SEDIMENTARY Soils Made Up of Other Pieces of Rock or Shells of Other Dead Organisms/  Creatures.  These Soils Forms Where Rocks Are Weathered by Wind, Rain, Ice, and Created by Layering In Lakes, Rivers, Sea.

PARTICLE GRAIN SIZE (Largest to Smallest) Boulder, Cobble, Pebble, Gravel, Sand, Silt, Clay, Loess.  If You Have a Dominate Grain Size That Gets Solidified Into a Rock is Referred to as a Soil.

  • Mud- Which Ends Up as Mudstone
  • Sand- Which Ends Up as Sandstone
  • Silt- Which Ends Up as Siltstone
  • Clay- Which Ends Up as Claystone
  • Lime- Which Ends Up as Limestone, Organic Skeleton Material

“It’s Important to Note That These Are Grain Sizes of the Material That Make Up the Soils and Not the Soils Themselves.”

FLUVIAL- Pertaining to Rivers, Sediment or Soil Deposits Produced by the Action of a Stream or River.

ALLUVIAL/ Alluvium- Pertaining to Sediment or Soil Deposits From Running Water, A Deposit of Clay, Silt, Sand or Gravel Left by Flowing Stream In a River Valley Or Delta.

  • Alluvial Terraces- Formed by a Combination of Geologic Uplift and River Down-Cutting.

COLLUVIUM- Material That Accumulates at the Foot/ Base of a Steep Slope.

MORAINE- Pertaining to Sediment or Soil Deposits Formed From Accumulation of Unconsolidated Glacial Debris.

LACUSTRINE- Soils Relating to or Associated With Lakes.

FERRICIETE- Hard Erosion Resistant Layer of Sedimentary Rock That Has Been Cemented. Sedimentary Soil Classification…is it Shell/ Creature, Wind or Water Based.

  • Sedimentary(Shell), Sedimentary(Water), Sedimentary(Wind)

**Refer to “TERROIR/ Water Floods” For Additional Information On Sedimentary Rocks


Limestone is a Sedimentary Rock Composed Primarily of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) In the Form of the Mineral Calcite.  Limestone Mostly Forms In Warm, Shallow Marine Waters.  Limestone is Primarily Composed of Organic Matter Accumulated Over Time.

  • There Are Different Classes of Limestone That Behave Differently, Different Sea Creatures That Died and Have Accumulated Over Time Leave Different Hardness Layers That Soil Reacts to Differently.
  • Limestone is Generally Composed of Shells, Coral, Algae, Fossils, Fecal Debris.  Over Time These Animals/ Organic Matters Die and Their Shells and Skeletal Accumulate Into a Sediment That Gets Lithified Into Limestone.
  • Types of Limestone.  Different Periods or Ages of Time Have Different Organic Matter That Get Fossilized or In Turn Different Periods Have Different Types of Limestone.
    • Chalk, Coquina, Fossiliferous Limestone, Lithographic Limestone, Oolitic Limestone, Travertine
    • Chablis,
    • Cote d’Or
    • Macconais
    • St. Emilion
    • Santa Rita Hills
    • Paso Robles
    • Ontario


  • Formed During Cretaceous Period
  • Burgundy is an Old Sea Floor That Sank Beneath Shallow Seas. Shells-Skeletons of Oysters Crinoids, Ammonites, and Coils Piled On One Another and Compacted Together to Form Petrified Remains Which is Limestone.
    • Younger Than Kimmeridgian Period
    • Hard, Resistant to Weathering
    • Lower In Clay
    • ~Etymology~ Portland Refers to the Named of a Island In the English Channel Where the Limestone Formation Begins.


  • Formed During Mesozoic Period,150 MYA.
    • Older Than Portandian…150-157 Million Years Old
    • Higher In Clay and Limestone(Exogyra Virgula/ Small Oyster Fossils)
    • Softer Limestone, More Breakable
    • ~Etymology~ Kimmeridge Refers to the Named of a Village In Dorest, England Where the Limestone Formation Begins.
  •  Kimmeridgian Crescent  “Contiguous-Limestone Basin“
    • Crescent That Runs From Southern England, “The White Cliffs of Dover” Through France.(Burgundy to Sancerre)
    • Calcareous Clay, Marine Fossilized Shells, Chalky, Light Clay Marl


ARENACEOUS (Containing or Made of Sand or Sandlike Particles)

  • Clay  Sedimentary(Arenaceous)                        @St. Emillon AOC., France
    • Qualities…+Porosity,-Permeability, Fine Grain Heavy Texture
  • Gore  Sedimentary(Arenaceous)                       @St. Joseph AOC., France
    • Qualities
  • Loam  Sedimentary(Arenaceous)                     @Rutherford AVA., Califronia
    • Qualities… Generic Term For Sand, Silt & Clay
    • 3 Sub-Classifications…Gravely Loam, Sandy Loam and Silty Loam
  • Sand  Sedimentary(Arenaceous)                      @Kitterle
    • Qualities…Grains of Sand, +Permeability, Retains Heat
  • Silt  Sedimentary(Arenaceous)                           @Columbia Valley, Washington
    • Qualities…Fine Sand, Clay, or Material Carried by Running Water and Deposited
    • Sand is Heavier Than Silt and Clay…Silt is Heavier Than Clay

ARGILLACEOUS (Containing or Made of Clay or Clay Mineral)

  • Greywacke Sedimentary(Argillaceous)      @Marlborough, New Zealand
    • Formation…Formed In Submarine Shelves and Trenches
    • Qualities…Hard, Sandstone
  • Marl  Sedimentary(Argillaceous)                         @
    • Formation…Non Consolidated Rock/ Soil of Limestone, Clay, Calcium, Magnesium
    • Qualities
  • Molasse  Sedimentary                                             @St.-Emillon AOC., France
    • Qualities…Sub-Soil Consisting of Soft Rock Mixed With Clay
  • Shale   Sedimentary(Argillaceous)                      @Finger Lakes, Montalcino
    • Formation
    • Qualities… Layers of Clay-Like, Fine-Grained +Heat, AKA=Galestro, Mudstone

CALCAREOUS (Containing Limestone, Chalk, Calcium Carbonates)

    • Formation
    • Qualities…Low Temperature, +Water Retention, +Drainage
  • Albariza  Sedimentary(Calcareous)                   @Jerez, Spain
    • Formation…Diatomaceous Deposits,
    • Qualities…Dry Top-Soil, +Permeability
  • Argovian Marl  Sedimentary(Calcareous)     @Cote de Beaune, France
    • Formation
    • Qualities
  • Aubuis  Sedimentary(Calcareous)                      @Touraine, France
    • Formation
    • Qualities
  • Boulbenes  Sedimentary                                         @Grave, Bordeaux, France
    • Qualities…Mix of Sand, Gravel, Light Clay
  • Caillottes  Sedimentary                                         @Loire Valley, France
    • Qualities…Small Limestone Pieces, Flint
  • Chalk  Sedimentary(Calcareous)                          @Champagne, France
    • Formation…Fossilized Shells, Limestone
    • Qualities… +Porosity
  • Diatomite  Sedimentary(Calcareous)               @Sta. Rita Hills AVA., California
    • Formation…Compressed Fossils of Algae and Other Creatures, a Limestone But One of Fossilized Algae
    • Qualities… AKA= Diatomaceous Earth
  • Dolomite  Sedimentary(Calcareous)                  @Alto Adige, Italy
    • Formation
    • Qualities
  • Entroquese  Sedimentary(Calcareous)            @Montagny AOC.
    • Formation
    • Qualities
  • Limestone  Sedimentary(Calcareous)            @Burgundy, Jerez, California
    • Formation…Fossilized Shells, Plankton, Calcium Carbonate
    • Qualities…Calcium From Limestone Helps Raise PH. In Grapes/ Wine, AKA= Albariza, Kimmeridgian
  • Loess  Sedimentary(Calcareous)                      @Wachau, Walla Walla AVA.
    • Qualities…Wind Blown Deposits of Sand, Clay, and Silt
      • Fragipan- is Compact Loess
  • Marl  Sedimentary(Calcareous)                               @
    • Formation…Fossilized Shells
    • Qualities… Clay, Calcium, Magnesium Carbonates, +Acid
  • Ponca  Sedimentary(Calcareous)                               @Fruili, Italy
    • FormationCompacted Marl, Sandstone and Marine Fossils Once In Adriatic Sea)
    • Qualities
  • Portlandia  Sedimentary(Calcareous)               @France
    • Formation
    • Qualities… Chalk, Lime
    • ~Etymology~ Portland  Refers to the Named of a Island In the English Channel Where the Limestone Formation Begins
  • Safres  Sedimentary(Calcareous)                           @Rhone Valley, France
    • Formation
    • Qualities
  • Silex  Sedimentary (Calcareous)                              @Sancerre, France 
    • Formation
    • QualitiesAKA=Flint, Chert
  • Terra Rossa  Sedimentary(Calcareous)            @Coonawarra, Istria, La Mancha
    • Formation…Type of Red Clay Produced by the Weathering of Limestone Over Thousands of Years and Colored by Iron Oxide
    • Qualities…+Calcium, Free Iron Oxide, +Porosity
  • Tuffeau  Sedimentary(Calcareous)                       @Sancerre, France
    • Formation…Fossilized Limestone, Marine Organisms, Sand
    • Qualities

SILICEOUS (Containing or Made of Silica or of a Crystalline Nature)

  • Boulbenes  Sedimentary(Siliceous)                   @Entre-Deux-Mers, France
    • Qualities… Easily Compressed
  • Chert  Sedimentary(Siliceous)                                 @England
    • Qualities…Microcrystalline/ Chalcedony, Quartz Found Layered In Limestone
  • Flint  Sedimentary(Siliceous)                                  @Fouilly-Fume, France
    • Qualities…+Heat
  • Gravel  Sedimentary(Siliceous)                              @St. Julien AOC., France
    • Qualities…+Permeability, Reflective, +Heat, -Yield
  • Langier Loam  Sedimentary(Siliceous)         @Alexander Valley AVA., California
    • Qualities
  • Loam Sedimentary(Siliceous)                                @
    • Qualities…Crumbly Mix of Clay, Sand, Silt
  • Quarts  Sedimentary(Siliceous)                             @Guadalupe Valley, Mexico
    • Qualities…Silicon Dioxide, +Permeability, +PH.

CARBONACEOUS (Anaerobic Decomposition of Rotting Vegetation)

  • Anthracite Sedimentary(Carbonaceous)            @
    • Qualities
  • Coal  Sedimentary(Carbonaceous)                           @
    • Qualities
  • Lignite Sedimentary(Carbonaceous)                     @Champagne, France
    • Qualities… +Heat, +YEILDS
  • Peat  Sedimentary(Carbonaceous)                           @
    • Qualities

**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced