ANNUAL LIFE CYCLE


PHENOLOGY- Branch of Science Dealing With the Relations Between Climate and Periodic Biological Phenomena…Bud Burst, Plant Flowering

VIGOR- Refers to the Rate at Which a Vine Grows From Month to Month. Vigor Is Influenced by Soil, Climate Nutrients, Water, Canopy Management. High and Low Vigor Can Effect the Vines Ability to Achieve Optimum Grape Maturity.

  • VITICULTURE DISCLAIMER~Variations In Weather~
    • Generally Certain Events In the Annual Life Cycle of the Vine Happens at Set Times During Growing Season. These Set Times Can Be Skewed by Days or Week Depending On the Grape Variety or Variations In Weather That a Region Might Be Subject to.
  • VITICULTURE DISCLAIMER~ ~Time-Line~ 
    • Information Given Implies to the Northern Hemisphere Growing Season.

A YEAR IN The VINEYARD

JANUARY

  • DORMANCY Although Not Essential For Healthy Grapes, It’s Deemed Beneficial For Grape-Vines to Shut-Down or Go Dormant For Period of Months.
  • VITICULTURE PRACTICES
    • Winter Pruning

FEBRUARY

  • DORMANCY- Although Not Essential For Healthy Grapes, It’s Deemed Beneficial For Grape-Vines to Shut-Down or Go Dormant For Period of Months.
  • VITICULTURE PRACTICES– 
    • Winter Pruning
    • Ploughing
    • Planting Cover Crops
    • Chopping Prunning Material and Working it Into the Soil

MARCH

  • BUD SWELLING– Bud Sight Swells and Get Larger. This Act is the Un-Official Beginning of Growing Season.
  • BLEEDING/ WEEPING– Lose of Fluid/ Bleeding From Bud Sights.
  • BUD-BURST– Buds “Burst”, This Marks the End of Dormancy. (Late March/ Early April)
      • Temperature Related (Weather Needs to Warm For Process to Go Off.)
      • Standard Deviation– 1 Day to 10 Days
    • Time ScaleBud-Burst to Flowering- 62 Days
      • Bud-Burst to Véraison- 58 Days
      • Bud-Burst to Harvest- 170 Days
  • VITICULTURE PRACTICES–  Trellising Maintenance

APRIL

  • BUD-BURST– Buds “Burst”, This Marks the End of Dormancy. (Late March/ Early April)
    • Temperature Related (Weather Needs to Warm For Process to Go Off.)
    • Time Scale Bud-Burst to Flowering- 62 Days
      • Bud-Burst to Fruit-Set- ?
      • Bud-Burst to Harvest- 170 Days
  • SHOOTS– New Stems Emerge From Bud and Start to Grow.
    INFLORESCENCE EMERG
  • VITICULTURE PRACTICES
    • Vines Are Starting to Grown and Need Attention/ Ploughing Down.

MAY

  • FOLAGE– Leaves Unfold and Start Growing
  • EMROYO BUNCHES EMERG
  • VITICULTURE PRACTICES
    • Tying Down Vines
    • Suckering
    • De-Budding

JUNE

  • FLOWERING– Grapevine Flowers Develop Into a Cluster, the Main Axis is Called the Rachis. When Spring Temperature Reach 68* Flowers Begin to Bloom Usually 6-8 Weeks After Bud Break. Vines Possess Stamens (Male) & Carpels (Female) Covered by the Calypra. Flowers Bloom for 8-10 Days and Fertilization 2-3 Days After. Generally Grapes Are Ready For Harvest 90-100 Days After Flowering, Give or Take 1 Week.
    • Standard Deviation– 1 Day to 7 Days
    • Time Scale Flowering to Pollination- ?
      • Flowering to Fruit-Set-
      • Flowering to Veraison- 58 Days
      • Flowering to Harvest- ?
  • POLLINATION/ BLOOM– Process by Which Pollen is Transferred From the Anther(Male Part) to the Stigma(Female Part) of the Plant Enabling Fertilization and Reproduction.
    • Vines Need Dry Conditions With Sufficient Sunlight For Pollination to Go Smoothly.
    • Wet and Cold Weather During Spring Can Lead to Uneven Flowering and Reduced Fruit-Set.
    • Time Scale Pollination/ Bloom  to Fruit-Set- 3 Weeks
      • Pollination to Harvest- ?
  • FERTILIZATION– Fusion of Gametes to Initiate the Development of a New Organism
  • VITICULTURE PRACTICES
    • Focus On Maintaining and Curating Crop Load, Fasten Canes, Prune Leaves

JULY

  • FRUIT-SET– Period Where Flowers Are Fertilized, Small Green Berries Form.
    • Time Scale– Fruit-Set to Véraison- ?
      • Fruit-Set to Harvest- ?
  • LAG PHASE– Pause In Berry Growth While Seed Embryos Start to Form.
  • VERAISON– Period Grapes Change Color From Green to Red or Yellow
    • Ripening of the Grapes Begins the Moment Veraison Starts, Grape “Color Up”. Black Varietals Turn Red/ Blue or the Dark Color They Are Destined to Be. White Grape Turn Crystal Yellow or Pale Green or the Color They Destined to Be.
    • Veraison Can Be Spotty, With Some Grapes Being Ripe, While Some Can Raison While Others Remain Green.
    • Heterogeneity- Uniformity During Veraison
    • Standard Deviation– 1 Day to 10 Days
    • Time Scale– Occurs at a Set Time After Flowering
      • Véraison to Harvest- 51 Days
  • VITICULTURE PRACTICES
    • Shoot Thinning

AUGUST

  • SHATTER/ Coulure- Sugar Imbalance, Vines Can’t Develop Enough Sugar for Berries, Failure of Grapes to Develop After Flowering, from Extended Rain/ Frigid Weather.
    • If Vine Flower Doesn’t Get Pollinated Grapes Die and Fall Off, Flowers Stay Closed and Aren’t Fertilized
    • Grapes Are Self Pollinating, During Fruit-Set if it Rains it Washes the Pollen of Grapes Away and Grapes Don’t Idea Crop-Set and You Get Shatter. This Resulting In Clusters That Don’t Complete and Crop Can Lose +25% of Harvest and Yields. Shatter Doesn’t Effect Quality But Effects Yields.
    • Caused by Warm Weather Causing Excessive Shot Growth and the Grape- Vines Enate Feeling That It Will Not Develop Enough Sugar to Nourish the Grapes Completely. By Going Through Coulure it Will Drop Fruit Which Allows the Remaining Fruit to Have All the Resources it Needs Ripen Grapes.
  • RIPENING– Maturity of Grapes, +Sugar, +Tartaric Acid & -Malic Acid 40-60 Days,
    • Factors; Varietal, Pest, Disease, Environment
    • **Refer to “GRAPE DEVELOPMENT/ Ripening” For Detailed Information
  • VITICULTURE PRACTICES
    • Most Major Farming Practices Are Done and There is a Little Bit of a Break Before Harvest/ Leaf Thinning/ Green Harvest
    • Harvest– “Early Ripening”, Picking Grapes From Vine and Initiating Wine Production.

SEPTEMBER

  • VITICULTURE PRACTICES
    •  Harvest– Picking Grapes From Vine and Initiating Wine Production.
    • Standard Deviation– 1 Day to 12 Days
      • Time Scale– Occurs at a Set Time After Verision

OCTOBER

  • VITICULTURE PRACTICES
    • Harvest– “Late Ripening”, Picking Grapes From Vine and Initiating Wine Production.
    • Standard Deviation– 1 Day to 12 Days
    • Late Harvest

NOVEMBER

  • POST HARVEST
  • LEAF FALL
  • VITICULTURE PRACTICES

DECEMBER

  • DORMANCY– Although Not Essential For Healthy Grapes, It’s Deemed Beneficial For Grape-Vines to Shut-Down or Go Dormant For Period of Month.
  • VITICULTURE PRACTICES
    • Very Little if Nothing to Performed In Vineyard.


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced