SOILS CLASSIFICATIONIgneous


VOLCANIC ROCK  AKA=Igneous, Created Through the Cooling and Solidification of Molten/ Magma/ Lava Material From Deep Beneath the Surface and Traveling Through the Earths Crust.

GERERAL INFORMATION ON IGNEOUS ROCK

  • ~Etymology~ Named After Volcanic the Roman God of Fire.
  • Properties- Volcanic Rock Contain Magnesium, Sodium, Calcium, Iron, Potassium.
    • If Molten Forms Beneath the Earth Surface and Cools and Consolidates Slowly it Forms Large Coarsely Crystalized Rocks That You Can See With Your Eyes.
    • Volcanic Rock is Considered Macro-Porosity. Pores Allow Rock to Store Up to 100% of Its Weight In Water and This High Water Retention Coefficient Allow it to Release It Gradually.
    • Volcanic Soils(Pumice, San, Basalt, Hardened Lava) Account For 1% of the Worlds Surface.
  • Primary Rock- Generic Term That Refers to Crystalline Rock Formed Early In Geologic Time. Primary Rock Contains No Organic Matter.
  • Porphyry Rock- Generic Term For a Igneous Rock Consisting of Large-Grain Crystals Such as Feldspar or Quartz.
  • Volcanic- Generic Term For Anything Associated With Igneous or Volcanic.
  • Magma- Hot Fluid Material Within the Earth Crust/ Surface From Which Lava is Formed by Cooling.
  • Lava/ Molten- Magma Generated Within the Earth and Expelled Through Fractures In the Crust or Eruption.
  • Intrusive Rock- Igneous Rock Formed From Magma Cooled Beneath the Earth Surface.
  • Extrusive Rock- Igneous Rock Formed From Rapidly Cooled Lavas Outside the Volcano, On Earths Surface…Basalt, Pumice, Rhyolite, Scoria, Tuff, Volcanic Ash.
  • Felsic Igneous- Rock(Granite), Highest Content of Silicon, With Predominance of Felsic Minerals…Quartz, Alkali Feldspar.
  • Mafic Igneous- Rock(Basalt, Gabbro), Lesser Content of Silicon, Predominance of Mafic Minerals…Pyroxenes, Olivines, Calcic Plagioclase.
  • VINICULTURE- Volcanic Wines Are Considered to Possess Minerality, Spice, Slight Smokiness, +Acidity, Umani/ Savoriness, Earthiness.
  • FESTIVALS~ ~International Volcanic Wine~ (June/ New York City)
    • Mission~ Primary Purpose is to Establish a Volcanic Wine Movement and Provide Opportunities For Volcanic Wine Producers Around the World.
  • **Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ TERROIR/ Volcanic Eruptions For Additional Information On Igneous Soils.

TYPES Of IGNEOUS SOILS

  • Ash  Igneous      @Mt. Etna, Sicily, Italy
    • Qualities…Low Density, High Water Holding Capacity
  • Basalt  Igneous(Extrusive)     @Canary Islands, Columbia Valley, Dundee, Etna
    • Qualities…Compacted Volcanic Ash, +Heat, High In Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, AKA=Aiken(When Weathered)
  • Diorite  Igneous       @Cote de Brouilly, Beaujolais, France
    • Qualities…(Blue Volcanic Debris) Composed of Silicate minerals: Feldspar, Andesine, Biotite, Hornblende, Pryoxene)
  • Gabbro  Igneous       @Muscatet, Loire Valley, France
    • Qualities…Coarse, Result of Slow Cooling of Magma Inside a Volcano
  • Granite  Igneous(Intrusive)    @Beaujolais, Northern Rhone, Rais Baixas 
    • Qualities…+Heat, *Size/ Granular, Enriched With Potassium, Sodium, Crystals, Weathers Into Clay, Loess, Mica, Quartz
    • All Granite Which Isn’t In Whole Form is Technically In a Decomposing State/ Process.
  • Gneiss  Igneous     @
    • Qualities…Crystalline Rock Similar to Granite
  • Lava–  Igneous      @Mt. Etna, Sicily, Italy
    • Qualities… General Term For Magma(Inside Earth) & Lava(Outside Earth)
  • Jory–  Igneous      @Dundee Hills, Oregon
    • Qualities… Formed In Colluvium Derived From Igneous Rocks.
  • Obsidian  Igneous      @Clear Lake, California
    • Qualities…Magna Cooled In Presence of Water
  • Perlite  Igneous      @Dundee Hills, Oregon
    • Qualities
  • Porphyry  Igneous      @Gattinara, Piemonte, Italy
    • Qualities…Large Grained Crystal
  • Pumice  Igneous      @Santorini, Greece
    • Qualities…Pale Colored, Lava Formed From Frothy Lava & Gas.
  • Rhyolite  Igneous(Extrusive)     @
    • Qualities…Molten With High Silica Content That Was Solidified Rapidly On the Earth Surface.
  • Scoria–  Igneous  Weather-Called/ Sony Bay       @Clear Lake, California
    • Qualities…Glassy and Contain Gas Bubbles Frozen Into Place as Magma Exploded Into the Air and Then Cooled Quickly AKA=Cinders
    • Generally Basaltic or Andesitic In Composition.
  • Tachylite–  Igneous     @Clear Lake, California
    • Qualities…Form of Basaltic Volcanic Gas, Easily Decomposable.
  • Tuffa  Igneous(Extrusive)     @Montalcino, Tuscany, Italy
    • Qualities…Rock Formed From Broken Up Lava Rock High In Rhyolite
  • Tephra  Igneous      @Red Hills, California
    • Qualities…Rock Fragment or Particle Ejected by a Volcanic Eruptions


**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.