- SUB-TOPICS Of POST FERMENTATION CHAPTER
- Types of Aging
- Malolactic Conversion/ Fermentation
- Dissolved Carbon Dioxide In Still Wine
- Juice Settling
- Must/ Wine Additions
- Sulfur Dioxide
- Inert Gases
- Bottling Process
- Transferring Wine
- Aging Wine
- Up-Cylcling Post-Fermentation Waste
- Things to Monitor After Fermention
POST FERMENTATION MACERATION– Letting the Must Stay In Contact With the Juice/ Wine For an Extended Period of Time After the Primary Fermentation is Completed.
- Post Fermentation Maceration is a Time and Opportunity to Capture More Complexity by Extracting Additional Color, Flavor, Tannin and Structure.
Dead Yeast and Sediment That Fall to the Bottom of the Fermentation Vessel During the Completion of First or Second Fermentation. After Lees Fall Out of Wine and Settle On Bottle of Barrel They Sit In What is Referred to as a Lees-Bed.
- GROSS LEES- Refers to the “Larger” Size of Lees, Sediment and Debris On Bottom of Maceration/ Fermentation Container: Leftover Grape Skins/ Bits, Dirt, Seeds. If Left Unattended Gross Lees Decompose and Often Lead to Undesirable Compounds, Spoil Wine or Impart Funky Undesirable Flavors and Aroma. Gross Lees Are Mostly Found On Bottom of Maceration Vessels After Pressing and Are Racked-Off Before Fermentation
- FINE LEES- Refers to the “Smaller” Size of Lees, Silky Sediment That Accumulated and Settle On Bottom of Maceration/ Fermentation Vessel On Top of the Gross Lees. Fine Lees Are Made Up of Dead Yeast Cells(More Desirable Outcome), Grape Particulates, Bacteria, Tartaric Acid/ Crystals, Polysaccharides and Tannins. After Fermentation is Complete There Can Be 1- 3 Gallons or Lees On Bottom of the Fermentation Barrel
- SUR LIE AGING- Process of Allowing Fermented Wine to Continue to Sit On Lees(Lees-Bed) In Order to Extract Additional Flavors Prior to Racking & Bottling
- Autolysis- Chemical Reactions Caused by the Decay or Breaking Down of Yeast Cells by Their Own Enzymes. This Enzymatic Process is Called Autolysis. Once Yeast Cells Are Done Feeding On Sugar Fermentation is Stops and the Yeast Cell Dies. Dead Yeast Cells Are Called Lees and Start to Decompose Caused by Enzymes Inside the Lees Which Eat Away at the Cell Membrane Until the Cell Ruptures Releases Mono-Proteins Which Can Lend to a Wines Enhanced Body and Mouthfeel. During Sur Lie Aging Autolysis Also Releases Amino Acids, and Other Biological Compounds Giving Wines and Champagne Complexity, +BODY, Creamy Notes and Toasty/ Bread Like Scents. Over the Course Years the Lees Break Down Fully and Are Completely Absorbed Into the Wine.
- LEE STIRRING/ Batonnage- Stirring(With a Wood-Baton of Lees-Bed) That Have Settled On Bottom of Barrel, Cask, Tank, Vat (Burgundian Method), Batonnage Increases Wine Contact With Yeast Resulting In Increased Complexity. Batonage and Warmer Temperatures Can Speed Up the Autolysis Process
- Lees Contact With Batonnage vs. Lees Contact With Non-Batonnage
- VINICULTURE- Using Lees to Your Advantage is One of the More Significant Ways to Guide a Style In the Winemaking Process
- ADVANTAGE– Nuttiness, Toastiness, Biscuit, Baked Bread
- VARIETALS THAT SEE “SUR LEE”AGING
- WHITE= Albarino, Chardonnay, Muscadelle, Muscadet, Pinot Grigio
- Sight: Hazy/ Golden
- Aroma: Cheese Rind, Sour Cream, Marsh-Mello
- Palate: +BODY
- RED= All Red Wine is Technically Aged “Sur Lie”.
- WHITE= Albarino, Chardonnay, Muscadelle, Muscadet, Pinot Grigio
TYPES Of AGING
“Wine is One of a Few Commodities That Have the Potential to Improve With Age Over Time Given the Right Circumstances.”
OXIDATIVE AGING- Aging a Wine With Contact to Oxygen/ Air.
ANAEROBIC AGING- Aging a Wine Without Contact With Oxygen/ Air.
BIOLOGICAL AGING- Aging a Wine Under a Yeast/ Culture That Forms a Barrier That Restricts the Wine From the Oxygen/ Air.
- **Refer to “SPAIN/ Sherry” For Detailed Information On Biological Aging.
“Prior to Modern Aging Techniques Wine Only Lasted Into the Next Year, In Fact the Price of That Wine Dropped Significantly as Soon as Next Years Vintage Arrived.”
SACCHAOMYCES(Flor)– Scum Like Yeast Induced to Develop On the Surface of Wine of 85% Filled Barrels After Fermentation.
- VINICULTURE- Malolactic Fermentation is Advised Because of the Danger of Bacterial Infections.
- Sacchaomyces Family of Yeast: Strains Cerevisae, Cheresiensis, Montuliensis.
- Flor Floats On Surface, Providing a Barrier to Oxidation. AKA=Voile or Vail. Flor/ Voile or Barrier is Irregular Through the Aging Process Due to the Struggle For Survival of the Yeast. These Yeast Consume Substances Such as Oxygen, Glycerol, Acetic Acid and Amino Acids While Releasing Peptides and Polysaccharides and Ethanol/ Acetaldehyde.
- For the Production of Flor to Happen Alcohol Needs to Be Above 13% and So2 Levels Below 12 mg./ L.
- Development of Flor Seems to Happen Near a Cool Climate Source.
- WINES THAT SEE FLOR
- Sherry– GRAPES= Palomino, Pedro Ximenez, Muscadelle(Fino) @Andulucia
- Vin Jaune– GRAPE= Savagnin @Jura
- Biezo- GRAPE= Mercia @Castile & Leon
- Rueda- GRAPE= Verdejo @Castile & Leon
- Oregon- GRAPE= Chardonnay @Eola Amity
- Hungary- (Szamorodni Szaraz) @Tokaj
- FLOR– Szamorodni Szaraz, Name For Flor is Hartya AKA=Film
- Matures In Barrels Under Flor Layer For 3- 5 Years In Humid Cellars of Over 85% Humidity Before Bottling, Dry Flor Wine Produced From Botrytis Grapes.
- Estate/ Producers- Samuel Tinon
- FLOR– Szamorodni Szaraz, Name For Flor is Hartya AKA=Film
MALOLACTIC CONVERSION/ Fermentation
Lactic Acid Bacteria Converts Malic Acid Into 2-Parts Lactic Acid, 1-part Carbon Dioxide Gas and Heat. “Malo to Lactic” (Often Referred to as 2nd. Fermentation). Lactic Acid Bacteria Can Be Naturally Occurring (In the Vineyard/ On the Grape Skins) or Inoculated With Cultured Bacteria.
- Malolactic Conversion Turns “Hard” Malic Acid Into “Soft” Lactic Acid While Producing Other Interesting Flavor and Textures.
- Malolactic Conversion Percentage In Which a Wine Has Gone Through Malolactic Conversion, Shown as a Percentage. Malolactic Conversion Isn’t All or Nothing, it Can Be Done In Partial From 1% to 100%.
- To Achieve 0% Malolactic Conversion the Process is Blocked of Inhibited. There is Always a Chance For Spontaneous Malolactic Conversion if the Natural Lactic Acid Bacteria In a the New Wine Isn’t Cold Stabilized or Filtered Out.
- Uncontrolled Spontaneous Malolactic Conversion Can Result In the Production of Off-Characters Such as Yogurt, Sweat, Burnt Matches and Rotten Fruit.
- Malolactic Conversion Can Also Chang the Mouthfeel of Wines, Giving a Smoother and More Viscose Texture. Also a Increase In Aromatic Complexity, Reduce Herbaceous Notes and Increase Fruit Aromas.
- If Your Not Filtering Your Wine You Must Be Sure That Malolactic Conversion is Complete, This Will Guarantee the Health of the Wine.
- When Using the Correct Strain of Bacteria Can Assure the Winemaker the Final Opportunity to Enhance the Wines Aromatic Complexity and Improve the Balance and Structure of a Wine.
- By Putting Your Wine Through Malolactic Conversion You Can Almost Guarantee the Dominance of the Inoculated Strain of Yeast During Fermentation Over Indigenous Yeast.
- The Process Decreases Total Acidity TA. and Slightly Increases the Wines PH..
LACTIC ACID BACTERIA– Family of Lactic Acid Bacteria LAB., That Include Species of Oenococcus Oeni, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus. These Bacteria Metabolizes or Ingest Malic Acid and Respire Lactic Acid and Liberated Carbon Dioxide In Process.
- 1 Gram Malic Acid Converts Into .67 Grams Lactic Acid, .33 Grams of Co2.
- By-Product of Malolactic Conversion is Diacetyl Which is Where the “Butter” Aroma Comes From.
- Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Produces More Diacetyl Than Others and Winemakers Can Choose According to the Style They’re Going For.
- Malolactic Conversion is Also Done to Stabilize Wine and to Assure the Wine Doesn’t Go Through Malolactic Fermentation Accidentally After Bottling Producing Unwanted Bubbles or “Off Flavors”. Wines That Don’t Go Through Intentional Malolactic Conversion Are Alway at Risk of Inherently Doing So Later, Especially Wines With Any Residual Sugar.
- Malolactic Conversion Fundamentally Alters the Texture and Flavors of the Wine.
- EnartisML- Selected Range of Oenococcus Oeni Bacteria Strains Ideal For the Malolactic Conversion.
- CLIMATE- Cool Regions Produce Grapes With Higher Malic Acid Levels Which Leave Greater Amount of Lactic Acid/ Diacetyl In the Wine After Malolactic Conversion and Conversely.
MALOLACTIC CONVERSION MANAGEMENT
- Malolactic Conversion is Usually Preformed Shortly After Primary Fermentation and is Done In Conjunction In Same Vessel.
- Sometimes Runs Concurrently With Primary Fermentation. When This is Done at the Same Time There is a Chance and Often the Yeast Will Feed On the Newly Formed Diacetyl and Not the Sugar Leading to Potential Trouble.
- When Malolactic Conversion and How Long it Takes to Complete and at What Temperature All Have Effects On the Outcome.
- Barrels Going Through Malolactic Conversion Are Often Put In Warm Rooms to Help Complete the Process. Often The Cold Months Late In the Year Will Lead to the Conversion Shutting Down and Not Starting Up Again Until Early Spring.
- Malolactic Fermentation Can Proceed Slowly. Usually Wines That Are Not Controlled by a Temperature Controlled Cellar Don’t Really Start MLF Until the Cellar Warms Up In the Spring and the Wines Might Not Finish MLF Until Late Spring or Early Summer.
- Usually If a Winemaker Intends to Send a Wine Though MLF the Wine Gets Inoculated Immediately After Primary Fermentation and Are Maintained At a Temperature Where the MLF Can Run to Completion.
- If a Wines ABV. is Higher Than 15% or the PH. Level is Lower Than 3.2 the Process Will Be Inhibited.
- Things to Do to Greaten or Lesson the Diacetyl or Butteriness In a Wine..
- Yeast Strain, Fermentation Temperature
- BLOCKING The MALOLACTIC CONVERSION
- Lower PH. In Wine Will Hinder or Prevent Malolactic Conversion From Happening.
- Some Wine Makers Block Malolactic Conversion From Happening In Order to Achieve a Particular Style. (Racy Acidity In Albariño’s and Austrian Riesling)
- Blocking Malolactic Conversion Isn’t a Natural Process and Those Wine Shouldn’t Be Considered Natural.
- Keeping a Wine Under 50° Will Block the Conversion.
- Subjecting the Wine to So2.
NATIVE LACTIC ACID BACTERIA CONVERSION– Lactic Acid Bacteria Can Live In Vineyard or Winery and if a Wine Isn’t Put Through Malolactic Conversion There is a Chance that the Wine Will Spontaneously Go Through Malolactic Conversion.
- VITICULTURE- ADVANTAGE– Wine Becomes Richer, Fuller, Possesses a Rounder Mouthfeel and the Process Softens the Wines Sharp Acidity.
- Process Adds New Aromas That Can Be More Distinct and Vinos.
- Wine Becomes Buttery as a Result of Formation of Diacetyl.
- Wine Possess More Microbial Stability.
