- SUB-TOPIC Of VINICULTURE IS:
- What is Viniculture?
- Process of Making Wine
- Wine Makers
- Concepts In Wine Making
- Hygiene & Wine
- Other Sub-Topics of Viniculture
- A Year In the Winery
1) WHAT Is VINICULTURE?
VINIFICATION- Conversion of Grape Juice Into Wine by Fermentation.
VINICULTURE- Science & Study of Making Wine.
- Three Major Factors Influencing the Outcome of Wine Making, Grape Varietal, Terroir and Vinification Processes.
ENOLOGIST- Manages Different Stages of the Wine Production Process From Fermentation to Bottling. This is Distinct From Grape Growing and Wine Selling, But the Enologist Coordinates with Grape Grower and Manages Cellar Assistants and Supervises Laboratory Technicians.
“Winemakers Should Constantly Be Doing Small Experiments On Their Wines, Otherwise They Will Never Know What Could Be.”
2) PROCESS Of MAKING WINE
PROCESS Of MAKING RED WINE
- Harvest Destemmer
- Maturation/ Stabilization
PROCESS Of MAKING WHITE WINE
- Harvest De-Stemmer/ Whole Cluster Press
- Maceration/ Cold Soak
- Malolactic Fermentation
- Finning/ Filtration
White Wine is More Challenging to Produce Than Red Wine. Red is More Forgiving During the Fermentation and Pressing Process Because to the Benefit of the Skin Contact.
WINE MAKING PROCESS- Starting With the Picking of the Grapes Through Aging the Finished Wine the Vintner Must Make Numerous Decisions That Affect the Out-Come and End-Flavors of the Wine.
- Recipe Wines– Producing a Wine Using Very Specific Steps…If You Use This Type of Grapes, With This Combination/ Level of Nutrients, and Ferment With This Strain of Yeast, at This Exact Temperature, With This Level of Oxygen Ingress, and Age In This Vessel For This Time Duration You Should End Up With This Style of Wine.
ELEVAGE/ Breeding- (Progression of a Wine Between Fermentation and Bottling.) Wine Maker Guides and Disciplines Wine by Intervening In a Variety of Ways In Vinification Process to Achieve a Particular Quality or Stylistic Goal.
- Your/ The Wine Makers Personal Philosophy or Mission Statement On How You Think or Believe Your Wine Should Be Produced.
- ~Example~ Natural Wine, Burgundy Method
- ~Derek’s Viniculture Philosophy~ Produce Wines That Show Typicity to Classical Varietal Expressions.
DIFFERENT WINE STYLES PRODUCED FROM The SAME GRAPE
Certain Grape Varieties Are and Should Be Produced In the Some Style. Some Can and Are Produced In Different Styles.
- BARBERA “Barbera d’Alba” (85% Barbera) vs. “Barbera d’Asti” (90% Barbera)
- *Generally– +Body, Darker Color, More Fruit
- CHARDONNAY “Burgundy” vs. “Russian River”
- *Generally– Less Oak, +Acidity, Less Friutiness
- CHENIN BLANC “Loire Valley” vs. “South Africa”
- MALBEC “Cahors” vs. “Mendoza”
- *Generally– Savory, More Tart, Firmer Tannins, Less Fruit
- NEBBIOLO “Barolo” vs. “Barbaresco” vs. “Gattinara” vs. “Valtellina”
- *Generally– Barolo– Needs the Most Time to Age.
- *Generally– Barbaresco
- *Generally– Gattinara– More Approachable Sooner, Higher In Minerally.
- *Generally– Veltallina–
- PINOT GRIS “Central Europe” vs. “California”
- *Generally– +Riper, +BODY, Oily Texture, Floral Spicy, -Acidity
- PINOT NOIR “Burgundy”vs. “California”
- *Generally– Less-Ripe Fruit, More Earthy, +Acidity, +Ripening
- SYRAH “Syrah” vs.“Shiraz”
- *Generally– Cooler Climate, Restrained, Herb, Spice, Not Meaty, -Body, –ABV.
- ZINFANDEL “Zinfandel” vs. “Primitivo”
- *Generally– +Riper, +Sugar Levels, +Alcohol, +Fruitiness
- WINE & PHILOSOPHY?–“CONTENTIOUS WINE ISSUE!” “Grapes Like Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon Should Always Be Produced In the Same Classic Style, While Some Other Grapes Can Be Produced In Varying Styles!”
- YES…“I Don’t Want to Drink a Full-Body Tannic Pinot Noir, Nor Do I Want to Drink a Light, Structure Lacking Cabernet Sauvignon.”
- NO…“Wine Makers Can and Should Be Able to Produce Any Wine That They Wish and Consumers Should Be Able to Drink Them.”
3) WINE MAKERS
WINE MAKER/ Vintner/ Vigneron- The Person Who’s Responsible For the Wine Making Process and the End Outcome of the Wine. This French Word Has Greater Significance Than Just a Wine Maker. A Vigneron is a Person Who Cultivates Grape For Winemaking. But In French Terms the Word Also Implies That the Person Who is Growing the Grapes is Also the Person Producing the Wine From the Grapes They Have Grown.
WOMEN IN WINE MAKING
- ~Balbo, Susana~ “Mendoza”, Winemaker Susana Balbo Wines.
- ~Barrett, Heidi~ “Napa”, Winemaker
- ~Catena, Laura~ “Mendoza”, Winemaker Catena
- ~Clicquot, Madame~ “Champagne”, First Woman to Run a Champagne House.
- ~Corison, Cathy~ “Napa”, Founder/ Winemaker Corison Wines
- ~Doran-Green, Alison~ “Napa/ Sonoma”
- ~Eichinger, Birgit~ “Austria”, Founder/ Winemaker Weingut Eichinger
- ~Krafzeck, Marta~ “Monterey”, The County’s First Female Winemaker
- ~Long, Zelma~ “South Africa/ California”, “1945- ”
- Enologist, Vinter, Simi Winery, One of First Female Winemakers In Napa Valley.
- ~Marin, Maria Luz~ “Chile”, Founder/ Winemaker Casa Marin
- ~Thorn, Amy~ “Lake County”, Founder/ Winemaker Thorn Hill.
- ~Turley, Helen~ “California”, Winemaker
- ~Tychson, Josephine~ “Napa”, First Napa Female Winemaker In 1886 at Freemark Abbey.
- ~Walch, Elena~ “Alto Adige”, Founder/ Winemaker Elena Walch
- ~Willcoch, Virginia~ “Australia”, Winemaker Vasse Felix
4) CONCEPT IN WINEMAKING
LOW INTERVENTION– Wine Producing Style Designed to Bring Out the Vineyards Terroir Rather Than Manipulate or Alter the Wine Too Much.
- Wine Producer Doesn’t Want to Over Oak and Suppress the Nuances and Doesn’t Want to Over Filter the Wine and Strip Away the Nuances.
- WINE & PHILOSOPHY?–“CONTENTIOUS WINE ISSUE!” “The Natural Wine Movement is Lessening the Value or Importance of the Wine Maker!”
- YES…“By Not Having to Worry About Yeast, Fining and Filtering Wine, Knowledge of Oak Barrels, etc. the Natural Winemaker Doesn’t Have to Be as Well Rounded as He Once Was.”
- WINE & PHILOSOPHY? “Is the Wine Being Produced Today Better Than the Wines Being Produced 25 Years Ago? 200 Years Ago?”
- “Over the Years and Decades Wine-Makers Are Gaining Better Knowledge of Viticulture. All Aspects Including Climate, Soil, Better Genetic Material, Farming and a Enhance Understanding In Multiple Science Genre Has Lead to Better Wine Being Produced World Wide.”
PRODUCING APPROACHABLE WINE VS. WINE THAT NEEDS AGING
- VITICULTURE– Picking Riper/ +Brix Level Grapes
- VINICULTURE– Less Maceration, Using New Oak, Micro-Oxidation
3 WINEMAKING SCHOOLS Of THOUGHT
- The Classicists- Applies What They Have Learned From Mentors and Past Generations.
- The Innovator- Discovers or Develops New Wine Producing Approaches, Seeks Out New Technologies and Grows Unknown Varieties.
- Intuitionist- Unique Combination of the Classicists and Innovator.
“Historically Wine Making For Thousands of Years Was Simply Grapes Left Out to Ferment In Porous Claypots With Very Little Attempt to Control or Manipulate the Process.”
- WINE & PHILOSOPHY? “Why Should a Wine Maker Be Famous or Highly Thought of For What They Didn’t Do to a Wine and Have No Mention of the Vineyard Which Did Most of the Work?”
- “I Went to a Wine Tasting In Which Every One Was Raving About the Wine Maker and His Ability to Use Minimal Intervention to Produce the Wine. When I Asked Where the Grapes Where Sourced From No One Had Any Idea About the “Declassified/ Vin de France” Wine. When I Stated That the Winemaker Should Have Little Infamy and the Brilliance of the Wine Lies In the Unknown Vineyard/ Region I Was Looked at With Great Distain and Misunderstanding.”
- WINE & PHILOSOPHY?–“CONTENTIOUS WINE ISSUE!” “I Don’t Care About the Wine Maker!”
- “Generally I Don’t Care About the Winemaker. I Care About and Want to Know Where the Winery is Located and if They Are Growing Their Own Grapes. I’m Interested Where the Grapes Are Grown So I Can Personally Assess the Regions Geography, Topography and the Terroir That Influenced the Vineyard and the Quality of the Vintage. Now With the Prominence of the “Natural Wine Movement” Where Winemakers Are Doing Close to Nothing to the Wine They Have Even a Lessor Influence On the Finished Wine.”
5) HYGIENE & WINE
Discipline Crucial For Successful Quality Wine Making. Hygiene Must Be a Primary Focus of the Wine Maker and Cellar Manager. It’s the First Line of Defense Against Spoilage Micro-Organisms That Are Prevalent in Vineyard and Winery.
“It’s All About Keeping the Wine Clean and Stable?”
- HISTORY– Although the Reasons Weren’t Clear, Since Roman Times Wine Makers Were Aware of Hygiene and the Need to Keep Equipment Clean. Centuries of Scientific Research Has Led to Emphasizing Hygiene, and a Greater Understanding the Natural Processes Behind the Micro-Biology, Bio-Chemistry, Bacteria and Yeast.
CLEANING- Process of Removing Any Debris, Dirt or Residue Left On Wine Making Equipment. Goal is to Completely Expose Surface So Sanitizer Can Do Its Function Completely.
SANITIZING- Process of Killing Spoilage Micro-Organisms That Are On Wine Making Equipment.
- Sanitary Solutions Meta Bi-Sulfate, Star-Sand.
- CHALLENGES– ~No Soap/ Bleach~ Can Leave a Film or Residue Which is Difficult to Completely Remove and Leave Off-Aromas and Flavors.
- CHALLENGE– ~No Abrasive Scrubbing~ Can Leave Scratches Which Micro-Organisms Can Live In.
“There’s A lot of Unwanted Biology That Happens In a Winery When the Temperature Gets Over 64 Degrees.”
- WHY BE CONCERNED WITH HYGIENE/ SANITATION/ MICROBES
- Stuck Fermentations | So2 Binding Molecules
- Acetic Acid | Acetaldehyde
- Ethyl Acetate | Sulfides
- Volatile Phenols | Isovaleric Acid
- Diacetyl | Biogenic Amines
6) OTHER SUB-TOPIC Of VINICULTURE
VEGETARIAN & VEGAN WINE
- VEGETARIAN- Non-Meat Eater, Who Eat Dairy
- VEGAN- Those Who Diet Avoids Animal Products Altogether.
- Currently There’s No Labeling Disclosure Necessary For Wines That Are Vegetarian or Vegan.
- Why Wouldn’t a Wine Be Vegetarian or Vegan? Milk Proteins, Egg Whites, Isinglass Fish Blatter and Other Animal Based Finning Agents Are Used In Filtration, Clarification and Production of Wines.
SECOND LABEL– Term Used For Wine Bottled That Doesn’t Meet the Quality Necessary to Be Bottled Under the Producers Main or First Label, AKA=Second Wines, Little Brothers.
- HISTORY– Second Wine Date Back to 1980’s When Bordeaux Producers Would Declassify Part of Their Crops to Allow Them to Be More Creative Viniculturally.
- There’s No Legal Definition or No Parameters With Second Wines.
- SIMILARITIES Of FIRST & SECOND LABEL
- Same Location | Same Climate
- Same Soils
- Same Vineyard (Sometimes, Often the Second Rate Blocks)
- Same Winery Equipment | Same Winemaker
- REASONS FOR SECOND LABELS
- Wanting to Produce a Style That’s Not Typical of the Current Wines.
- New Vineyard
- Substandard Growing Season
- Wanted to Sell More Wine at a Lower Price
VINICULTURE DRIVEN WINE STYLES
SUR LIE AGING- Process of Allowing Fermented Wine to Continue to Sit on Lees In Effort to Extract Additional Flavors Prior to Racking and Bottling.
- Autolysis- Destruction of a Yeast Cells Internally by its Own Enzymes. As Dead Yeast Cells Breaks Down They Releases Amino Acids, Proteins, Biological Compounds Giving Wine Complexity, +BODY, Toasted, Creaminess.
- **Refer to “POST-FERMENTATION/ Sur Lie Aging” For Detailed Information.
WINE As CHEMISTRY
- PIONEERS~ ~Antoine Lavoisier~ “France”, Chemist of 1700’s
- Referred to as the “Grandfather of Modern Wine”. Is Considered to Be the “First Person to Explain Wine’s Chemistry With Any Degree of Accuracy.”
- PIONEERS~ ~Luis Pasteur~
- First to Define the Biological Process of Fermentation and Put Forth the Fact That Yeast Are What Causes Grape Juice to Ferment and Establish Connection Between Preservation of Wine and Direct Exposure to Oxygen.
- Winemakers Now Have Complete Control of All Aspects of Fermentation Including Specific Out-Comes of Yeast, Regulating Speed, Temperature, and Length.
“Understanding What’s Happening to a Wine On a Chemical Basis Can Influence Choices Regarding Processing Option and the Timing of Activities Resulting In Different Wine Styles.”
- **Refer to “AMPELOGRAPHY/ Wine & Chemistry” For Detailed Information On Wine & Chemistry.
VINICULTURAL DECISION THAT EFFECT A FINISHED WINE
- Picking Date
- Maceration Time
- Type of Yeast
- Fermentation Temperature
- How to Press Grapes
- Barrels…Type/ Toast/ Length of Time
- When to Bottle
“Wine is One of the Most Complex Biological Liquids On Earth, and Although We Are Its Makers, We Are Never Quite Its Masters.”
OLD WINERIES Of The WORLD
- IMPORTANT OLD WINERIES Of The OLD WORLD
- Chateau de Goulaine @Loire, Frane, 1100
- Barone Ricasoli @Tuscany, Italy, 1141
- Schloss Johannisberg @Rheingau Germany, 1100
- Schloss Vollrads @Rheingau, Germany, 1281
- Codorniu @Catalonia, Spain, 1551
- Chateau Mont-Redon @Chatanuef-du Pape, France
- IMPORTANT OLD WINERIES Of The NEW WORLD
- Casa Madero @Coahuila, Mexico, 1597
- Buena Vista @Sonoma, 1857
- Gundlach Bundschu @Sonoma, 1858
- Krug @Napa, 1861
- Beringer @Napa, 1875
- Wente @Livermore, 1883
“The Wine Makers Need Courage In Producing Wine, the Courage to Reframe From Doing Some Things and the Courage to Do Other.”
7) A YEAR IN The WINERY
This Scenario Leads From the Assumption That Grapes Are Harvested In September.
- MALOLACTIC FERMENTAION–
**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.