FIRE, VOLCANIC, ERUPTION


  • SUB-TOPICS Of FIRE VOLCANIC, ERUPTION CHAPTER
    • What is Volcanism?
    • Volcanic Soils
    • Regions Effected by Volcanism

WHAT Is VOLCANISM Volcanic Activity or Phenomena.

VOLCANOS Vents On the Earths Surface Which Lets Highly Pressurized Gases, Magma/ Lava and Soil Rock to Escape Onto the Earth Surface.

  • Earth Crust is In 17 Major Rigid Tectonic Plates That Float On a Liquid Mantle. When These Plates Move Lava Flows Onto Earth Bring Diverse Soils to the Surface.
  • Volcanic Soils Are Distributed Predominantly Along the Edges of Tectonic Plants or Within Proximity of Volcanos.
  • VOLCANOPHILE- Person Who is Really Involved In Learning and Following Volcanism.
  • VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS- Occurs When Molten Rock, Ash, and Steam Pours Through a Vent In the Earths Crust/ Surface.
    • Effusive Eruptions Characterized by Mild, Gentle Lava Flows.
    • Explosive Eruptions Characterized by Sudden and Violent Expansion and Explosion of Depressurization of Trapped Gases.
  • RING Of FIRE- Area In the Basin of the Pacific Ocean Where a Large Number of Volcanos are Located. The Ring (40,000km. Horse-Shoe Shape) Runs From Chile Up Through the Western Coast of North America Across the Arc of Alaska Down Through Eastern Asia Down to the Philippines.
  • GRABEN/ Rift Valley- Elongated Block of Earths Crust Lying Between Two Faults and Displaced Downward Relative to the Blocks On Either Side.
  • SENKE- Relatively Shallow Depression, Like a Tough On the Earths Surface. The Senke Marks Where the Earth is “Rifting”, Pulled Apart Along the Fault, Causing a Section of Curst to Sink.
  • TUFF & FLOW- Rock Produces After the Ejection of the Consolidation of Deposited Ash.

Not All Volcanic Soils Are the Same, the Type and Timing of the Volcanic Activity is Different.

TYPES OF LAVA Lavas Categorized by Their Proportions of Silica.

  • Silica- Important Abundant Chemical Compound From Silicon & Oxygen.
  • Basalt- Less Than 60% Silica
  • Dacite-
  • Andesite- 60% Silica
  • Rhyolite- More Than 60% Silica
  • Scoria- Volcanic Lava That Has Mixed With Water During Eruption.
    • Volcanic Soils Solidify Then Eventually Decompose or Break Down Over Time.
    • Young/ New Volcanic Soils Need Time to Weather Into Broken Down Soils.
    • Volcanic Ash- Fragments of Pulverized Rock, Mineral, Volcanic Glass Created by Volcanic Eruptions. Ash Can Range From 2mm. and Bigger In Size.

TYPES Of VOLCANOS

  • Stratovolcano- Steep, Tall, Often Conical-Shaped Type of Volcano. Built Over Many Successive Eruption, Building Up Mass and Height
  • Shield Volcano- Broad Low-Profile Volcano
  • Cinder Cones-

TYPES Of VOLCANISM

  • Rifting Colliding of Earths Plates at Divergent Boundaries. Called a Rift-Zone, Often These Can be Submarine.
    • Examples of Rifting Volcanism
      • Azores, Portugal
      • Pfalz, Germany
      • Alsace, France
      • Baden, Germany
  • Subduction Heavier Oceanic Plates Dragged Under a Continental Plate.
    • Examples of Subduction Volcanism
      • Cascade Volcanic Arc, Washington/ Oregon
      • Andean Volcanic Belt
      • Campanian Volcanic Arc, Italy
  • Hotspots Location On Earth Surface Upwelling of Fiery Molten Rock Above the Mantle Plume Where magma Breaks Through and Erupts
    • Examples of Hotspot Volcanism
      • Canary Islands, Spain
      • Columbia River Basin, Washington
      • Sicily, Italy

1% of the Worlds Soils On the Surface Are Volcanic.


TYPES Of VOLCANIC SOILS

  • Aiken Soil Series- Soils Consisting of Very Deep, Well-Drained Soils Formed by Weathered Volcanic Rocks.
  • Andesite- Type of Lava.
  • Andisol- Soils Derived From Volcanic Ash.
  • Ash- Pulverized Rock Expelled During Volcano Eruptions.
  • Basalt- Lava Rock
  • **Refer to TERROIR/ Igneous Soils For Detailed List of Volcanic Soils.

REGIONS INFLUENCED By VOLCANISM OLD WORD

ITALY

  • SICILY-
    • Volcano-  ~Mt. Etna~   ~Pantelleria~   ~Lipari~   ~Stromboli~
  • SARDEGNA-
    • Volcano- Montferru Volanic Massif(Monte Urtigu, Peak 1,050mt.)
  • BASILICATA-
    • Volcano-
  • CAMPANIA-
    • Volcano-  ~Mt.Vesuvius~
  • SOAVE-
    • Volcano-
  • LAZIO-
    • Volcanic Lakes- Albano/ Nemi/ Albano
    • Volcanic Mountains- Monte Albano, Volsini, Cimini, Sabatini
    • Roman Magmatic Province- Vulsini(Bolsena/ Latera/ Montefiascone Volcano)
  • TUSCANY
    • Volcano ~Mount Amiata~ (Mainland Italy Highest Volcanic Peak)
  • OTHER VOLCANO ~Campi Flegrei~   ~Ischia~

PORTUGAL

  • MADEIRA-
    • Volcano-
  • AZORES-
    • Volcano-  ~Sao Miguel~(Peak/    )
      • ~Monte de Pico~  Portugal’s Highest Mountain (Peak/ 2,351mt.)
    • “Volcanic Rifting Zone” Along Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Azores Triple Junction(North American, Eurasian and African Plates

SPAIN

  • CANARY ISLANDS-
    • Volcano- ~El Teide~

OLD WORLD OTHER

  • ARMENIA-
    • Volcano– ~Mount Ararat~   ~Mount Aragats~
  • SANTORINI-
    • Volcano-
  • ALSACE-
    • Volcano-
  • GERMANY-
    • Volcano- ~Kaiserstuhl~
  • HUNGARY-
    • ~Carpathian Mountains~
    • Volcano-  ~Somlo~   ~Zemplen Hills~
  • ISREAL- Golan Heights
    • Volcano

REGIONS INFLUENCED By VOLCANISM NEW WORLD

COLUMBIA VALLEY

  • OREGON  VOLCANISM(All Located Adjacent to Willamette Valley)
    • ~Mont Hood~   ~Mount Bachelor~   ~North Sister~   ~South Sister~
    • ~Mount Mclaughlin~ (Located Outside Rogue Valley)
  • WASHINGTON VOLCANISM~
    • ~Cascade Mountain Range~ Consists of 13 Volcanos That Runs From the Canadian Border to Northern California.
    • ~Bonanza Peak~   ~Glacier Peak~   ~Good Mountain~   ~Mt. Fernow~   ~Mt. St. Helen~   ~Mt. Rainier~

CALIFORNIA

  • CLEAR LAKE
    • Volcano- ~Mt. Kanoti~   ~Round Mountain~
  • NAPA
    • Volcano-  ~Mt. St. Helena~   ~St. George~
  • SONOMA– ~Mt. St. Helena~
    • Volcano-

NEW WORLD OTHER

  • JAPAN-
    • Yamanashi
  • NEW ZEALAND-
    • North Island
  • CHILE  VOLCANISM~
    • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS– Chile– Shaped by Chile’s Geographically Located In a Subduction Zone Cause by the South American Plate and Nazca Plate.  This Causes Chile’s Topographic Features: The Andes Mountain(Volcanic Arc and Part of “Ring of Fire”, Intermediate Depression(Chilean Central Valley), Graben, Foreland Basin, Coastal Range and Peru-Chile Trench(Off Coast).
      • ~San Jose Volcanic Group~  Group of Volcanos Along the Chile/ Argentina Border
        • ~Espirtu Santo~   ~Maipo~   ~San Jose~   ~Payun Matru~   ~Planchon-Peteroa~   ~Tupungatito~   ~Tupungato~
      • ~Southern Chile~ ~Lonquimay~   ~Nevada’s de Chillan~   ~Villarrica~
  • ARGENTINA  VOLCANISM~
    • TOPOGRAPHIC EVENTS
      • ~Catamarca Volcanic Group~ ~Condor~   ~Galan~   ~General M. Begrano~   ~Laguna Blanca~   ~El Muerto~  ~Nacimiento~   ~Nevado Ojos del Salado~   ~Tres Cruces~
      • ~San Jose Volcanic Group~  Group of Volcanos Along the Chile/ Argentina Border
      • ~Cerro Aconcagua~   ~Espirtu Santo~   ~Maipo~   ~Payun Matru~   ~Planchon-Peteroa~   ~San Jose~    ~Tupungatito~   ~Tupungato~

VOLCANIC WINE EVALUATON

  • Palate- Savory, Minerality, Salinity, Earthly, Stoney, Briny


**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.