- VITICULTURE- CHALLENGES– Reduction of Freshness and Primary Aromas From the Grapes.
- WINES THAT GO THROUGH MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION
- Generally– Grapes High In Acid From Cool Climate Region or Wines Destined For Aging.
- White= Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Grigio
- Red= Generally 95% of Red Wines Go Through Malolactic Fermentation.
- WINES THAT DON’T GO THROUGH MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION
- Generally- Aromatics Grapes Depend On Malic Acid to Enhance Flavor Characteristics In Fruity and Floral Whites to Maintain Tart or Acidic Profile.
- White= Ehrenfelser, Gewurztraminer, Riesling
- Red= Generally 95% of Red Wines Go Through Malolactic Fermentation.
- CONTENTIOUS WINE ISSUE! “It’s Wrong to Refer to it as Malolactic Fermentation!”
- YES…“It’s Not a Fermentation, But a Conversion of Malic Acid to Lactic Acid. It is Call a Fermentation Because of the Similar Bubbling Effect That Takes Place But the Proper Term is Conversion.”
- NO…“The Most of the Wine World Refers to it as Malolactic Fermentation So Just Let it Be.”
DISSOLVED CARBON DIOXIDE IN STILL WINE
- This is Often the Case With Minimal Intervention/ Low Sulfur/ Natural Wines. The Reason For This is Wine With Little to No Sulfur Added May Benefit From Another Type of Protection From Oxidation and to Maintain Freshness.
- Carbon Dioxide is Produced by Yeast as a Bi-Product of Fermentation. It’s Colorless, Odorless and Inert Gas. Carbon Dioxide is Also Permitted as a Natural Addition Under USA./ UE. Wine Producing Regulation.
- Inert Gas- Gas Which Doesn’t Undergo Chemical Reactions or React to Other Substances, Under Normal Conditions.
- CO2 is the Easiest and Best Inert Gas to Use In the Cellar Because of Its Heavy Weight.
- Besides Used to Protect Against Oxidation Carbon Dioxide is Also Used In Small Amounts to Enhance the Mouthfeel of Still Wine.
- After Fermentation There is Naturally Between 1 and 2 G./L. CO2 In Wine Depending On the Temperature During Fermentation. Slightly Spritzy Wine Will Have 1.5 G./L. of CO2.
- In Small Amounts Co2 is Perceptible On the Palate as a Slight Spritz. There’s a Balance to Be Achieved With Co2 In Still Wine, In Red Wine Co2 Can Make a Red Wine Seem a Little Harsh, While Too Little Co2 In Still Whites Can Leave the Wine Feeling Flat and Less Lively.
- CO2 In Wine is a Styles Decision By the Wine Maker.
- White Wines Stored Cool Will Retain More Dissolved CO2.
“Some Wine-Producers Leave a Bit/ Trace of CO2/ Carbon Dioxide In Their Wine to Help Protect the Wine Naturally.”
- AMOUNT Of CARBON DIOXIDE IN WINE
- +3 G./ L. Sparkling Wines
- 1-2.5 G./ L. Prosecco(Italy)
- 1 G./ L Muscadet(France), Vinho Verde(Portugal), Moscato d’Asti(Italy)
- 500 Mg. to 1,000 Mg./ L., Give Perception of Freshness and Elevated Acidity.
JUICE SETTLING– Process of Solids Settling to Bottom of Tank, Intended to Clarify the Juice and Separate it From the Lees/ Debris Before Racking.
- Static Settling Leaving the Juice Alone/ Without Interferences or Additions to Settle.
- Sediment- Solid Material That Over Time Has Fallen Out of Wine and Settled On Bottom of Container.
- Order Sediments Falls Out of Wine- Lees, Tartrates, Phenolics, Polymers, Tannin.
“If Everything Went “Right” In the Vineyard and In the Winery There Are No Major Issues You Should Only Have to Rack Twice. (After M.L. and From Barrel to Bottle.)”
RACKING/ Decuvage– Process of Transferring Wine From One Container to Another Using Siphon or Pump.
- The Point of Racking is to Get Wine Off, or to Separate Settled Solids or What Ever Sediment Has Collected On the Bottom of the Fermentation Tank or Container. When to Rack Your Wine is Dependent on Which Kind of Sediment Your Wine is Sitting On. As a General Rule After Fermentation Red Wines Go Into Stainless Steel Tank For 12- 24 Hours to Let Solids Settle Before Racking Off and Going to Barrel.
- Fruit Sediment- Should Be Racked Off No Longer than 7 Days, Fruit Sediment Breaks Down and Starts to Put Off Rotting Aromas and Flavors that Aren’t Desirable.
- Yeast Sediment- Can Be Kept For a Few Months, Longer if Looked After Correctly as In the Case of Aging Sur-Lee.
RACK & RETURN/ Delestage– Process of Racking, Then Filtering Out Seeds, Long-Chain Tannins Then Returning Wine to Its Original Container.
- Splash Racking- Letting the “Racked” Wine Splash On the Side of New Container to Help Activate Sleepy Yeast Cells That Avoided Fermentation.
- Wine Makers Use Racking In Various Ways Depending On the Wine or the Wine Style They’re Seeking.
STABILIZATION– Process of Biochemical Activity Becoming Fixed Done by:
COLD STABILIZATION/ Tartrate Precipitation
Tartaric Acid Encourage/ Caused to Crystallize, Fall Out of Wine When Chilled to Less Than 30°. If Wine Gets Too Cold Liquid Can’t Absorb All Acid, Causing the Acid to Precipitate Out of Wine In the Form of Crystals That Cling to Underside of the Cork or Fall to Bottom of Bottle.
POTASSIUM BITARTRATE- By Product of Tartaric Acid and Potassium Binding Together an Causing a Crystal. The Process is Completely Natural and Harmless, AKA=Tartrates, Wine Diamonds
- Crystals Removed For Cosmetic Reasons. (Orderless, Tasteless)
- “Large” Potassium Bitartrate Crystals
- “Finer” Calcium Tartrate Crystals
- Crystallization of a Chemical Compound Usually Requires Some Rough Surface to Start Forming On. This is Why You Often See Tartrates Crusting On the Bottom of the Cork or On the Sides of Wine Barrels.
- Most Red Wines and the Majority of White Wine Go Through Malolactic Conversion Either Naturally or Are Induced by the Wine-Maker. This Leave Tartaric Acid as the Primary Acid We Taste In Wine and is Vidal For Balance and Mouthfeel In a Wine.
