TOPOGRAPHY


  • SUB-TOPICS Of TOPOGRAPHY CHAPTER
    • What is Topography?
    • Topographic Description Scale
    • Topographical Features
    • Altitude
    • Mountain vs. Valley Floor

TOPOGRAPHY Study of the Shapes and Features of the Surface of the Earth. A Detailed Description of Lands Surface.  AKA=Relief, Geomorphology. Overall Description of a Topographic/ Geologic Feature.

Geography is Where a Vineyard is Located, Topography is How the Vineyard Looks When You Get There.

GEOMORPHOLOGY- Study of Physical Features of the Surface of the Earth and Their Relation to Its Geological Structures.

  • There Are 3 Types of Contour Lines Used On a Standard Topographic Map.  Index, Intermediate, Supplemenary.

FEATURE DRIVEN TOPOGRAPHY- A Vineyard, Area or Region That’s Made Up of Varying Hills, Slopes, Rivers and Other Features That Make That Sight Unique.

ORIENTATION/ EXPOSURE- Compass Direction of Which a Vineyard Faces to the Sun. South Facing or South-West Facing Slopes Have Long Been Seen as Better and Coveted. Local Conditions and Micro-Climate Can Modify This.

  • South-Facing Vines Benefit From Morning Sun Which Dry Off Any Moisture That the Night Has Left Behind. This Gives the Grape-Vine an Early Start to a Day of Warming and Ripening.
  • History In the Northern Regions of the Roman Empire the Romans Planted Vines In the Spots On the Hillsides That Snow Has Melted First to Increase Growing Season Length.

ASPECT/ GRADIENT- (Measured In %) Verticalness at Which a Vineyard In Planted On.

  • Amount of Sun Radiation Received On a Vineyard Depends On the Elevation, Height of Sun, Combined With Orientation and Aspect of Vineyard. The Warmth Received by Direct Radiation On the Vineyard Depends On the Elevation of the Sun Combined With the Inclination of the Vineyard Towards the Sun. The Elevation of the Sun Controls the Thickness of the Atmosphere Through Which the Radiation Passes.
  • Vineyards Planted On a Slope or With Aspect Will Receive Much More Consistent Sunlight Than Vine Planted On Flat Land. This Exposure to Sunlight is Paramount For Vineyards Planted at Higher Latitudes, Although This Diminishes the Closer You Get to the Equator Because the Sun Ride Higher In the Sky at Closer You Get.
  • High Latitude Vineyards Need to Be Angled South or South-West Towards Sun to Stand a Chance of Ripening. “Aspect” or Inclination of Sun is Going Down Directly Into the Vineyard, and is Exposed to Sunshine the Entire Day.

TOPOGRAPHIC EVENT Something That Happened Over Time That Caused a Topographic/ Geologic Feature-Formation.

TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE Result of a Topographic/ Geologic Event.

CENTRAL TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE- A Particular Feature of a Region or Area That Stands Out In Significance to the Rest of the Region.

  • WORDS TO MAKE YOU SOUND LIKE A TOPOGRAPHER
    • Direct     Exposer     Facing
  • WORDS DESCRIBING TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES
    • Flat
    • Rugged
    • Rolling
    • Steep
    • Sloping
    • Hillside
    • Bench-Lands
    • Complexed
    • Irregular
    • Mountainous
    • Surrounding
    • Varied
  • VITICULTURE DISCLAIMER~ ~Geographic Understanding~
    • To Benefit From “Demystifying “The Vine” and the  World of Wine a Understanding of  the World’s Geography and Topography is Needed and the Ability to Visualize Its Wine Regions.  Sections In D.theV.com Are Organized In a North to South, / East to West Orientation and Intended to Be Read and Memorized as So.

EXTREME VITICULTURE Extreme Growing Condition Generally Leads to High Quality Interesting Wine.  When Referring to Extreme We Don’t Mean Grapes Grown at an Altitude But and Extremely High Altitude, Grapes Not Grown On a Slope But an Extremely Steep Slopes.  Over the Past Decades and Centuries Grape Grower Have Slowly Pushed Their Viticulture to More Outrageous Extremes.  Extremes That In the Past Were Seen as Not Possible.

Good Wine Are Produced From Flat Vineyards But High Altitude Grapes Produce Great Wines.

  • QUANTIFYING EXTREME VITICULTURE
    • High Altitude
    • Volcanism
    • Aspect
    • Heat
    • Cold
    • Latitude- +50*/ -30*

D.theV. TOPOGRAPHIC DESCRIPTION

In Void of No Widely Defined Topographic Scale I Have Developed My Own Using These Descriptions With Respects to Classical Topography.

LAND FEATURES

**Refer to “ASSOCIATED HOME Chapters” For Detailed Information On These Land Features.

PLAIN Lowlands Along the Bottoms of Valley or Base of Mountains or Coastal Plains, Usually Enclosed On Two Sides.

PLAIN WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • ASATIAN PLAIN
    • Geography- Western Europe, France, Alsace
    • Growing Areas- Alsace
    • Feature- Area Between Vosges Mountains and Rhine River
  • BEAUJOLAIS PLAIN
    • Geography- Western Europe, France, Burgundy, Beaujolais
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • HUNGARIAN PLAIN
    • Geography- Central EuropeHungary
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • VENETO PLAIN
    • Geography-Western Europe, Italy, Veneto
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • SALUZZO PLAIN
    • Geography- Italy, Peimonte
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • WALACHIAN PLAIN
    • Geography- Romainia
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
    • New World
  • SANTA ROSA PLAIN
  • HIGH PLAIN
    • Geography- Colorado
    • Growing Areas- Grand Valley AVA., West Elk AVA.
    • Feature-

PLATEAU An Area of Relatively Level High Ground.

PLATEAU WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • MESETA CENTRAL PLATEAU
    • Geography- Spain
    • Growing Areas-
    • Feature
  • ST. EMILON PLATEAU
    • Geography- France, Bordeaux, St. Emilon
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • GONEY PLATEAU/ URLA PLATEAU
    • Geography- Turkey
    • Growing Areas-
    • Feature
  • SOUTHERN CAUCASUS
    • Geography- Georgia
    • Growing Areas-
    • Feature
    • New World
  • COLUMBIA PLATEAU  
    • Geography- Eastern Washington State
    • Growing Areas- Columbia Valley AVA.
    • Feature– Post Missoula Floods, Water and Erosion Cut Canyons Below Surface of Basin .Creating Plateau.
  • EAST PALOUSE PLATEAU   
    • Geography- Washington, Columbia Vally(South-East)
    • Growing Areas- Columbia Valley AVA
    • Feature

BASIN A Large Scale Structural Formation Formed by a Tectonic Warping of Preiously Flat-Lying Strata.

BASIN WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • DANUBE  BASIN
    • Geography- Central Europe, Turkey
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • PARIS BASIN
    • Geography– France(North-East)
    • Effected Growing Area– Champagne
  • BOLZANO BASIN
    • Geography- Italy, Alto Adige
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • PANNONIAN BASIN
    • Geography– Central Europe, Turkey
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • TRANSYLVANIAN BASIN
    • Geography- Romania/ Central Europe
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • VIENNA BASIN
    • Geography- Austria
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • AQUITAINE BASIN
    • Geography- France, South-West, Bordeaux
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature- “Sedimentary Basin”, Formed In Mesozoic and Cenozoic Period
    • New World
  • COLUMBIA BASIN
    • Geography-  Washington, Columbia Valley
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature- The Weight of Lava and Ice Caused Land to Sink Creating a Basin Between Cascades and Bitter Root Mountains.
  • PASCO BASIN
    • Geography-  Washington, Columbia Valley
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • QUINCY BASIN  
    • Geography- Washington, Columbia Valley
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • MURRAY DARLING BASIN 
    • Geography- Australia, South Wales/ Victoria, South Australia
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • COTATI BASIN  
    • Geography- California, Sonoma
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • WINDSOR BASIN  
    • Geography- California, Sonoma
    • Growing Areas- Russian River AVA.
    • Feature-

LOWLANDS 

LOWLAND WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • MOLDAVIA LOWLANDS
    • Geography- Romania
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • ROMANIAN LOWLANDS
    • Geography- Central Europe, Romania
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • EASTERN SLOVAK LOWLANDS
    • Geography- Central Europe, Slovakia, Hungary
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • THRACIAN LOWLANDS
    • Geography- Central Europe, Bulgaria
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
  • KOLKHIDA LOWLANDS
    • Geography- Georgia
    • Growing Areas- 
    • Feature-
    • New World

MASSIF A Large Scale Structural Formation Formed by a Faults and Tectonic Warping of Previously Flat-Lying Strata.

MASSIF WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • MASSIF AMORICAN
    • Geography– England(South)/ France(North-West)
    • Formation– Formed by the Assemble of Pangea(The Super-Continent), The Region Was Uplifted When the Bay of Biscay Opened During the Cretaceous Period.
    • Wine-Region– Souther England(White Cliffs of Dover, Champagne, Loire Valley(Central Vineyards)
  • MASSIF DES VOSGES
    • Geography– France(East)
    • Formation– Geologic Area Consisting of Low Mountains of the Vosges Mountains
    • Wine-Regions– Alsace
  • MASSIF CENTRAL
    • Geography– France(South-Central), Auvergne Mountains
      • Chaine des Puys, Monts Dore, Monts du Cantal, Volcanic Velay
    • Formation– Formed by the Assemble of Pangea(The Super-Continent), Elevated Region of Mountains and Plateaus
    • Information–  There Are 450 Extinct Volcanoes In the Massif
      • River Head Waters- Loire, Allier, Cher, and Sioule Are Start as Streams In the Massif Central
    • Wine-Regions

MOUNTAIN Many Times Hills/ Ridges/ Ranges Or Part of a “Parent Range” or Bigger Formation.

  • DISCLAIMER– Many Times Hills/ Ridges/ Ranges Or Part of a “Parent Range” or Bigger Formation. Mountains Are Considered One Area and Usually a Single Mountain Influencing One Area.  Ranges Are Multi-Area and Even Multi-Country.

MOUNTAIN WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
    • New World
  • RED MOUNTAIN
    • Geography- Washington, Columbia Valley
    • Growing Areas- Red Mountain AVA.
    • Feature-
  • SONOMA MOUNTAIN
    • Geography- California, Sonoma
    • Growing Areas- SonomaMountain AVA.
    • Feature-

RANGE A Line of Mountains Connected by High Ground

RANGE WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • APPENNINES RANGE
    • Geography– Italy
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • ALPS RANGE
    • Geography– France, Italy, Switzerland
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • CANTABRIAN RANGE
    • Geography– Iberian Peninsula
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • CATALAN COASTAL RANGE
    • Geography– Spain
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • CAUCASUS RANGE
    • Geography– Georgia
    • Growing Area
    • Features– Greater & Lesser Caucasus Ranges Fram Georgia In North & South
  • JURA RANGE
    • Geography– France/ Switzerland
    • Growing Area
    • Features– (360 km. Long)
  • MORVAN RANGE
    • Geography– France, Burgundy
    • Growing Area– Cote d’Beaune, Cote Nuits
    • Features– Granite and Basalt, is Extension of the Massif Central
  • PYRENEES RANGE
    • Geography–  France, Spain
    • Growing Area
    • Features– Stretch From the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea
      • (430 km. Long/ 130 km. Wide)
  • SIERRA MORENA RANGE
    • Geography–  Iberian Peninsula, Spain
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • TRANSYLVANIAN RANGE
    • Geography– Romania
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • VOSGES RANGE
    • Geography– France, Alsace
    • Growing Area
    • Features– High Vosges, Middle Vosges, Low Vosges
    • New World
  • COAST RANGE
    • Geography– California, Central Coast
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • VACA RANGE
    • Geography– California, Napa
    • Growing Area
    • Features– In Inner Coast Ranges Which Are Part of the California Coast Range System.
      • Franciscan Formation Origins, (Western Exposure/ +Afternoon Sunlight), Separates Napa Valley From Sacramento Valley.
  • MAYACAMAS RANGE
    • Geography– California, Sonoma, Napa
    • Growing Area– Sonoma Valley AVA., Knights Valley AVA.
      • Diamond Mountain AVA., Mount Veeder AVA., Spring Mountain AVA.
    • Features– In Inner Coast Ranges Which Are Part of the California Coast Range System.
      • Volcanic Origins, (Eastern Exposure/ +Morning Sunlight), Separates Napa Valley From Sonoma Valley.
  • NIAGARA ESCARPMENT
    • Geography– Canada, Michagan, New York
    • Growing Area
    • Features– 650 Mile Long Limestone Ridge From the Jurassic Period That Runs/ Arcs  From the Great Lakes Region (West of Lake Michigan) Up Into Canada and Back Down Into New York South of Lake Ontario.
      • Escarpment is Composed of the Lockport Formation of Silurian Age.
      • The Niagara Escarpment Contains the Lake Effect, Between the Two There’s a Constant Recirculating of the Warmer Air In the Winter and the Cooler Air In the Summer.

RIDGE– A Long Narrow Hill or Mountain

RIDGE WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • KIMMERIDGIAN RIDGE   @France
    • Geography– England, France
    • Growing Area
    • Features
    • New World
  • MENDOCINO RIDGES
    • Geography– California, Mendocino
    • Growing Area– Mendocino Ridges AVA.
    • Features
  • RIBBON RIDGE
    • Geography– Oregon, Chehalem AVA./ Yamhill AVA.
    • Growing Area
    • Features– Spur of Sedimentary Ridge Separating Chehalem & Yamhill
      • Ridge Running From Parret Mountain Across to Bald Peak

HILLS– Naturally Raised Area of Land, Not as High as a Mountain

HILL WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • CORTON HILL
    • Geography– France, Burgundy
    • Growing Area
    • Features
    • New World
  • DUNAGAN HILLS 
    • Geography– California, Central Valley
    • Growing Area– Dunagan Hills AVA.
    • Features
  • DUNDEE HILLS
    • Geography– Oregon, Willamette
    • Growing Area– Dundee Hills AVA.
    • Features

KNOLL– Small, Low, Round Hill or Mound

KNOLL WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
    • New World
  • OAK KNOLL
    • Geography– California, Napa
    • Growing Area– Oak Knoll AVA.
    • Features

VALLEY Low Area of Land Between Hills or Mountains, Usually With a Water Flowing Though it, or Previously Had Water Flowing Through it.

  • Traverse Valley– Valley That is Formed In North to South Orientation
  • Semi Traverse Valley– Vally That is Formed In North-West to South-East Orientaion.

VALLEY WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • LOIRE VALLEY
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • EBRO VALLEY
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • DUORO VALLEY
    • Geography– Iberian Peninsula, Spain/ Portugal
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • PO VALLEY
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
    • New World
  • ALEXANDER VALLEY
    • Geography– California
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • ANDERSON VALLEY
    • Geography– California
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • NAPA VALLEY
    • Geography– California
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • SANTA MARIA
    • Geography– California
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • SANTA YNEZ VALLEY
    • Geography– California
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • SONOMA VALLEY
    • Geography– California, Sonoma
    • Growing Area– Sonoma Valley AVA.
    • Features

CANYON Deep Gorge, Usually With a River Flowing Through it, or Previously Had Water Flowing Through it.

CANYON WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
    • New World
  • HAPPY CANYON  
    • Geography– California, Santa Ynez Valley
    • Growing Area– Happy Canyon AVA.
    • Features

PENINSULAPiece of Land Almost Surrounded by Water or Projecting Out Into a Body of Water.

PENINSULA WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • BALKAN PENINSULA
    • Geography– Europe, Central Europes
    • Growing Area– Albania, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Rupublic of Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia,
    • Features
  • IBERIAN PENINSULA
    • Geography– Europe, Iberian Peninsula, Spain, Portugal
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • ITALIAN PENINSULA
    • Geography– Europe, Western Europe
    • Growing Area
    • Features
    • New World
  • LEELANAU PENINSULA
    • GeographyUSA., Central(North-East), Michigan State
    • Growing Area– Leelanau Peninsula AVA.
    • Features
  •  NIAGARA PENINSULA
    • Geography– Canada, Ontario(South-Central)
    • Growing Area
      • Sub-Zones/ VA.’s (10) Beansville Bench VA., Creek Shore VA., Four Mile Creek VA., Lincoln Lakeshore VA., Niagara Lakeshore VA., Niagara River VA., Short Hills Bench VA., St. David’s Bench VA., Twenty Mile Bench VA., Vinemount Ridge VA.
    • Topography– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Lake~Ontario~(South-West)
      • SLOPES/ Niagara Escarpment, +Alt150 mt., From Grimsby to St. Catharines) Follows Shoreline of Lake.

WIND GAP Predominate Opening Below a Ridge-Line/ Coastal Low Land Area That Allows Inflow of Fog/ Moisture/ Weather Into a Area. As the Inland Valleys Heat Up, Warm Air Rises Creating Low Pressure Effect This Draws In Cool Misty Pacific Ocean Air Into the Valleys Via Gaps. Wind-Gaps Have a Strong Effect on Many Aspects of Vineyards and Viticulture.

  • **Refer to “CLIMATOLOGY/ Wind & Rain” For Information On Wind Gaps

TERRACE Step-Like Landform or a Raised Portion of  Land, Usually Consisting of a Flat or Gently Sloping Geomorphic Surface Called Treads. Terraces Are Flat Layers of Stream/ River Valleys That Were the Bottom of Valley Before and Now the River Has Down-Cut it and Now is an Elevated Stream Terrace.

  • Traditional Walled Terraces– Terraces Supported by Dry Stone Walls, Built by Hand and On Steep Hillsides Some 5 Meters High. Most Terraces Are Narrow, Just Supporting 2 or 3 Rows.
  • Patamares “Douro Valley”, Modern Terraces That Stand Without Walls Cut Into the Banks and Mountainsides Using Earth Moving Equipment Such as Bulldozers and Catepiilars. Patamares Create Wider Terraces and Replace Narrow Tradional Walled Terraces Increasing Vine Density.
    • Recently There Has Been a Great Effort Across the Wine World to Restore or Modernize the Great Historical Terraces Supporting the Vineyards. Terraces Across Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Portugal Have All Done This.

TERRACED WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • LAVAIX
    • Geography– Switzerland
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • GENEVA
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • ALTO ADIGE
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • WACHAU
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • DUORO VALLEY
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
    • New World

SLOPES Gradual Increase In Elevation at the Base of a Mountain Range.

  • SLOPE SCALE
    • Flat– Constant No Change In Elevation ASPECT %-
    • Rolling– Gradual Undulating Slopes ASPECT %-
    • HillyASPECT %-
    • MountainousASPECT %-
    • TerracedASPECT %-
  • STEEP ASPECTS/ SLOPED VINEYARDS OF THE WORLD
    • Calmont Vineyard 65% Gran @Brem/ Mosel

ALPINE Related to High Mountains, Especially the Mountains of the European Alps.

ALPINE WINE REGIONS OF THE WORLD

    • Old World
  • ALTO ADIGE
  • SWITZERLAND
    • New World

WATER FEATURES

OCEANSVery Large Expanse of Sea, In Particular Easch of the Main Areas Into Which the Sea is Divided Geographically.

OCEAN WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • ATLANTIC OCEAN
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
    • New World
  • PACIFIC OCEAN  
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • INDIAN OCEAN
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features

SEAMass of Salt Water That Covers Most of the Earth’s Surface and Surrounds Landmasses

SEA WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • BLACK SEA
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • MEDITERRANEAN SEA
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
    • New World

BAYBroad Inlet of a Sea Where the Land Curves Inward

BAY WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
    • New World
  • SAN PABLO BAY
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features

RIVER A Large Natural Stream of Water Flowing In a Channel to a Lake, Sea, Ocean.

  • HISTORY– From Ancient Times to the Rise of the Railway In the 18th. Century Wine Was Primarily by Boat, In Rivers and Canals. Rivers and Waterways Was the Arteries of the Wine Trade and Played a Key Role in the Development of Wine Regions.

RIVER WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • MOSEL RIVER
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • RHINE RIVER
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • RHONE RIVER
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • DANUBE RIVER 
    • Geography– Central Europe
    • Growing Area
    • Features
    • New World
  • RUSSIAN RIVER
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features

LAKE A Large Body of Water Surrounded by Land

LAKE WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • BALATON LAKE
    • Geography– Hungary
    • Growing Area
    • Features
    • New World
  • CLEAR LAKE
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • SONOMA LAKE
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features

ISLANDA Piece of Land Surrounded by Water

ISLAND WINE REGIONS Of The WORLD

    • Old World
  • SARDEGNA ISLAND
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • SICILY ISLAND
    • Geography
    • Growing Area
    • Features
    • New World
  • BRISBAIN ISLAND
    • Geography– Washington
    • Growing Area
    • Features
  • NORTH ISLAND
    • Geography– New Zealand
    • Growing Area
    • Features-
  • SOUTH ISLAND
    • Geography– New Zealand
    • Growing Area
    • Features

FLOODSA Overflow of Water That Submerges Land That’s Usually Dry.

  • MISSOULA FLOODS
    • Geography– Pacific Northwest, STATE-Oregon, Washington
    • Growing Area– Columbia Valley AVA., Willamette Valley AVA.
    • Features– The Largest Documented Catastrophic Floods In Earths History, and One of the Biggest Geologic Events Ever On the Face of the Earth.   This Series of Floods Intervals Swept Across the Greater Columbia River Valley at the End of the Last Ice Age 13,000 to 16,000 Years Ago.  A Advancing Glacier Dammed the Clark-Fork River Creating Glacial Lake Missoula In Idaho and Montana.  In Time the Ice Dam Which Was 50km. Wide & 600mt. Tall Violently Broke and Water Hundreds of Feet High Rushed Down In to Columbia River Valley. This Water Form Massive Waves, Lifting Giant Boulders, Carved Steep Cliffs and Leaving Rolling Ripples 25 Feet High, Gravel Sand Bars 100 Feet Tall and Shaped Columbia River Gorge.  This Mountain of Water Made Its Way to the Wahluke Gap Where it Backed Up Creating Lake Lewis, a Temporary Lake Encompassing the Entire Columbia River Valley Where it Settled For a Month Before Eventually Moving Through the Gap and Onto the Pacific Ocean.  The Alluvial Soils Deposits Precipitation From the Flood Water Laying the Foundation For the Diverse, Deep, Rock, Soils, and Sediment Deposits to the Columbia River Valley and the Pacific North-West.  These Floods Did Both Erode and Laid Sediment Deposits Where Ever it Went.  This Huge But Temporary Lake Eventually Drained and Left Behind Monumental Quantities of Silt. Prevailing Winds From the South-West Blew In the Silt and Dust to Where it Settled Out In the Hills of Loess Throughout the Columbia Valley. This Same Flood Episode Repeated Itself Every 30 to 70 Years Over 7 Thousand Years In the Late Pleistocene Are.

ALTITUDE

ALTITUDE Height of an Object or Point In Relation to Sea Level.

HIGH ALTITUDE WINE- Grapes Are Grown at a High Altitude.

ELEVATION- Height of an Object or Point In Relation to the Earths Surface.

  • As Altitude Increases, Atmosphere Thins and the Barrier Between Sun and Earth’s Surface Lessens, Increasing Light Intensity.

LATITUDE  Imaginary Lines That Bisects the Globe Vertically Through Equator. Latitude Represents the Angular Distance “North or South” of Equator Measured In Degrees 0* to 90*.

  • **Refer to “GEOGRAPHY/ Latitude” For Detailed Information On Latitude
  • LATITUDE EFFECT ON THE VINEYARD
    • Angle the Sun Hits the Earth
    • Longer Days In Summer, Shorter Days After Fall
    • When Temperature Decreases 

HIGH ALTITUDE And LATITUDE- Latitude Plays and Important Role In Where High Altitude Wine Region Are and How They Interplay With Altitude.

ULTRA-VIOLET LIGHT/ RADIATION- Form of Radiation and Light Which is Part of Electromagnetic Spectrum. UV. Light Comes From the Sun and Slowly Becomes Greater at Higher Elevations.

  • As Vineyards Move Up In Elevation the Density and Intensity of Solar Rays Increase, This Increase Effects of the Sunlight Hitting the Vines. For Every 1,000 Feet Gain In Elevation, the UV. Rays Increase 10%-12%.   This Increase Forces the Grape to Develop Thicker Skins, Which Leads to Increased Color and Tannin Concentration.
  • PHILOSOPHY?  Is the Vineyard On a Hillside, High Flat Plateau or a High Altitude Region?
    • The Central Plateau In Spain Where Ribero del Duero Sits is at 2,500 But is Flat and Lacks A lot of the Advantages of a High Altitude Region and Must Be Thought of Differently.
  • PHILOSOPHY?  What is Considered High Altitude?
    • What’s Considered High Altitude Viticulture In Argentina at 5,000 Feet is Different From High Altitude Viticulture In Napa at 1,900 Feet or In Burgundy at 1,100 Feet.

HEAT VS. LIGHT- Grape Ripen With Two Processes Heat and Light.  Generally Heat Ripens Sugars While UV Light Changes the Rate of Metabolism While RipeningPhenolic and Flavor Compounds.

  • VITICULTURE DISCLAIMER~ ~High Altitude~
    • Viticultural Advantages and Challenges of Growing at High Altitudes Must Always Be Put In Context. What is Advantageous to High Altitude Region May Be a Challenge to a Low Altitude Region.  It Might Be Advantageous to Deal With High Winds at High Altitude and at the Same Time Be a Challenge to Have High Winds at Low Altitude.

VITICULTUREADVANTAGE–  ~High Altitude~

  • IN THE VINEYARD
    • High Altitude Climate Has Major Effect On a Vineyards Climate.
    • Greater Temperature Fluctuations/ +DIURNAL SHIFTS(+35*)
    • Lower Temperatures In Day/ Hight Temperatures at Night
    • Soils- Poor, Less Fertile, Good Drainage
    • Higher Solar Radiation at Altitudes Means More Light and Greater Intensity of Light/ Solar Rays.
    • Physiological Changes and Adaption
      • Grapes Change and Metabolize Leading to Genetic Differences That Can Be Past Down Through Clones.
      • At High Altitude the Grape Skins Become Thicker.  This is Advantageous During the Day the Protect Against Heat and Provides UV. Protection.  At Night the Thick Skins Protect Against the Cold Temperatures.
      •  A Grapes Biological Reaction is to Protect its Seeds by Increasing its Skins Thickness. By Producing a Thicker Pigmented Skin to Adapt and Thrive With Increased Climatic Conditions Including Ultraviolet Exposure, Heat and Wind.
    • High Altitude Slows Down the Growing Process Leading For the Possibility of Greater Development.
  • IN WINERY
    • Which Influences a Grape Growing Potential.Make For More Concentrated Flavors.
    • Intensity of Aroma, Fruit, Structure and Varietal Characteristics.
  • IN The WINE
    • Health Benefits- There’s Evidence That Red Wines Grown at Higher Elevation Possess Greater Levels of Antioxidant Properties Including Resveratrol In Response to the Greater Natural UV. Sunlight.
    • Color, Antioxidants, Tannin

VITICULTURECHALLENGE–  ~High Altitude~

  • Lower Temperature and Higher Solar Radiation
  • Managing the Tannins (Tannin Concentration In Greater)
  • Lower Harvest Yields
  • Possibility For Sunburn
  • Possibility of High Winds
  • Specialized Equipment and Manpower Needed to Farm Variable Terrain
  • Shallow Soils
  • Well Drained Soils That Don’t Hold Water
  • Variations to the Angle of the Sun
  • Scarcity of Water Resources
  • Proper Canopy Management/ Shading Is Needed.

INVERSION LAYER- Deviation From the Normal Change of Atmospheric Property With Altitude, Increase In Temperature With Height. Inversion Layers Tend to Prevent the Air Below From Rising Above

  • Every +Alt.100 mt./ 330 ft. Reduces Temperature 1.08*

TEMPERATURE INVERSION- Thin Layer of Atmosphere Where the Normal Decrease In Temperature With Height Switches to Temperature Increasing With Height. An Inversion Acts Like a Lid, Keeping Normal Atmosphere From Penetrating Through the Inversion.

MOUNTAINS vs. VALLEY FLOOR

  • GEOGRAPHY Napa Mountains are Considered the Vacca Mountains(East) and the Mayacaymas Mountains(West). The Valley Floor is the Medium In-Between.
  • TOPOGRAPHY +Altitude, Increase Aspect
    • *Generally– Differences Between Mountain and Valley Can Be Defined In Topography, Viticulture, Style and Winemaking.
    • Floor Accumulates Water…Grapes Increase Size/ Thin Skin.
    • Hillsides- Exposed to Greater Winds, Less Frost Potential, Better Drainage, Aspect, Grapes Don’t Regain Water, Smaller Grapes, Thicker Skin, More Expensive to Farm.
  • GRAPES- Hillside Vineyards Are More Stressed: by Wine, Exposure, Lack of Water, Less Vigorous, Later Bud Break, Later Harvest(2 Weeks), Smaller Grapes/ Increase Skin to Juice Ration.
  • SOILS- Shallow, Porous Rocky, Better Drainage.
  • CLIMATE- Temperature: 10*-15* Cooler During Day, 10* Warmer at Night
    • +WIND Afternoon/ +Stress, +RAIN: 10-14 Inches More Than Valley Floor
    • Above Fog-Line/ Less Fog, Increase Light Intensity, Shorter Diurnal Shirts
  • VITICULTURE
    • Generally- Valley Side/ Hills Are the Best for Grape Growing, Base of Valley Side/ Hills is Good, But Valley Floor Can Be Too Vigorous.
    • -Lower Average Temperature, But More Sunlight Hours.
    • **Refer to “CLIMATE/ Altitudes” For Additional Information
  • VINICULTURE
    • Wine= Increase Structure, Deeper Color, Firmer Tannins, Mineral Character, +Minimality, +Ageibility, +Acidity
    • Yields= Mountains- 1-3 Tons/ Acres Valley Floor-5-7 Tons/ Acres
    • Brix: 25 vs. 27 (Cabernet Sauvignon)
    • Economy– Increase Cost Production, Less Quantity

VALLEY SLOPE vs. VALLEY FLOOR

Since Ancient Rome Hillside Vineyards Were Known to Grow Grape of Better Quality, Pronounced Flavors and Were More Sought After.

TOPOGRAPHY- +Altitude, Increase Aspect

  • Floor– Accumulates Water…Grapes Increase Size/ Thin Skin.
  • Hillsides-  Water Drains Off, Grapes Don’t Regain Water, Develop Into Smaller Grapes.

SOILS- Shallow, Porous Rocky, Better Drainage

CLIMATE- Temperature: 10* Cooler During Day, 10* Warmer at Night

  • +WIND Afternoon/ +Stress, RAIN: 10-14 Inches More Than Valley Floor.
  • Above Fog-Line/ Less Fog, , Increase Light Intensity, Shorter Diurnal Shirts.
  • GRAPES= Later Bud Break, Later Harvest(2 Weeks), Increase Cost Production.
  • Smaller Grapes/ Increase Skin to Juice Ration.

VITICULTURE– Generally-
VINICULTURE
WINE- Increase Structure, Deeper Color, Firmer Tannins

  • +Minimality, +Agability, +Acidity
  • YIELDS= Mountains- 1-3 Tons/ Acer Valley Floor-5-7 Tons/ Acer
  • BRIX: 25 vs. 27 (Cabernet Sauvignon)
  • *Generally– Valley Side/ Hills Are the Best For Grape Growing, Base of Valley Side/ Hills is Good, But Valley Floor Can be Too Vigorous.

High Altitude Regions Greece

NEMEA PDO.     @Nemea, Greece

  • RED= Agiorgitiko, Moschofilero
  • GEOGRAPHYCOUNTRY-Greece, REGION-Peloponnese(Central), DISTRICTS-Korinthos, Argolida
    • LATITUDE– 28* ”N’
  • TOPOGRAPHY
    • Lowlands +Alt.350mt.
    • Semi-Hills– Valley of Nemea, +Alt.600mt.
    • MountainsSLOPES/ Mt. Kyllini, +Alt. 800 mt.

ACHAIA PGI. ‘District‘     @Achaia, Grecce

  • WHITE=   ?   |   RED= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– Greece, REGION-Peloponnese(North), DISTRICT– Achaia
    • LATITUDE– ? * ”N’
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Hilly”, +Alt. 250 mt.– 800 mt.

METSOVO    @Epirus, Greece

  • WHITE=   ?   |   RED= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– Greece, REGION–        , LATITUDE– ?*  ”N’
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Mt.Pindus +Alt.3,280 ft.

High Altitude Regions Switzerland

VISPERTERMINEN     @VailasSwitzerland

  • WHITE=   ?   |   RED= ?
  • GEOGRAPHYREGION– Central Europe, COUNTRY-Switzerland, REGION-Vailas, LATITUDE– ?*  ”N
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced”, SLOPES/Alps, +Alt. 1,100 mt.
    • -Producer/ Vineyards- St. Modern Kellerei

High Altitude Regions Spain

YCODEN-DAUTE-ISORA DO.      @Tenerife, Spain

  • BLANCO= Listan Blanco 70%, Albillo, Gual, Malvasia, Marmajuelo, Moscatel
  • TINTO= Listan Negero, Listan Prieto, Baboso Negro, Tintilla
  • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Canary Island Archipelago(Central), LATITUDE– 28* ”N’
    • On~Tenerife~Island~(West)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, SLOPES/ Pico del Teide, +Alt. 1,600 mt.
  • VITICULTURE–   ? ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Envinate, Ignios Origenes, Marba, Monje, Yinatigo Tinto
    • Vineyards– Masca, Llano Redondo, Valle de Arriba, La Zanja

GRANADA     @Andalucia, Spain

  • WHITE=
  • RED= Garnacha, Carignan
  • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Andalucia, LATITUDE– ?*  ”N
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Hilly/ Mountainous”, SLOPES/ ?,  +Alt. 1,368 mt.
    • -Producer/ Vineyards- Barranco Oscuro

High Altitude Regions Italy

ETNA DOC.      @Sicily, Italy

  • WHITE= Carricante, Cattaratto
  • RED= Nerello Mascelese, Nerello Cappucio
  • GEOGRAPHY– Italy, REGION-Sicily, LATITUDE– 37.75* ”N’
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced”, SLOPES/ Mt. Etna, +Alt. 1,300 mt.
    • -Producer/ Vineyards- Salvo Foti, Vigna di Bosco

MORGEX Et La SALLE     @Val d’Aosta, Italy

  • WHITE= Prie Blanc
  • GEOGRAPHY– Italy, REGION-Val d’Aosta, LATITUDE– ?*  ”N
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly/Mountainous/ Terraces”, SLOPES/ Alps, +Alt. 1,225 mt.
    • -Producer/ Vineyards- Cave Mont Blanc, Vini Estremi

ALTO ADIGE*DOC.      @Bolzano

  • BIANCO= Pinot Grigio 13%, Gewurztraminer(Indigenous) 10%, Muller-Thurgau, Reze, Riesling Italico, Rossara, Versoain
    • Internationale– Pinot Bianco 9%, Sauvignon Blanco 8%, Chardonnay 8%, Sylvaner
  • ROSSO= Lagrein 13%, Schiava 7%, Cassetta, Dindarella, Encantio AKA=Lambrusco, Kerner, Marzemino, Moscato, Rossara, Teroldego, Trevisana
    • Internationale– Pinot Nero AKA=Bluburgunder 10%, Merlot 3%, Cabernet Franc,Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Meunier
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Alto Adige(Greater), “Multi-Appellation”, @Hw.#A22
    • PROVINCIA-Bolzano, Northern Half of Trentino-Alto Adige
    • CITIES– Tramin an der Weinstase AKA=Tramin
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”
    • SLOPES/ Dolomites Mountains, +Alt. 600 mt.- 3,300 mt.
  • VITICULTURA– 4,600 ha. Planted,   Single & Double Pergola Training System
  • VINICULUTRE
    • Estate/ Produttore– Alois Legeder, Cantina Bolzano, Castelfeder, Elisabetta Foradori, Elena Walch, Erste & Neue, Franz Haas, Glener, Gottardi, Ignaz Niedrist, Muri-Gries, Nals Margreid(170ha.) St. Michael-Eppan, Tramin(Sparkling), Tiefenbrunner, Weingut Niklas
    • Vineyards– Louengang(50ha.)
  • CULTURAAKA=Sudtirol
    • PIONEERS– ~Giuseppe Kettmeir~ Influenced Modernization, International Sales

High Altitude Regions Asia

NAPAL     @Asia

  • WHITE=   ?   |   RED= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY–  REGION-Southern Asia, REGION-Napal
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, SLOPES/ Himalayan Mountains, +Alt. 9,020 ft.
  • CLIMATETemperate
  • VITICULUTRE–   ? ha.
    • -Estate/ Producer-

TIBET     @China

  • WHITE=   ?   |   RED= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY–  REGION-South-West China, COUNTY-China
  • TOPOGRAPHY-  “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, SLOPES/ +Alt. 3,563 mt. (Highest Vineyard In World)
  • CLIMATETemperate
  • VITICULUTRE–  ? ha.
    • -Estate/ Producer-

KINGOM Of BHUTAN     @Bhutam, China

  • WHITE=  Chardonnay, Petit Manseng, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvigon, Malbec, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY–  REGION-South-West China, COUNTY-China
  • TOPOGRAPHY-  “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, SLOPES/ Himalayan, +Alt. 8,900 ft.
  • CLIMATETemperate
  • VITICULUTRE– ? ha.
    • -Estate/ Producer- Bhutan Wine Company, Taltarni, Thunder Dragon
    • Vineyards– Bajo, Yusipang

High Altitude Regions South America

SALTAProvince     @Salta

  • WHITE= Torrontes Riojano 40%, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Garnacha, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Tannat
  • GEOGRAPHYREGION-South America, COUNTRY-Argentina(North-West), REGION-Northwestern, LATITUDE: 24* ‘S’
    • Sub-Zones- El Arenal DO., Cafayate DO., Molinos DO., Valles Chalchaquies DO.
    • BORDERS: Catamarca(South-West), Tucuman(South-East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(Calchaqui)”
    • SLOPES/ Andes Mountains, +Alt. 2,300 mt.- 3,100 mt.
  • SOILS= Metamorphic”, Sedimentary, Sandy-Loam, Over Clay, Sub-Soil
  • CLIMATE=  Desert With Continental Influences
    • Summers– Hot, Dry   |   Winters– Cold, Wet
  • VITICULUTRE–  ? ha., (45% White/ 55% Red)
    • Salta Possesses Some of the Highest Altitude Vineyards In the World
  • VINICULTURE
    • -Producer/ Vineyard- Colome, Claudo Zucchino
    • -Vineyards- Altura Maxima(3,011 mt.)

ELQUI VALLEY DO.     @La Serena

  • WHITE= Sauvignon Blanc 25%, Chardonnay 20%, Pedro Ximenez
  • RED= Syrah 30%, Carmenere 20%, Cabernet Sauvignon 8%, Pinot Noir 6%, Garnacha, Malbec, Petite Sirah
  • GEOGRAPHYREGION-South America, COUNTRY-Chile, PROVINCE-Coquimbo(North), LATITUDE: 29.9* ‘S’
    • Sub-Zones- La Serena(West/ Coast) Vicuna(Central/ East), Piguano(East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Elqui)”, +Alt. 625mt.- 2,200 mt.
    • On~Elqui~River~
  • SOILS= Metamorphic”, ”Volcanic”, ”Sedimentary
    • Alluvial, Clay, Silt, Chalk, Limestone, Granite
  • CLIMATE= Desert, Irrigation Needed
  • VITICULTURE– 500 ha.
    • Estate/ Producers– Capel(Co.-Op.), De Martino, , San Pedro, Vina Falernia & Mayu, Vinedos de Alcohauz(Chile’s Highest Vineyard 2,200mt.)
    • Vineyards– Alto Los Torros, Mayu

QUEBRADA GI.     @Purmamarca

  • WHITE= Torrontes
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY– Argentina, REGION-Northern, PROVINCE-Jujuy
    • CITIES: Humahuaca, Maimara, Purmamarca, Tilcara, Uquia
    • LATITUDE: 23.4* ‘S’, On Tropic of Capricorn
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, On~Rio Grande~River~
    • SLOPES/ Andes Mountains/ Siete Colores Hill, +Alt. 2,192 mt. – 3,329 mt.
  • SOILS= Metamorphic”, “Volcanic“, ”Sedimentary”, Alluvium, Sand, Gravel
  • VITICULTURE– 22 ha. Planted
    • Estates/ Producers– Amanecer Andino, Claudio Zucchino, Don Milagro, Fernando Dupont, Mina Moya, Molino de Chicapa, Tukma, Vinas del Perchel
    • Vineyards– Huichaira(4ha.), Yacoralte, Zucchino(One Highest Vineyard In World 3,329mt.)

TUPUNGATO DO.     @Tupungato

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet, Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– Argentina, PROVINCE-Mendoza, In Valle de Uco DO.(North), LATITUDE– ?*  ”N
    • Sub-Zones-  El Peral DO., Gualtallary DO., @Route#40 & #86
    • BORDERS: Tunuyan DO.(South), “Multi-Appellation”, South of Mendoza-City(65km.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Las Tunas/ Eponymous~River~
    • SLOPES/ Andes Mountains,  +Alt. 1,300 mt.
  • SOILS=Metamorphic”, ”Sedimentary”, Sand, Gravel, Chalk
  • VITICULTURE– 5,250haPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers– Andeluna, Cuatro Manos(Nat.Pro.), Finca Sophenia, Gouguenheim, Masi, Rutini, Salentein, Rutini, Vaglio, Zorzal
    • -Vineyards- Clima Limite(Zorzal/ 2,000mt.)

High Altitude Regions United States

GRAND VALLEY AVA.     @Grand Junction

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurtztraminer, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Sangiovese, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY– USA.(South-West), Colorado(West), COUNTY-Mesa, @Hw.#70,
    • LATITUDE– 39.06*  ‘”N’
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Grand)”, SLOPES/ Rocky Mountains, +Alt. 6,416 ft.
    • On~Gunnison~Tributary~Colorado~River~
  • SOILS= Metamorphic,  Sandy
  • CLIMATE=Continental“,   Summers– Warm/ Dry    |   Winters– Cold/ Wet, Snow
  • VITICULTURE–  ? ac.Planted
    • Estates/ Producers– Book Cliff, Canyon Wild, Colterris, Fox Fire, Infinite Monkey, Two Rivers
    • Vineyards– Ferrante, Terror Creek ‘Estate'(Highest Vineyard In America 6,400 ft.)

WILLCOX AVA.      @Willcox

  • WHITE= Malvasia Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Petite Sirah, Tempranillo
  • GEOGRAPHY– USA.(South-West), STATE-Arizona(South), East of Tucson-City(    mi.),  @Hw.#10
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, SLOPES/ Chiricahua Foothills, +Alt. 5,200 ft.
    • On~Turkey~Creek~
  • SOILS= Metemorphic“, Loamy, Sand
  • CLIMATE= Desert With Continental Influences
  • VITICULTURE– ?  acPlanted
    • CHALLENGES: Humidity, Monsoon Rain
  • VINICULTURE
    • Estates/ Producers– Aridus(E.?40ac.), Carlson Creek, Deep Sky, Fort Bowie, Keeling Schaefer, Lawrence Dunham, Passion Cellars, Pillbury, Sand-Reckoner, Zarpara

HIGH VALLEY AVA.     @Clearlake Oaks

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminor, Orange Muscat, Pinot Grigio, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Malbec, Mourvèdre, Petite Sirah, Petiti Verdot, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Tempranillo, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY– California, REGION-Clear Lake, COUNTY-Lake, LATITUDE– ?*  ”N, @Hw.#20
    • In Clear Lake AVA.(North-East), Above Lake (300 ft.), (9 Miles Long & 3 Mile Wide)
    • Sub-Zones- The Volcanic Ridge
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Valley(High ‘Transverse’)”, On~Clear~Lake~(North-East)
    • SLOPES/ Round Mountain Volcano(Cinder Cone) , +Alt. 1,800 ft.- 2,900 ft.
    • High Valley is a Watershed to Clear Lake, Once Blocked by Volcanic Activity the Entire Valley Became a Lake, This Left Alluvial Soils Throughout
    • Sub-Zones- “Valley Floor” & “Hillsides”
  • SOILS= Metamorphic”, “Volcanic” (Volcanic Shale, Franciscan Shale)
    • Sedimentary, Alluvial, Sandy Loams, Lupoyoma Series, Mayacamus Series
    • Gravelly Loams Eroded Franciscan Shales
  • CLIMATE=Continental, +DIURNAL SHIFTS (+50*)
    • +WINDS/ Wind Machine- 2 Gaps In West Valley Allow Lake Moisture In Valley
  • VITICULTURE– 14,000 ac./ 977 ac. Planted
    • Estates/ Producers– Brassfield
    • Vineyards– High Serenity Ranch, High Valley, Monte Sereno, Volcanic Ridge
  • CULTURE
    • PIONEERS– ~Ogulin Family~ 1870, Planted Vineyards In High Valley

FAIRPLAY AVA.     @Plymouth

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED= Barbera, Cabernet Sauvignon, Nebbiolo, Petite Sirah, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY– California, El Dorada AVA.(South), COUNTY– El Dorado
    • LATITUDE– 38.5* ‘N’, @Hw.#49
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”
    • SLOPES/ Sierra Nevada Mountains, +Alt. 2,000 ft.- 2,615  ft. (Peak 2,900 ft.)
  • SOILS= Metamorphic“, “Volcanic, Decomposed Granite
  • CLIMATE=Continental With Mediterranean Influence
  • VITICULTURE– ? acPlanted
    • Estates/ Producers– Charles B. Mitchell, Mellowood, Mount Aukum, Obscurity, Perry Creek, Toogood
    • Vineyards– Cedarville, Paso Vista, Sentivo, Serendipity Hill, Shake Ridge, Skinner(HVS.)
  • CULTURE
    • PIONEERS–  ~James Skinner~ Scottish Gold Miner Who’s Skinner Vineyards In Was One of the First In Sierra Foothills
  • GOING THERE
    • WINE-TRAILS–  ~Fairplay Wine Trail~

