santa Fe to Belen
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Hilly”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.4,00 ft.-6,500 ft., On~Rio~Grande~River~
  • CLIMATE=Continental With Desert Influence
    • Summers– Warm Days/ Cool Nights   |   Winters– Sub-Freezing
  • VITICULTURE–  278,400 ac., ? Planted
    • Estates/ Producers– Acequia, Anasazi Fields, Camino Real, Casa Rondena, Corrales, Gruet, Jaramillo, Milagro, Pasando Teimpo, Sheehan


  • WHITE= Chardonnay
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Dolcetto, Merlot, Refosco, Sangiovese, Syrah, Tempranillo
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-New Mexico(South-West), COUNTRY– ?
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Minbres)”, SLOPES/ ?,  +Alt.4.000 ft.-6,000 ft.
    • (Watershed) On~Mimbres~River~
  • CLIMATE= Continental With Desert Influence
  • VITICULTURE– 2,000 ac. Planted
    • Estates/ Producers– La Chiripada, Luna Rossa, St. Clair


  • WHITE= Albariño, Chardonnay, Muscat Canelli, Riesling, Roussanne, Vermentino, Viognier
    • Hybrid– Lenoir AKA=Black Spanish
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan, Garnacha, Garaciano, Malbec, Merlot, Montepulciano, Mourvedre, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Tannat, Primitivo
    • Hybrid– Blanc du Bois
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Texas, LATITUDE: 31.9° ‘N’
    • BORDERS– Mexico(South), New Mexico(West)
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA.s- Bell Mountain AVA., Davis Mountain AVA., Escondido Valley AVA., Fredricksberg AVA,, High Plains AVA,, Hill Country AVA,, Mesilla Valley AVA., Texoma AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Escondido, Mesilla)”
    • On~Gulf of Mexico~
  • CLIMATE= “Continental” With Arid Influence
  • VITICULTURE– 6,000 ac. Planted,   #5 State/ USA. In Wine Production.
    • CHALLENGES- Hot, Dry
  • VINICULTURE Numbers of Wineries- 406 (365 Bonded/ 41  Virtual) “As of 2020”, #5 State/ USA.
  • CULTURE– WINE SQUARES~ ~Grapevine Downtown Tasting Rooms~ Grapevine, Dallas
    •  FESTIVALS~Dallas Wine & Food Festival(May)
    •  ~Austin Wine~ Festival~(April/ Austin)


  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Malvasia, Muscat Alexandria, Riesling, Viognier
  • RED= Black Muscat, Cabernet Sauvignon, Dolcetto, Merlot, Mourvedre, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Texas(West), COUNTY– ?, (Laps)New Mexico
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Mesilla)”
    • SLOPES/ Organ Mountains, On~Rio~Grande~River~
  • CLIMATE= Continental WithArid  Influences,  Summers– Hot, Dry
  • VITICULTURE– 40 acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers– Hof, St. Clair Winery,  La Vina Winery


  • WHITE= Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Texas(West), COUNTY-Jeff Davis
    • Near Chihuahuan Desert & Davis Mountains
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Davis Mountains, +Alt.4,500 ft.
  • SOILS= Metamorphic”, “Volcanic Granite, Loam, Limestone
  • CLIMATE= Continental WithArid  Influences, Summer– Hot, Dry
  • VITICULTURE– 27,000 ac./ 80 acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers– Pleasant Hill


  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Colombard
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Texas(West), COUNTY-Pecos
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Escondido)”
  • CLIMATE= Continental With Arid  Influences,   Summers– Hot, Dry
  • VITICULTURE–   ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers– Genevieve Wines


  • WHITE= Albarino, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Malvasia, Muscat Canelli, Marsanne, Roussanne, Vermentino, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan, Dolcetto, Garnacha, Graciano, Merlot, Primitivo,  Sangiovese, Syrah, Tannat, Tempranillo
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Texas(North-West), COUNTY– ?
    • West of Lubbock-City(   mi.),  @Hw.#84/ #87
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, ON PLAIN/ High Plain
  • CLIMATE= “Continental” With Arid Influence
  • VITICULTURE– 3,500 acPlanted, CHALLENGES- Hot, Dry
    • Estates/ Producers– Bending Branch, Brennan, Cap Rock, Duchman Family, Liano Estacado, Lost Draw, McPherson, Pedernales Cellars, Pheasant Ridge(50ac.), Ron Yates, Spicewood
    • Vineyards– Bingham, Brennan, Diamante Doble Dos, Farmhouse, Oswald, Reddy, Signor, Spicewood, Valley Mills
    • PIONEERS~ ~Clinton “Doc” McPherson~ “High Plains” First to Plant Vineyards In Area.

TEXOMA AVA.     @Texoma

  • WHITE= Chardonnay
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvigon, Merlot, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Texas(North-Central), COUNTY– ?
    • North of Dallas-City(50 mi.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Lake~Texoma~
  • SOILS=Metamorphic”, “Sedimentary Alluvial, Silty Loam, Clay
  • CLIMATE= Continental WithArid  Influences,  +DIURNAL SHIFTS(+35°)
  • VITICULTURE– ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers-


  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Muscat Canelli, Riesling, Vermentino, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan, Malbec, Montepulciano, Primitivo
  • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Texas(Central), COUNTY– ?
    • West of Austin-City(    mi,), @Hw.#290
    • CITIES– Austin, Driftwood, Dripping Springs, Fredericksburg, Johnson City, Stonewall
    • Sub-Zones/ AVA.’S- Bell Mountain AVA., Fredericksburg AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, ON PLATEAU/ Edwards
  • SOILS=Metamorphic”, “Sedimentary”, Limestone
  • CLIMATE= Continental With Sub-Tropical” Influences, 
    • Summers– Hot, Humid    |    Winters– Wet, Cold
  • VITICULTURE– 800 acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers– Driftwood, High Valley, Flat Creek(20ac.), Mandola, Texas Hills, Wedding Cake
    • Vineyards– Tio Pancho
    • FESTIVALS~  ~Hill County Wine Festival(April)
      • ~Grape-Fest(September)
      • ~Austin Wine Festival(May)


    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Colombard
    • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon
    • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Texas(Central), COUNTY-Gillespie
      • In Texas Hill Country AVA.(Central)
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, SLOPES/ Bell Mountain, +Alt.?
    • CLIMATE= Continental With “Sub-Tropical” Influences
      • Summers– Hot, Humid   |   Winters– Cold, Wet
    • VITICULTURE–  ? acPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers
  • FREDERICKSBURG AVA.     @Fredericksburb
    • WHITE= Chardonnay, Muscat(Canelli), Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
    • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha, Muscat(Black)
    • GEOGRAPHYUSA., REGION-South-West, STATE-Texas(Central), COUNTY– Gillespie
      • In Texas Hill Country AVA.(Central)@Hw.#290
    • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”
    • CLIMATE= Continental With Sub-Tropical Influences
      • Summers– Hot, Humid, Dry   |   Winters– Cold, Wet
    • VITICULTURE– 60 acPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers– Becker(Co.-Op.),  Torre di Pietra(80ac.)
      • Vineyards- Brenda Canada, Newsom
    • CULTURE–  PIONEERS~~German Immigrants~ First to Cultivate Vines in Mid 1800’s.
    • GOING THERE- FESTIVALS~~Fredericksburg Wine Festival(October)

**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced