GLACIER- Slow and Constantly Moving Mass of Dense Ice That is From by the Accumulation of Snow On Mountains That Exceeds Its Ablation Often For Centuries.  Glaciers Are Either Advancing or Regressing by Its Own Weight.

ICE SHEET- Often Referred to as a Continental Glacier is a Permanent Layer of Ice Covering an Extensive Tract of Land.

  • Most of the Glacial Activity Took Place In the Pleistocene Epoch, Which is Relatively Resent.
  • Glacier Activity In the Past Had Direct and Indirect Influences On Wine Regions Today.
  • The Ice Sheet and Glaciers Redefined Modern Topography as They Advanced Like Giant Bull Dozers Picking Up rocks and Debris and Moving Them Often Hundreds 0f Miles and Depositing Them as the Glacier Regresses.  As the Ice Sheet and Glaciers Regressed Massive Amounts of Melt Water, Some as Substantial as a River Leave Different Soils and Debris. Often Times This Advance/ Regress Alternated and Repeated This Process Many Times.
  • How Glaciers Effect Grape Growing Regions-
    • Carve Steep Sloops.
    • Carve Out Deep Lakes Which Moderate Climates In Summer and Winter.
    • Leave Moraine Soils Behind.
  • Glacial Geomorphology- The Study of the Processes, Landscapes and Landforms That Produced Ice Sheets, Glaciers, Glacier Valley and Other Ice Masses on the Surface of the Earth.
  • Glacial Moraine- Glacially Formed Accumulation of Unconsolidated Debris That Was Transported and Deposited When the  Glaciers Advanced or Regresses.  Moraines Can Be Classified by Origins, Locations of the Glacier or by Shape of Moraine.
    • Terminal Moraines- Moraine Deposited at the Furthest Point That the Snout/ Front/ Nose of Glacier or Ice Sheet Advanced.
    • Lateral Moraines- Moraine Deposited at the Parallel Ridges or Sides of the Glacier or Ice Sheet.
  • Unconsolidated Debris- Boulders, Clay, Cobble, Gravel, Pebble, Sand


    • Lake Maggiore
    • Alto Piemonte     @Piemonte, Italy
    • Valle d’Aosta       @Valle d’Aosta, Italy
      • Influenced by Miage Glacier, Brenva Glacier
    • Lake Iseo
    • Franciacorta DOC.      @Lombardia, Italy
    • Bianco di Custoza DOC.       @Lombaridia, Italy
    • Bardolino DOC.      @Lombaridia, Italy
    • Lugano DOC.      @Lombardia, Italy
    • Valtelina DOC.     @Lombardia, Italy
    • Lake Geneva      @Switzeraland
    • Lake Bodenessee (Lake Constance)      @Switzerland/ Germany


  • North American Ice Sheet- Mass of Glaciers and Ice That Stretched Across Canada and the North-East United States. There Were 4 Major Documented Advancements of the Ice Sheet and a Series of Smaller Fluctuations and it Started to Regresss Approximately 20,000 Years Ago.
  • Great Lakes- Carved by the Actions of the Laurentine Ice Sheet.
  • Wisconsin Glacier- Covered Eastern Canada, New England and New York
    • Lake Chelan AVA.      @Columbia Valley, Washington
    • Lake Okanagan VA.     @British Columbia, Canada
    • Lake Ontario
    • Finger Lakes AVA.      @New York, New York

**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.