GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE


EONOTHEM/ EON Geographic Timescale, Sub-Divided Into Eras.
ERATHEM/ ERA Timescale That Divides an Eon Into Smaller Units of Time.
SYSTEM/ PERIOD Timescale, That Can be Divided Into Epochs & Ages.
SERIES/ EPOCH Timescale That is Longer Than a Age but Smaller Than a Period.
STAGE/ AGE

  • Most Soils Are the Decomposition of Bedrock, Volcanic Output, or Sedimentary Ancient Ocean Life, or Sedimentary Build-Up by Wind. What Time Period the Formation of the Bedrock/ Soils Derived From is Key to Understanding the Potential Effect it Has On the Vineyards and Wine. All Sub-Divisions and Timescales of Geologic Time Enable Us to Cross-Referencing the Bedrock Formations and Geologic Events.
  • 1 Km. Below the Earth Surface Tectonic Activity and Volcanic Activity Takes Place. Due to Formations These Bedrock Are Forced to the Surface or by the Removal of Rock and Strata Above the Surface They Come to Light.
  • PHILOSOPHY Is it Important is it to Associate Soils With Geologic Time Periods/ Stages/ Ages?”
    • It’s Important to Know Where the Rocks Came From and Also Realize What the Kind of Soil the Rock has Broken Down Into.

Phanerozoic (Eon) 543 MYA. to Present Day

CENOZOIC (Era) 65 MYA. to Present Day

QUATERNARY (Period)  1.6 MYA. to Present Day

HOLOCENE (Epoch)

PLEISTOCENE(Epoch)

  • Upper-Pleistocene (Age)     Ionian (Age)
  • Calabrian (Age)     Gelasian (Age)

PRESENT DAY TERROIR RELEVANCE

  • MISSOULA FLOODS
    • Geography– Pacific Northwest, STATE-Oregon, Washington
    • Growing Area– Columbia Valley AVA., Willamette Valley AVA.
    • Features– The Largest Documented Catastrophic Floods In Earths History, and One of the Biggest Geologic Events Ever On the Face of the Earth.   This Series of Floods Intervals Swept Across the Greater Columbia River Valley at the End of the Last Ice Age 13,000 to 16,000 Years Ago.  A Advancing Glacier Dammed the Clark-Fork River Creating Glacial Lake Missoula In Idaho and Montana.  In Time the Ice Dam Which Was 50km. Wide & 600mt. Tall Violently Broke and Water Hundreds of Feet High Rushed Down In to Columbia River Valley. This Water Form Massive Waves, Lifting Giant Boulders, Carved Steep Cliffs and Leaving Rolling Ripples 25 Feet High, Gravel Sand Bars 100 Feet Tall and Shaped Columbia River Gorge.  This Mountain of Water Made Its Way to the Wahluke Gap Where it Backed Up Creating Lake Lewis, a Temporary Lake Encompassing the Entire Columbia River Valley Where it Settled For a Month Before Eventually Moving Through the Gap and Onto the Pacific Ocean.  The Alluvial Soils Deposits Precipitation From the Flood Water Laying the Foundation For the Diverse, Deep, Rock, Soils, and Sediment Deposits to the Columbia River Valley and the Pacific North-West.  These Floods Did Both Erode and Laid Sediment Deposits Where Ever it Went.  This Huge But Temporary Lake Eventually Drained and Left Behind Monumental Quantities of Silt. Prevailing Winds From the South-West Blew In the Silt and Dust to Where it Settled Out In the Hills of Loess Throughout the Columbia Valley. This Same Flood Episode Repeated Itself Every 30 to 70 Years Over 7 Thousand Years In the Late Pleistocene Are.

NEOGENE (Period)

PLIOCENE (Epoch) 5.3 MYA. to 2.6 MYA.

  • Piacenzian (Age)
  • Zanclean (Age)

MIOCENE (Epoch) 23 MYA. to 5.3 MYA.

  • Messinian (Age)   Aquitania (Age), Burdigalian (Age)
  • Tortonian (Age)   Defined by Calcareaou, Marl, Standstone  @Barolo, Piemonte
  • Helvetian (Age)
  • Serravallian (Age)  Defined by Sandstone, Limestone, Marl
  • Langhian (Age)   @Langhe, Piemonte

PRESENT DAY TERROIR RELEVANCE

  • SERRAVALLIAN FORMATION
    • Geography– Italy, Piemonte
    • Growing Area– Piemonte(Langhe, Montferrato)
    • Features-14-11 MYA., Contain More Sandstone/ Less Fertile

      • Coming Together of  the Globing Gerina Limestone Formation & Blue Clay Formation.  Epicenter is Out Crop In Scrivia Valley In Alexandria In Piemonte. **Serravallian is Sometimes (Wrongly) Referred to as Helvetiain
  • MONTEREY FORMATION
    • Geography– California, Monterey
    • Growing Area– Central Coast “North
    • Features– Extensive Miocene Era Geological Sedimentary Formation Resulting In Soils Predominant In the Coast Ranges/ Peninsular Ranges of the Central Coast.  The Monterey Formation is Made Up of Mud Stone, Silt Stone, Calcium Carbonate, Small Amounts of Limestone and Diatoms(Single-Celled Organisms With a Silia Shell). During the Formation of the Coast Ranges the Monterey Formation Uplifted, Folded and Faulted.  The Weathering of the Monterey Formation Makes Up Much of the Soils of the Central Coast.

PALEOGENE (Period) 416 MYA. to 358 MYA.

OLIGOCENE (Epoch)

  • Chattian (Age)     Rupelian (Age)
  • PRESENT DAY TERROIR RELEVANCE
    • Albariza– 30-80% Calcarious, High In Chalk With Limestone, Clay, Sand. Derived From Oligocene Epoch.
      • Jerez, Spain Formed

EOCENE (Epoch)

  • Priabonian (Age)     Bartonian (Age)
  • Lutetian (Age)    Ypresian (Age)

PRESENT DAY TERROIR RELEVANCE

  • YAMHILL  FORMATION
  • Geography– Washington, Columbia Valley
  • Growing Area– Yamhill Valley AVA.
  • Features– Massive Concretionary of Marine Siltstone and Interbeds of Arkosic, Glauconitic and Basaltic Sandstone From Middle Eocene to Late Eocene.

PALEOCENE (Epoch)

  • Thanetian (Age), Selandian (Age), Danian (Age)

MESOZOIC (Era)

  • PRESENT DAY TERROIR RELEVANCE
  • Aquitaine Basin Formed– Sedimentary Basin In South-West France

CRETACEOUS (Period) 144 MYA. to 65.5 MYA.

LATE-CRETACOUS (Epoch)

  • Maastrichtian (Age)     Campanian (Age)     Santonian (Age)
  • Coniacian (Age)     Turonian (Age)      Cenominian (Age)

EARLY-CRETACOUS (Epoch)

  • Albian (Age)      Aptian (Age)       Berremian (Age)
  • Hauterivian (Age)     Valanginian (Age)

JURASSIC (Period) 208 MYA. to 144 MYA.

LATE-JURASSICEpoch)

  • Tithonian (Age)
  • Kimmeridgian (Age) Defined by Chalky Marl, Marley Limestone  @Burgundy
  • PRESENT DAY TERROIR RELEVANCE
    • Kimmeridgian Cresent– “Contiguous-Limestone Basin“, That Runs From Southern England, “The White Cliffs of Dover” Through France(Burgundy to Sancerre)
  • Oxfordian (Age) Defined by Caillotte(Limestone)  @Sancerre
  • Portlandian (Age) Defined by Shallow, Warm, Sub-Tropical Sea On the Continental Shelf of What is Now Western Europe.
  • PRESENT DAY TERROIR RELEVANCE–  Paris Basin In France Formed During This Epoch
    • Portlandian Era Formation… Burgundy is an Old Sea Floor That Sank Beneath Shallow Seas. Shells-Skeletons of Oysters Crinoids, Ammonites, and Coils Piled On One Another and Compacted Together to Form Petrified Remains Which is Limestone.

MIDDLE-JURASSC(Epoch)

  • Callovian (Age)      Bathonian (Age)
  • Bajocian (Age)   @Pouilly-Vinezelles
  • Aalenian (Age)

EARLY-JURASSIC (Epoch)

  • Toarcian (Age)       Pliensbachian (Age)
  • Sinemurian (Age)      Hettangian (Age)

TRIASSIC (Period) 245 MYA. to 208 MYA.

LATE-TRIASSIC (Epoch)

  • Rhaetian (Age), Norian (Age), Carnian (Age)

MIDDLE-TRIASSIC (Epoch)

  • Ladinian (Age), Anisian (Age)

EARLY-TRIASSIC (Epoch)

  • Olenekian (Age), Induan (Age)
  • PRESENT DAY TERROIR RELEVANCE
    • Keuper Marl Triassic Age, Soil Consisting of Multiple Layer of Mudstone and Siltstone  @Alsace, France
    • Buntsandstein Lower Triassic Age “Colored Sandstone”, Yellow, Gray, and Pink Sandstones  @Alsace, France

PALEOZOIC (Era) 570 MYA. to 245 MYA.

PERMIAN (Period) 286 MYA. to 245 MYA.

LOPINGIAN  (Epoch)

  • Changhsingian (Age), Wuchiapingian (Age)

GUADALUPIAN (Epoch)

  • Capitanian (Age), Wordian (Age), Roadian (Age)

CISURALIAN (Epoch)

  • Kungurian (Age)      Artinskian (Age)      Sakmarian (Age)    Asselian (Age)

CARBONIFEROUS (Period) 359 MYA. to 289 MYA.

PENSYLVANIAN (Epoch)

  • Gzhelian (Age), Kasimovian (Age), Moscovian (Age), Bashkirian (Age)

MISSISSIPPIAN  (Epoch)

  • Serpukhovian (Age), Visean (Age), Tournaisian (Age)

DEVONIAN (Period) 408 MYA. to 360 MYA.

LATE-DEVONIAN (Epoch)    Defined by Slates @Mosel, Germany

  • Famennian (Age)     FransnianAge)

MIDDLE-DEVONIAN (Epoch)

  • Givetian (Age)      Eifelian (Age)

EARLY DEVONIAN (Epoch)

  • Emsian (Age)     Pragian (Age)     Lochkovian (Age)

SILURIAN (Period) 438 MYA. to 408 MYA.

PRIDOLI (Epoch)

LUDLOW (Epoch)

  • Ludfordian (Age)     Gorstian (Age)

WENLOCK (Epoch)

  • Homerian (Age)      Sheinwoodian (Age)

LLANDOVERY (Epoch)

  • Telychain (Age)      Aeronian (Age)     Rhuddanian (Age)

ORDOVICIAN (Period) 505 MYA. to 438 MYA.

LATE-ORDOVICAIN (Epoch)

  • Hirnantian (Age)      Katian (Age)     Sandbian (Age)

MIDDLE-ORDOVICIAN (Epoch)

  • Darriwilian (Age)     Dapingian (Age)

EARLY-ORDOVICIAN (Epoch)

  • Floian (Age)     Tremadocian(Age)

CAMBRIAN (Period) 570 MYA. to 505 MYA.

FURONGIAN (Epoch)

SERIES 3 (Epoch)

SERIES 4  (Epoch)

TERRENEUVIAN (Epoch)

Precambrian (Eon) 4,600 MYA. to 570 MYA.

PROTEROZOIC (Era) 2,500 MYA. to 570 MYA.

NEO-PROTEROZOIC (Epoch)

MESO-PROTEROZOIC (Epoch)

PALEO-PROTEROZOIC (Epoch)

ACHEAN (Era) 3,800 MYA. to 2,500 MYA.

NEOARCHEAN (Epoch)

MESOARCHEAN (Epoch)

PALEOARCHEAN (Epoch)

EOARCHEAN (Epoch)

HADEAN (Era) 4,600 MYA. to 3,800 MYA



**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced