FIRE, VOLCANIC, ERUPTION


  • SUB-TOPICS Of FIRE VOLCANIC, ERUPTION CHAPTER
    • What is Volcanism?
    • Volcanic Soils
    • Regions Effected by Volcanism

WHAT Is VOLCANISM?– Volcanic Activity or Phenomena

VOLCANOS Vents On the Earths Surface Which Lets Highly Pressurized Gases, Magma/ Lava and Soil Rock to Escape Onto the Earth Surface

  • Earth Crust is In 17 Major Rigid Tectonic Plates That Float On a Liquid Mantle. When These Plates Move Lava Flows Onto Earth Bring Diverse Soils to the Surface.
  • Volcanic Soils Are Distributed Predominantly Along the Edges of Tectonic Plants or Within Proximity of Volcanos
  • VOLCANOPHILE- Person Who is Really Involved In Learning and Following Volcanism
  • VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS- Occurs When Molten Rock, Ash, and Steam Pours Through a Vent In the Earths Crust/ Surface.
    • Effusive Eruptions Characterized by Mild, Gentle Lava Flows
    • Explosive Eruptions Characterized by Sudden and Violent Expansion and Explosion of Depressurization of Trapped Gases
  • RING Of FIRE- Area In the Basin of the Pacific Ocean Where a Large Number of Volcanos are Located. The Ring (40,000 km. Horse-Shoe Shape) Runs From Chile Up Through the Western Coast of North America Across the Arc of Alaska Down Through Eastern Asia Down to the Philippines
  • GRABEN/ Rift Valley- Elongated Block of Earths Crust Lying Between Two Faults and Displaced Downward Relative to the Blocks On Either Side
  • SENKE- Relatively Shallow Depression, Like a Tough On the Earths Surface. The Senke Marks Where the Earth is “Rifting”, Pulled Apart Along the Fault, Causing a Section of Curst to Sink
  • TUFF & FLOW- Rock Produces After the Ejection of the Consolidation of Deposited Ash

1% Not All Volcanic Soils Are the Same, the Type and Timing of the Volcanic Activity is Different.

TYPES OF LAVA (Lavas Categorized by Their Proportions of Silica)

  • Silica– Important Abundant Chemical Compound From Silicon & Oxygen
  • Basalt– Less Than 60% Silica -Dacite-
  • Andesite– 60% Silica -Rhyolite- More Than 60% Silica
  • Scoria– Volcanic Lava That Has Mixed With Water During Eruption.
    • Volcanic Soils Solidify Then Eventually Decompose or Break Down Over Time.
    • Young/ New Volcanic Soils Need Time to Weather Into Broken Down Soils.
    • Volcanic Ash- Fragments of Pulverized Rock, Mineral, Volcanic Glass Created by Volcanic Eruptions. Ash Can Range From 2 mm. and Bigger In Size.

TYPES Of VOLCANOS

  • Stratovolcano– Steep, Tall, Often Conical-Shaped Type of Volcano. Built Over Many Successive Eruption, Building Up Mass and Height
  • Shield Volcano– Broad Low-Profile Volcano
  • Cinder Cones

TYPES Of VOLCANISM

  • Rifting– Colliding of Earths Plates at Divergent Boundaries. Called a Rift-Zone, Often These Can be Submarine.
    • Examples of Rifting Volcanism– Azores, Pfalz, Alsace, Baden
  • Subduction– Heavier Oceanic Plates Dragged Under a Continental Plate
    • Examples of Subduction Volcanism– Cascade Volcanic Arc, Andean Volcanic Belt, Campanian Volcanic Arc
  • Hotspots– Location On Earth Surface Upwelling of Fiery Molten Rock Above the Mantle Plume Where magma Breaks Through and Erupts
    • Examples of Hotspot Volcanism– Canary Islands, Columbia River Basin

1% of the Worlds Soils On the Surface Are Volcanic.


TYPES Of VOLCANIC SOILS

  • Aiken Soil Series– Soils Consisting of Very Deep, Well-Drained Soils Formed by Weathered Volcanic Rocks
  • Andesite– Type of Lava
  • Andisol– Soils Derived From Volcanic Ash
  • Ash– Pulverized Rock Expelled During Volcano Eruptions
  • Basalt– Lava Rock
  • **Refer to “TERROIR/ Igneous Soils” For Detailed List of Volcanic Soils