- CONTENTIOUS WINE ISSUE! “Tartrate Crystals and Cloudiness In Wine is Seen as a Fault!”
- NO…“Tartrate Crystals and Cloudiness In Wine is a Sign of Quality and I View the Wine as One That Hasn’t Been Overly Processed, and Having Aspect of a Natural Wine. If Someone is Freaking Out About Tartrate Crystals, Decant the Wine or Filter it Through Cheese Clothes.”
HEAT STABILIZATION/ Pasteurization- Heating Wine to a Temperature of 175° Degrees For 30-60 Seconds Kills Microbial Growth Bacteria That Cause Spoilage and Thus Preventing Wine From Turning Sour Immediately.
- 1864 @France– Discovered by Louis Pasteur, Figured How Fermentation Isn’t a Spontaneous Activity or a Divine Gift of God But a Predictable Process.
- PIONEERS~ ~Luis Pasteur~ First to Define the Biological Process of Fermentation and Put Forth the Fact That Yeast Are What Causes Grape Juice to Ferment and Establish Connection Between Preservation of Wine and Direct Exposure to Oxygen.
- Winemakers Now Have Complete Control of All Aspects of Fermentation Including Specific Out-Comes of Yeast, Regulating Speed, Temperature, and Length.
NATURAL WINE MAKING STABILIZATION– Given Time Wines Will Stabilize Themselves Naturally by Doing Nothing. Natural Stabilization Takes Time (Up to Years), Without Time a Wine-Maker Will Need to Stabilize the Wine With a Protection Process or Be Preservative Filled.
CLARIFICATION- Making Cloudy Wine Clear- Process of Fining and Filtration of Wine to Remove Suspended Solids and Reduce Turbidity.
- Turbidity- Cloudiness or Haziness of a Fluid or Wine Caused by Large Number of Individual Particles That Are Generally Invisible to the Naked Eye.
- Some Wine Takes Years to Settle and Become Clear, Some Producers “Fast Track” the Process by Fining and Filtrating a Wine. The Wine-Maker Has 3 Choices Wine Unsettled Wine…Intervention, Time or Cloudiness.
NEPHELOMETRIC TURBIDITY UNIT NTU.- Measure of Level of Turbidity In a Wine/ Liquid/ Solution…Low#= Clear High#= Opaque.
FINNING/ Collage- Addition of Some Pretentious Substance/ Finning Agent to the Wine That Binds With Some Suspended Particles In the Wine That the Wine Maker Finds Objectionable and Fall to the Bottom of the Tank or Barrel, Allowing the Clear Wine to Be Racked Off.
- Isinglass- Gelatin Protein From Air Bladder of Sturgeons.
- Casein- Form of Milk Protein Used as Fining Agent.
- Egg White- (Traditionally 6 Egg Whites Used to Fine One Wine Barrel)
- Bentonite- Great General-Purpose Fining Agent That’s Easy to Prepare and Doesn’t Affect the Wine Flavor. Used Primarily to Remove Unstable Proteins In Wine.
“When You Fine or Filter a Wine You Take the Chance of Removing Nuance or Complexity of the Wine.”
FILTRATION– Technique Used For Clarification and/ or Microbiological Stabilization.
- Process of Passing the Wine Under Pressure Through Some Sort of Medium/ Screen In Order to Directly Remove Something the Wine Maker Finds Objectionable.
- The Practice of Filtration is Less Than 50 Years Old.
- Wine Are Sometimes Filtered to “Polish” or “Finish” a Wine Just Before Bottling.
- Unfiltered Wines Add Texture and Complexity to Wine.
- Unfiltered- A Wine That Hasn’t Gone Through a Filtering Process, an Unfiltered Wine Still Has Gone Through Other Processed Such As Stabilization, Fining and Racking.
- HISTORY- Filtering Wine With Filter Systems is a Relatively Modern Practice. That Being Said the Effort to Filter Wine Has Been Attempted For Thousands of Years. This Was Basically Achieved by Running Wine Over Some Type of Fine Grain Cloth to Remover the Major Particle That Were Suspended In the Wine.
“If You Know the Wine is Unstable You Should Always Filter the Wine Right Away to Get the Bacteria or Issue Out of the Wine.”
TYPES Of FILTER SYSTEMS
- Depth Filtration- Variety of Filters That Use a Porous (Earth) Filtration Medium to Retain Particles.
- Centrifugal Filtration- Is a Type of Barrier Used to Separate Materials After They’re Spun In a Centrifuge at High Speed. (High Density Liquids Can Removed From Low Density Liquids.)
- Crossflow Filtration- Incoming Stream Passes Across the Surface of a Membrane/ Sheet/ Pad and Two Exiting Streams Are Generated.
- ADVANTAGE– One Step Prior to Bottling, No Heat Increase, Less Handling of the Wine
- Sterile Filtration- Uses a Micropore Filter Which is Fine Enough to Remove Yeast Cells and Prevent Malolactic Fermentation.
- Filter Everything if You Don’t Want Malolactic Fermentation to Occur at a Later Time.
- THINGS To FILTER OUT
- Alcohol Reduction Volatile Acidity
- Ethyl Acetate PH./ TA. Adjustments
- Lees Pyrazine/ Green/ Herbaceous Character
- Smoke Taint Bacteria
- Tricholoroanisole TCA. 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole
- 4-Ethylphenol (4EP./ Brettanomyces) 4-Ethylguaiacol(4EG./ Brettanomyces)
- **Things to Be Filtered Out Can Be Done In a Processing Facility or as a Mobile Service.
- VINICULTURE– ADVANTAGE– Makes Finished Wine Limpid, Bright and Clear.
- Removal of Yeast and Bacteria (Brettanomyces) Which Assures Wine Doesn’t Continue to Ferment In Bottle.
- Can Filter Finished Wine to a Turbidity Below 1 NTU.
- Reduces Product/ Wine Loss
- VINICULTURE– CHALLENGES–
- Loss of Texture, Freshness and Purity of Fruits.
- Loss of Natural Sediment That Helps Nourish Wine Over Time Which Helps Wine Age Gracefully In Cellar.
- Can Modify Tannin Structure.
- FILTRATION SYSTEM PRODUCERS
- ATPGroup @Windor, California
- Burkert Fluid Control Systems @Huntersville, North Carolina
- Criveller California @Healdsburg, California
- J Rettenmaier USA, LP. @Schoolscraft, Missouri
- Oenodia North America @Napa, California
- RLS Equipment Co. Inc. @Egg Harbor, New Jersey
- Scott Laboratoires, Inc. @Petaluma, California
- VA Filtration USA. @American Canyon, California
- Wineteck LLC. @Napa, California
“An Eventual Deposit In a Wine Bottle is a Sign That the Mature Wine Was Bottled Without Being Filtered.”
MUST/ WINE ADDITIONS
AMELIORATION– Act of Adding Something to Your Must or Juice Before, During or After Fermentation In an Effort of Correct Deficiencies or Make the Finished Wine Better.
- TANNIN- Adding Tannins to Wine to Increase Structure, Astringency, Color or Alter Mouthfeel. Tannins Can Be Added to Wine by Aging In Oak Barrels, Adding Oak Chips, or Staves to Vats of Wine, or by Adding Extracted Tannins From Pomace or Hydrolysable Tannins Sourced From Non-Grape Products.
- **Refer to “WINE EVALUATION/ Tannins” For Detailed Information.
WATER-BACKING– Adding Water to Must Either to Dilute the Acid or Dilute the Sugar.
- Water Added Expressed as a Percent (0.0%) Added On Label or Technical.
- **Refer to “PRE-FERMENTATION/ Chaptalization” Fro Detailed Information.
ACIDIFICATION– Adding Acid to Must or Wine During Pre-Fermentation, Fermentation or Post Fermentation With Tartaric, Citric or Malic Acid.
- In Warm Regions as Grape Ripen the Acidity Levels Drop and Some Acidification is Seen as Needed. Acidification Can Improve These Wines Balance, Flavors and Stability.
- Tartaric Acid is Used Pre-Fermentaion But Citric Acid Must Never Be Used Pre-Fermentation Because It’s Broken Down Into Acetic Acid by Yeast and Bacteria.
DE-ACIDIFICATION– Lowering the Acidity In a Must or Wine by…
- Malolactic Conversion-
- **Refer to “MALOLACTIC CONVERSION” For Detailed Information.
- Calium Carbonate- Reacts With Both Tartaric and Malic Acids When Used to Reduce Acidity In Wine.
- Reverse Osmosis- Process of Removing Alcohol by Forcing it by Pressure From a Region of High Alcohol Concentration or Through a Semi-Permeable Membrane to a Region of Low Alcohol Concentration.
- Reverse Osmosis Can Also Be Used to Remove Water From Must, Remove Acids, Remove Flavors(Brettomyices), and Other Unfavorable Aroma. Remove Salt From Water, Remove Smoke From Fire Tainted Grapes, Removes Yeast, Helps with Stuck-Fermentations.
FORTIFICATION/ Mutage– Adding Grape Spirit to Must Before During or After Fermentation.
- **Refer to “WINE STLES/ Fortification” For Detailed Information.
JUICE CONCENTRATE– Adds to Wines to Enhance Alcohol Levels, Sugar Levels Colors.
- AKA=Mosto Cotto(Italy), Sussreserve(Germany), Grape Concentration(USA.)
- Mega-Purple- Super Concentrated Grape Concentrate(Syrup), Produced In Mass and Put In Bottle to Enhance a Wines Short Cummings By Adding Rich Color and Hint of Sweetness.
- Ultra Red- A Manipulate to Add Color Taste, and the Perception of Quality.
- CONTENTIOUS WINE ISSUE! “It’s Wrong For Wine Makers to Not Disclose the Addition of Sugar, Acids, or Tannins to Their Wines In an Effort to Make Average Wine Better!”
- YES…“It Done Care What the Wine Maker Does to Their Wine But I Want to Know What It is That They Add or Take Out So I Can Make My Own Decision On if I Want to Consume it or Not.”
DE-ALCOHOLIZATION– Lowering of the Alcohol by Volume by Removing it. The Removing of Alcohol Leaves Wine Less Stable and Wines Need to Be Treated So.
- There is Not Legal Difinition of Non-Alcohol Wine/ Low Alcohol Wine.
- “No/ Low Alcohol Wine”, is a Term That Has Been Un-Officially Used In the Wine World to Describe Wine That Has a Lower Amount of Wine Then Regular Still Wine.
- Wine Producers Are Challenged to Make Non/ Low Alcohol Wines Because the Process Impairs the Wines Mouthfeel, Balance, Typicity and Quality.
- Vino-Meter- A Device That Calibrates and Measures the Alcohol Content of a Finished Wine.
- RESONS To CONUME NON/ LOW ALCOHOL WINE
- Poor/ Cost
- Lower Calories
- UN-OFFICIAL NON/ LOW ALCOHOL WINE
- Wine- +8% ABV.
- (Un-Less Specific Exemptions Exist)…Moscato d’Asti
- Lower Alcohol Wine- 6% to 11% ABV.
- Low-Alcohol Wine- -1.2% ABV. or Less
- Non-Alcohol Wine- -.5% ABV. or Less
- Alcohol Free Wine- -.05% ABV. or Less
- Wine- +8% ABV.
- WAYS To REMOVE ALCOHOL FROM WINE
- Dehydrating- Adding Water During Fermentation. This Process Dilutes the Wine.
- Spinning Cone- The Use of a Machine to Separate Alcohol From the Wine. Involves Repeating Low-Temperature Evaporation and Condensation Using Inverted Cones Centrifugal Force. This Separates the Wines Elements, the Alcohol is Taken Out Then Everything is Blended Back Together.
- Vacuum Distillation-
- Reverse Osmosis- The. Cross-Flow Filtration System That Separates Out Constituent Element Based On Different Molecular Sized Before Blending Back Together.
“Most Must/ Wine Addition Are Done/ Added In Order to Save Time or For the Wine-Maker to Have Greater Control Over the Viniculture Process.”
The Term Sulfur/ Sulfite is an Inclusive Term For All Things Sulfur. Sulphur is an Earth Element, and Sulfides Are a Natural By-Product of Yeast Fermentation of Sugar to Alcohol and Present In Small Amounts In Every Wine Every Made and In All Fermented Products. Most Wine Producers Add Small Amounts at Different States From Harvest to Bottling In Order to Prevent Microbial Spoilage of Wine From Unwanted Bacteria, Yeast, to Minimize Oxidation and Avoid Volatile Acidity.
SULPHUR– Natural Anti-Oxidant, Aseptic Qualities, Inhibits Wild Yeast.
- 1 Molecule Sulphur Combine With 2 Molecules Oxygen= Sulphur Dioxide.
- Sulfur Binds With Stray Oxygen Molecules When This Happens it’s Considered “Binded” and No Longer is “Free” to Oxidizes Wine and Slows Down the Aging Process.
- Free So2- Sulphur That Hasn’t Bound to Bacteria.
- Total So2– Sulphur That’s Free and Also Bound to Bacteria.
- 500 @Rome– Romans Discovered Sulphur.
- 1487 @Germany– Started Using Sulfur For Cleaning.
- 1700’s @Denmark– Dutch Started Burning Sulphur Wicks to Shield and Stabilize Wine Barrels For Shipping.
- Old Traditional Method For Preserving Empty Barrels by Burning Sulfur Candles Inside.
- When Sulfur is Burned Sulphur Dioxide is Produced and Adsorbs In Staves Inside the Barrel and Leaches Out Later. This Keeps Bacteria and Molds From Proliferating.
- Originally Done to Preserve Empty Barrels is Became Evident That the Process Benefited as a Preservative to the Preceding Wine That Was Put In After.
“Always Talk About Sulphur In Flexible, Generic Terms or Put Its Use In Context. There Are 3 Types of Sulphur, Be Specific as to Which One You Are Speaking of.”
- CONTENTIOUS WINE ISSUE! “Sulphur!”
- “This One Word is Misused and Talking About it Can Lead to People Getting a Headache. In a Small Proportion of People High Sulphite Levesl Can Cause Reactions… From Shortness of Breath to Hives, Flushing and Hearts Palpitation.”
POTASSIUM META-BISULFITE- Granular Powder Additive, When Added to Must or Wine it Will Dissolve and Release Sulphur Dioxide.
NO-SULFUR ADDED WINE- A Wine Produced With No Added Sulfites During Production.
REDUCED SULPHUR WINE- Wine That’s Produced Only Using a Minimal Amount of Sulfites, Usually Only Prior to Bottling.
“If There Are No Major Issues In the Vineyard During the Growing Process or at Harvest, Adding Sulfur Can Be Minimized or Bypassed Altogether.”
SULPHUR…3 TYPES/ 3 USES
- Don’t Be Confused With the Many Similar-Sounding, But Chemically Distinct Terms Relating to Sulphur In Wine.
Sulphur Use In the Vineyard (Elemental Sulphur)
- Sulfur Used and Sprayed On Vines In the Vineyard. Elemental Sulfur Use is an Effective, and Economical Natural Spray Material For Managing Powdery Mildew In the Vineyard. User of Elemental Sulfur Make Sure Not to Use it Late In the Growing Season Because of the Impact Of Sulfur Residue On Fermentation and Sulfur Related “Off” Aromas.
- In the Past Sulphur Was Burnt In Barrels to Destroy Unwanted Bacteria and Yeasts.
Sulphur Produced During Fermentation (Hydrogen Sulphides)
- Produced Naturally During Primary Fermentation or During Wine Aging. Hydrogen Sulfide H2S is Produced.
- “No Addition Sulphur Added” States That Besides That Naturally Occurring Sulfites In the Wine There Was None Used In Production Process. (These Wines Are Always at “Risk” and Should Be Consumed Within a Few Months.)
- Sulphite Levels Tend to Be Higher In White and Rose Wines Than In Red Wines Which Receive More Natural Antioxidant Protection From Tannins and Grape Skins.
Sulphur Use During the Vinification Process (Sulfur Dioxide/ Sulphites)
- PRIOR To FERMENTATION
- To Make Sure the Winemaker is In Control of the Fermentation Environment.
- Adding Sulfur Dioxide to Freshly Harvest Grapes as a Preservative Prior to Fermentation Because of Its Antioxidant and Antibacterial Properties. Sulfites Play an Important Role In Discouraging the Growth of Micro-Organisms/ Spoilage Bacteria and Allows Yeast to Ferment Without Competition From Other Microbes. Not Using Sulfur You’re Letting a Number of Yeast and Bacteria Work On the Wine, Potentially Compromising the Fermentation Process and Ultimately What the Final Wine Will Be Like.
- Used to Kill Off Native Yeast So You Can Use Commercial Yeast.
- Used to Block Malolactic Fermentation.
- Sulfur Can Be Used to Arrest Fermentation.
- SULFUR USE AFTER FERMENTATION
- Some Wine Maker Will Dose Their Wine While the Wine is In Bulk Aging and In the Maturation Phase.
- SULFUR USED To STABILIZE WINE At BOTTLING
- Used Prior to Bottling Protects a Wines Integrity, Maintains a Wines Freshness, Helps Preserve Fruit and Floral Aromas, and Prevent Malolactic Fermentation From Occurring After Fermentation, Preventing Oxidation.
- Sulfites are Naturally Occurring/ Produced In Wine at a Rate of 6- 20 Parts Per-Million (PPM.) Commercial Wines Have Sulfites Ranging From 10- 40 PPM. United States Allows Up to 350 PPM. In American Wines.
- The Lower the PH. the More Effective Sulfur is and Less You Need. Wines With a Higher PH. Are Less Effective With Sulfur and Should Be Adjusted Accordingly. “You Can Grow Better Grapes Organically But Nobody Can Produce a Better Wine Organically. Organic Wine Produces Who Don’t Add Sulfur to Their Freshly Harvest Grapes, Must or Prior to Bottling Are Always at Risk For Wine to Be Compromised. It’s Really Important For the Wine to Be Clean and Stable When it Goes to Bottling So it Can Last as Long as Possible Without Micro-Organism Compromise at it Develops and Matures. Sulfur Dioxide Use is Universally Used and Accepted as a Wine Preservation Method. No Sulfur Added Wines Sound Nice But Downgrade During Transportation and Are Best Enjoyed Close to Their Point of Origen and as Youthful and Possible.
- Lot of Wine Growers Are Producing Grapes Organically But Are Forgoing Organic Certification Because of the Complexed Bureaucracy Involved and the Cost Burden Associated With it.
- There’s a Public Perception That Sulfur Has Negative Health Effects.
- Sulfur Come In Liquid, Gas, Powder and Tablet Form.
- “Contains Sulfite” Must Be Stated On American Wine Bottle, if the Wine Contains More Than 10 ppm. (Parts Per Million)
- Some Natural Wine-Makers Use a “Dash” of Sulfur Prior to Bottling.
- Winemakers In Europe Aren’t Obligated to Put These Sulfur Statement On There Bottle. This Isn’t because These Wines Don’t Contain Sulfites but Because Sulfur is a Natural Occurring Element That’s Harmless and Has Little to No Effect On Consumers. Use of Sulfur In Europe is Influenced by the Countries Culture and Views On Wine-Making. Germany, France and Austria Have a History Sulfur Use. In Italy the Use of Sulfur is Highly Frowned On.
- Anthocyanidins/ Color “Bleached-Out”, Diminish With Excessive Sulfur Dioxide Use.
- To Ensure That the Wine is Healthy and Sound, Prior to Bottling Add 1/4 Teaspoon Potassium Metabisulfite to Each % Gallon of a Finished Wine.
- TOTAL SULFITES- The Sum of All Bound and Fee Sulfite
- FREE SULFITES- Free Sulfites Over Time Binds With Oxygen and Micro-Organisms. Once Binded They No Longer are Free to Fight For the Wine, Binds Compounds That Yeast Can Use For Fuel For Their Metabolism.
- There Are Test Kits to Accurately Gage Free and Total Sulfite Level.
“Sulphur Disinfects and Eliminates Bacteria and Stabilizes the Wine. I Like Wine Without Sulphur as Long as They Are Sounds.”
- WINES WITH LESS SULPHUR ADDED
- Wines Higher In Acidity Need Less Sulphur.
- Wines With Lower Sugar Content Need Less Sulphur.
- Wine With Less Color (White Wine) Need Less Sulphur.
- Wine Destined to Be Consumed Soon.
- THINGS SULPHUR PROTECTS AGAINST
- Acetobacteia- Acetic Acid, Vinegar Bacteria
- *Generally– Develop In Presence of Oxygen In Un-Topped Containers.
- Lactobacillus- Form of Undesirable Malolactic Fermentation.
- Pediococcus- Form of Undesirable Malolactic Fermentation.
- Brettanomyces- Develops Without Presence of Oxygen.
- If No So2 is Going to Be Used It’s a Good Technique to Leave Some C02 For Protection.
- *Generally– High PH. Reds, Small Amount Adds to Complexity Too Much is Seen as a Flaw and is Avoided. (Barnyard, Horse Sweat)
- FOODS THAT CONTAIN SULFUR
- Wine Beer Cheese
- Dried Fruits Bacon
- **Refer to “WINES STYLES/ Blending” For Detailed Information On Blending.
RESINATED WINES– Wines That Derives Its Flavor From Exposure of Pine Resins.
- HISTORY- Greece, 13th. Century, Prior to Barrels Wine was Stored in Amphorae Often Lined and Sealed with Aleppo Pine Resin. Over Time the Acquired Taste Became a Feature of Wine Rather than Unwanted Side Effect.
- Retsina- Resin Added During Fermentation to Savatiano, Assyriko, Rhoditis
- Regions- Attica, Boeotia, Euboea
- **Refer to “WINE STLES/ Amortized Wine” For Detailed Information.
RECTIFIED GRAPE MUST/ GRAPE JUICE CONCENTRATION
- Sugar Solution of Must Concentrated From Pressed Juice Derived to Eliminate All Components Which Are Not Sugar.
- Concentrate is a Pure Fruit Sugar (Glucose & Fructose) Totally Neutral.
- Add Before/ During/ After Fermentation to Sweeten Wine, Enriching Must.
- Sussreserne- (German) Unfermented Grape Must Added to Wine as a Sweetening Agent. (Not to Exceed 15% of Wines Volume)
- MARSALA- Fortified After Fermentation With Neutral Grape Distillate Addition of Grape Juice Concentrate, Oxidized.
- BACK SWEETENING- The Process of Using Sugar to Sweeten a Dry Wine After the Wine Has Been Fermented and Stabilized. Because the Sugar Wasn’t Actually From the Grape/ Must and Added After Fermentation the Sugar Never Completely Integrates Properly In to the Finished Wine and Can Sometimes Seen Disjointed. Back Sweetening is Often Used In Areas Where Its a Cold Climate and There is Difficulty Producing a Sweet Wine.
A Gas That’s Not Chemically Reactive and Doesn’t Undergo Chemical Reactions, Often Used to Avoid Unwanted Reactions Degrading Something You Want to Remain Un-Compromised by the Displacement of Oxygen.
- Inert Gases Are Generally Tasteless, Non-Flammable, Benign.
- Sparging- Displacing Oxygen With an Inert Gas
- Types of Inert Gases- Argon, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen
- Inert Gases Are Usually Used…
- After Final Racking When Fermentation is Complete, Going Into Bulk Aging.
- Before Corking a Finished Wine In Its Bottle.
- When Half the Bottle Remains and There’s a Need For Oxygen Preservation.
MICRO-VINIFICATION- Process of Making a Wine In Small Batch of Experimental Grapes. This is Done Stylistically or If There is Only a Limited Amount of Grape Available. Micro-Vinification is Sometimes Done to See if Certain Grapes Will Possess the Potential to Make Decent Wine.
“Wine is 8 Thousand Years Old and Most of That Time Mans Biggest Challenge Was Finding a Way to Keep It From Turning to Vinegar.”
BOTTLING The WINE
WHEN To BOTTLE A WINE
- After the Wine Has Settled and Completley Clear and All Sediment Has Fallen Out of the Wine and Can Be Racked Efficiently.
- Ensure There is No Residual Sugar, and Has Fermented Dry. (Wine Should Read Less Than .998 On the Specific Gravity Scale.
- The Wine Should Be Free of Any Residual Co2 Gas.
- Ensure That the Wine is Healthy and Sound.
- Naked and Empty Bottle Come In On Palate.
- Bottles Are Unloaded Off the Palate and Onto the Bottling Line.
- Bottles Go Through the Washer and Are Thoroughly Cleaned.
- Injection of and to Kill Wine Ruining Bacteria.
- Wine From Tanks Are Pumped Into Empty Bottles.
- Barrel Transfer Tube- Device Used to Move Wine From a Oak Barrel Into a Bottle or Other Container. The Device Pressurized the Barrel and Gentle Moves the Wine Without the Introduction of Air.
- Moving Wine Can Also Be Done by Siphoning, Wine Pump or Pressurized Gas.
- Auto-Levelers- Ensure Precise Amount of Wine In Each Bottle.
- Gas Injection- of Argon Gas In Bottle to Ensure No Oxogen Left In Bottle.
- Cork Machine-
- Capsular- Puts a Tin Capsule Around Neck of Bottle.
- Labeler- Each Bottle Gets a Label Glued to it.
- Bottle Inspection Booth- Ensures Quality and Consistency.
- Case Packer- Machine Takes Bottle Off Line and Into Boxes and Back On Palates.
- Laboratory Analysis Should Be Gone Prior to Bottling to Determine “How Your Wine is” and What Attention it Might Need.
- Check- ABV., Specific Gravity, Brix, Free So2
- Hygiene Should Be a Concern at Bottling
- One Last Change to Rack Your Wine, Lowering Temperature to 48°- 50° the Week Prior Helps Settle the Wine.
- There’s an Allowed Allowance of 2% Fluctuation In the Amount of Wine in a 750 Milliliter Bottle or 15 Milliliter.
MOBILE TRUCK BOTTLING SERVICE– Wine Bottling Truck That a Wine Producer Can Schedule to Come and Bottle Your Wine Without Having to Own the Equipment That’s Used One Day a Year.
- Types of Bottling Lines- Manual, Semi-Automated, Fully Automated.
“Once the Wine is Bottled, the Cork is Inserted and the Bottle is Sold the Wine-Maker No Longer Has Influence On His Wine.”
- Moving Wine by the Use of Gravity Using a Siphon Set-Up or Tube. Low Cost Solution That Works Well In Relitively Small Amounts of Wine Because the Process is Rather Slow. Siphoning Relies On Gravity and the Transferring Vessel Must Be Situated Higher Than the Receiving Vessel In Order For the Process to Work. To Be Greatly Effective a Discrepancy In Height is Beneficial.
- Siphoning is Usually the Main Way Wine Is Racked.
- **Refer to “WINE STLES/ Aged Wine” For Detailed Information.
- **Refer to “CONTAINERS/ Oak Aging” For Detailed Information.
POST FERMENTATION UPCYCLING WASTE
- After Crush Wineries Are Left With Waste, Mostly In the Form of Pomace (Skins, Pulp, Seeds, Stems, and Other Residue.) From the Winemaking Process and the Has Been Pressed and Fermented.
- WHITE= / RED= Any Grapes Can Be Used to Produce Piquette, But the Better the Grapes the Better the Finished Product.
- OLD WORLD- Traditionally Western Europe
- NEW WORLD- Many New World Producers Are Starting to Produce Piquette.
- VITICULTURE- Rehydrated Used/ Pressed Grape Pomace With Water, Then Fermented It to Make a Secondary Wine.
- HISTORY- Centuries-Old Tradition of European Vineyard Workers Who Were Not Wealth Enough to Drink the Wine They Helped Produce. The Winery Owner Would Give Them What They Viewed as Waste.
- CULTURE- ~Etymology~ From the French Word “Piquer” to Sting, Referring to the Sting On the Pallate.
- WHITE= Moscato, Muller Thurgau, Gewurztraminer, Picolit
- RED= Nebbiolo, Barbara, Pinot Noir
- OLD WORLD- COUNTRY-Italy, REGION-Piemonte
- OLD WORLD- Oregon, Australia, South Africa
- VITICULTURE- +DISTILLED/ (Sometimes Twice) Pomace, No Water Added, No Grape Juice Added
- Pomice– Mash of Pulp, Seeds, Stems, Stalks and Lees Remaining After Pressing WinePost-Distillation
- Grappa Bottled Immediately to Preserve Freshness and Aroma
- Sometimes Steeped With Herbs or Syrup For Slight Sweetening
- +AGED/ 6 Months, Traditional Aged In Acacia, Ash, Oak or Cherry Wood
- AKA= Marc, Bagaceira/ Portugal, Aguardiente/ Spain
- VITICULTURE- CHALLENGES– By Product of Grappa Distillation is it Produces Small Amounts of Methanol, and Must be Carefully Monitored and Removed.
- VINICULTURE- REQUIREMENT– Only Allowed to be Produced Italy, With the Majority of Grappa Produced In Trentino, Friuli, Veneto and Piemonte by but About 10 Distilleries. Also Ticino and San Marino.
- Producers/ Distillers– Beccaris(Peimonte), Berta(Peimonte), Dellavalle(Peimonte), Di Lorenzo(Umbria), Marzadro(Trentino), Nonino, Nardini, Santa Teresa Fratelli Morolo, Gualco(Piemonte), Luigi Francoli(Peimonte), Poggio Basso, Michele Chiarlo, Banfi
- HISTORY– 1,300
- PIONEERS~ ~Giannola Nonino~ “Piemonte”, Championed Single Varietal Grappa of Extreme Quality.
- CULTURE– The Poor Peasants Gather the Villages Discarded Pomace and Making With it What They Could. For Centuries Grappa Was an Afterthought, People Were Making Due With a “Throw-Away” Product. Entire Wine Village Would all Discard There Pomace and Blended From an Array of Dozens of Different Varietal of Grapes. It Wasn’t Until the Early 1970’s When Some Producers Starting Making Grappa from Single Varietals Quality Grapes and Not from Left Overs.
- Most Pomice Left Over From Wine Making is Sold to Dedicated Grappa Producers.
- Lightly Pressed Grapes Produce the Best Grappa
- +DISTILLED/ by Bain-Marie/ Steam Distillation, Not Open Flame. Heat Pomice Gently Allowing For Much of the Mixture to Evaporate Leaving a Potent Concentration of 40%- 45% ABV./ 80- 90 Proof
- COMPOST, MULCH
- ANIMAL FEED
- CREAM OF TATAR
THINGS TO MONITOR AFTER FERMENTATION
**This Section is a Work In Progress….
After Harvest and Fermentation is Complete the Winemaker Can Take a Breath and Relax For a Minute and Maybe Resume Somewhat of a Set Schedule. There Are Still Numerous Processes That Still Must Be Given Attention to Before the Cork Goes Into the Bottle and Sent For Sale or Consumption.
- 1 MONTH
- Malolactic Fermentation
- 3 MONTH
- 6 MONTHS
- 1 YEAR
- 1.5 YEARS
**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.