MOUNT VEEDER AVA.     @Yountville

  • WHITE= Albarino, Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Gruner Veltliner, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon 64%, Cabernet Franc, Carignan, Garnacha, Malbec, Merlot, Mondeuse, Petit Verdot, Sangiovese, Syrah, Tribidrag, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY– California, REGION-Napa,  In Napa Valley AVA.(South-West)
    • South-West of Yountville-City(2mi.), (Southernmost Mountain AVA.)
    • Sub-Zones- Browns Valley, Pickle Canyon
    • BORDERS: Carneros AVA.(South), Sonoma Valley AVA.(West)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling, Hilly/ Mountainous”, Veiw of San Francisco From Vineyards
    • SLOPES/ Mayacamas Mountains(South), +Alt. 400 ft.- 2,400 ft.(Peak/2,677ft.)
    • BORDERS: Carneros AVA.(South), Above Yountville AVA.
  • SOILS= Metamorphic”, “Volcanic”, ”Sedimentary
    • Ancient Up-Lifted Clay Sea-Bed, Sandstone, Shale(Fractured), Sub-Soil is Gravelly Loam, Cobbles, Stony Loam
    • SOIL SERIES–  –Aiken Series
  • CLIMATE= Mediterranean, Coolest of Napa Mountain Appellation
    • INFLUENCED: Above Fog, Inversion Layer, +RAIN: 35 in./ yr.
  • VITICULTURE– 15,000 ac./ 1,000 ac. Planted, 
    • CHALLENGE– Vertically/ Labor Intensive
    • Estates/ Producers– Aaron Pott, Black Cordon, Bolden Family, Craine, Devil’s Canyon, Fontanella, Godspeed, Guffy, Hendry Yates, Hess Collection*, Lagier meredith(4.5ac.), Mayacamas, Mt. Brave, Mt.Veeder, Reid, Rudd, Sky, Wing Canyon, Yates, Young Ridge
    • Vineyards– Allomi, Bradlin, Chateauneuf-DuPott, Langtable, Phoenix, Round Table, Scaggs, Summit, Su’skol, Veeder Crest, Veeder Summit, Wing Canyon
  • CULTURE PIONEERS– ~Peter Vedeer~ 1864, Planted First Vines On Mount Veeder
    • PIONEERS– ~Carole Meredith~ Phd./ Grape Geneticist(DNA Fingerprinting), Helped Solved Mystery of Zinfandel
  • GOING THERE-  WINE TOURS– Hess Collection
    • NON-WINE RELATED–  ~Westwood Hills Park Hike~

ROGUE VALLEY AVA.     @Medford/ Ashland

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurtraminer, Marsanne, Muscat, Pinot Meunier, Pinot Gris, Roussanne, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Viognier
  • RED= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Dolcetto, Gamay, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah, Tempranillo, Zinfandel
  • GEOGRAPHY– Oregon, Southern Oregon AVA., North of Klamath Mountains
    • West of Pacific Ocean(30 mi.), LATITUDE: 42.2* ‘N’
    • COUNTIES-Jackson, Josephine, (70 Miles Long & 60 Miles Wide)
    • Sub-AVA’s Bear Valley AVA., Applegate Valley AVA., Illinois Valley AVA.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Rogue)”, +Alt. 1,400ft.- 2,490 ft.
    • SLOPES/ Convergence of 3 Ranges: Klamath Mountains, Coastal Range, Cascades
    • GEOLOGICAL UNITS: 3,  3 Adjacent Valleys: Bear Creek, Applegate, Illinois
      • Topographic Sub-Zones-North Side, South Side, North Rogue Valley
    • On~Bear/ Applegate/ Illinois~Rivers~Tributaries~Rogue~River~
    • **Refer to “CLIMATE/ Altitudes” For Additional Information
    • VOLCANOS IN ROGUE– ~Mount Mclaughlin~ (Located Outside Rogue Valley)
  • CLIMATE=Mediterranean WithContinental Influences, Warmest/ Oregon
  • SOILS= Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary“, Clay, Loamy Soils
    • SOIL SERIES–  Manita Series–     –Medford Series–     –Ruch Series–     –Takilma Series
  • VITICULTURE– 2,500 acPlanted
    • CHALLANGE– Spring/ Fall- Frost
  • VINICULUTRE
    • Estate/ Producers–  2Hawk, Bayer Family, Belle Fiore, Cliff Creek, Crater Lake, Dancin, Del Rio, Folin, Foris, Griffin Creek, Ledger David
    • Vineyards– Evans Creek, Dancin, Deer Creek, Del Rio, Féris, Folin, Jaxon, Red Lily, Sam’s Valley, Yank Gulch(2,490 ft.)
  • HISTORY–  1840’s- First Vines Planted by European Immigrants
  • CULTURE
    • WINE TRAILS~ ~Upper Rogue Valley Wine Trail~
    • FESTIVALS– ~Oregon Wine Experience(August/ Medford-Ashland)

High Altitude Regions Other

CENTRAL RANGES Zone”  GI.- 3      @

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Colombard, Marsanne, Moscato, Semillon, Vermentino, Viognier
  • RED= Barbera, Cabernet Sauvignon, Lagrein, Merlot, Ruby Cabernet, Sangiovese, Shiraz
  • GEOGRAPHY– Australia, New South Wales“State”,  LATITUDE: 20.1* ‘S’
    • BORDERS: Hunder Valley “Zone”(North-West), West of Sydney-City(   km.)
    • Sub-Zones-  Cowra GI., Mudgee GI., Orange GI.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”, SLOPES/ Great Dividing Range/ Blue Mountains, +Alt. 600 mt.- 1,000 mt.
  • VITICULTURE– ? haPlanted
    • -Estates/ Producers- Banderra, Chateau Champsaur, Monument, Vale Creek

ARMAVIRProvince     @Armenia

  • WHITE= Areni, Garandmak, Voskehat
    • International– Aligote, Chenin Blanc
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY– Armenia(North-West)
  • TOPOGRAPHY“Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, SLOPES/ Caucasus Mountains,, +Alt. 4,500  ft.
    • On~Hrazdan~River~, PLATEAU/ Rind
  • VITICULTURE– ?  ha. Planted
    • -Estate/ Producers– Karas, Zorah Karasi(37ha.)


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.