REGIONS INFLUENCED By VOLCANISMOLD WORD

ITALY

  • SICILY
    • Volcano– ~Mt. Etna ~
  • SARDEGNA
    • Volcano– Montferru Volanic Massif(Monte Urtigu, Peak 1,050mt.)
  • BASILICATA
    • Volcano
  • CAMPANIA
    • Volcano– ~Mt.Vesuvius~
  • SOAVE
    • Volcano
  • LAZIO
    • Volcanic Lakes- Albano/ Nemi/ Albano
    • Volcanic Mountains- Monte Albano, Volsini, Cimini, Sabatini
    • Roman Magmatic Province- Vulsini(Bolsena/ Latera/ Montefiascone Volcano
  • TUCSANY
    • Volcano– ~Mount Amiata~ (Mainland Italy Highest Volcanic Peak)
  • ITALY’S VOLCANOS
    • Lazio Volcanos– Roman Magmatic Zone
      • Vulsini(Bolsena/ Latera/ Montefiascone)
    • Tuscany Volcanos- ~Mount Amiata~ (Mainland Italy Highest Volcanic Peak)
    • Campania Volcanos– ~Mt. Vesuvius~
    • Sicilia Volcanos– ~Mt. Etna~,  ~Pantelleria~,  ~Lipari~,  ~Stromboli~
    • Other Volcanos– ~Campi Flegrei~,   ~Ischia~,  ~Monte Albano~

PORTUGAL

  • MADEIRA
    • Volcano
  • AZORES
    • Volcano–  ~Sao Miguel~(Peak/    )
      • ~Monte de Pico~  Portugal’s Highest Mountain (Peak/ 2,351mt.)
    • “Volcanic Rifting Zone” Along Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Azores Triple Junction(North American, Eurasian and African Plates

SPAIN

  • CANARY ISLANDS
    • Volcano– ~El Teide~

OLD WORLD OTHER

  • ARMENIA
    • Volcano– ~Mount Ararat~,  ~Mount Aragats~
  • SANTORINI
    • Volcano
  • ALSACE
    • Volcano
  • GERMANY
    • Volcano- ~Kaiserstuhl~
  • HUNGARY
    • Volcano–  Somlo, Zemplen Hills, Highly Volcanic Range In the Carpathian Mountains
  • ISREAL– Golan Heights
    • Volcano

REGIONS INFLUENCED By VOLCANISMNEW WORLD

COLUMBIA VALLEY

  • VOLCANISM IN OREGON
    • ~Mont Hood~,  ~Mount Bachelor~, ~North Sister~, ~South Sister~
      • (All Located Adjacent to Willamette Valley)
    • ~Mount Mclaughlin~ (Located Outside Rogue Valley)
  • VOLCANISM IN WASHINGTON
    • Cascade Mountain Range- Consists of 13 Volcanos That Runs From the Canadian Border to Northern California.
      • ~Bonanza Peak~, ~Glacier Peak~, ~Good Mountain~
      • ~Mt. Fernow~  ~Mt. St. Helen~, ~Mt. Rainier~

CALIFORNIA

  • CLEAR LAKE
    • Volcano– ~Mt. Kanoti~,  ~Round Mountain~
  • NAPA
    • Volcano–  ~Mt. St. Helena~,  ~St. George~
  • SONOMA
    • Volcano

NEW WORLD OTHER

  • JAPAN
    • Yamanashi
  • NEW ZEALAND
    • North Island
  • CHILE
    • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTSChile– Shaped by Chile’s Geographically Located In a Subduction Zone Cause by the South American Plate and Nazca Plate.  This Causes Chile’s Topographic Features: The Andes Mountain(Volcanic Arc and Part of “Ring of Fire”, Intermediate Depression(Chilean Central Valley), Graben, Foreland Basin, Coastal Range and Peru-Chile Trench(Off Coast).
    • VOLCANISM:
      • ~San Jose Volcanic Group~  Group of Volcanos Along the Chile/ Argentina Border…Includes: Espirtu Santo, Maipo, San Jose, Payun Matru, Planchon-Peteroa, Tupungatito, Tupungato
      • ~Southern Chile~ Lonquimay, Nevada’s de Chillan, Villarrica
  • ARGENTINA
    • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTSVOLCANISM
      • Catamarca– Condor, Galan, General M. Begrano, Laguna Blanca, El Muerto, Nacimiento, Nevado Ojos del Salado, Tres Cruces
      • San Jose Volcanic Group–  Group of Volcanos Along the Chile/ Argentina Border…Includes: Cerro Aconcagua, Espirtu Santo, Maipo, San Jose, Payun Matru, Planchon-Peteroa, Tupungatito, Tupungato

VOLCANIC WINE EVALUATON

  • Palate– Savory, Minerality, Salinity, Earthly, Stoney, Briny


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced