CLIMATOLOGYClimate


  • SUB-TOPICS Of CLIMATOLOGY-CLIMATE
    • What is Climatology?
    • Climate Classification
    • Cool Climate Viticulture 
    • Factors Influencing Climate
    • Climate Change
    • Other Sub-Topics of Climatology-Climate
    • Climates Effect On Wine

WHAT IS CLIMATOLOGY?

CLIMATOLOGY Scientific Study That Deals With Climate and Their Phenomena.

Climate is the Greatest Variable That Dictates What Variety Will Grow and Thrive Where.

CLIMATE Refers to the Historical Average of the Weather In the Past.

  • WEATHER-  Refers to the Actual Environmental Conditions Prevailing In an Area at Present Moment or Over a Period of Time.
    • Both Climate and Weather Are Extremely Important Variables In Viticulture That Winemakers Obsess Over Daily. Climate Dictates Where Quality Grapes Can Ripen Well. Climate Influences the Quality and Style of Wine That an Area Can Produce. Generally Grapes Thrive In Climates Not Too Hot or Humid In Summer and Not Extremely Cold In Winter.
  • WEATHER EVENT- Unexpected, Unusual, Unpredictable, or Unseasonable Weather, Weather Events are Based On a Location’s Recorded Weather History
  • PIONEERS~ ~A.P. de Cambolle~  First Person to Scientifically Study Viticulture Climates.

CLIMATE CLASSIFICATIONS

  • MODERATE Little Temperature Variation Across Year.
  • MARGINAL Climate Barely Sufficient to Allow Viticulture…Too Hot/ Cold.
  • MACRO-CLIMATE The Overall Climate of Large Geographic Region or Area.
  • MESO-CLIMATE The Climate of a Group of Vineyard or Village.
  • TOPO-CLIMATE The Climate of a Particular Hill, Valley or Slope.
  • MICRO-CLIMATE Specific Climate Within a Vineyard Usually Defined to a Very Restricted to a Space or Position Between Rows of Vines or Distance Above the Ground.

Vines Need a Temperate Climate With Moderate Rainfall and Enough Sun to Fully Ripen as Well as a Beneficial Winter Period to Rest Doormat Between Crops.

KOPPEN CLIMATE CLASSIFICATION World’s Climate Classification System, First Published In 1884 But Modified Over Next 40 Years.

  • PIONEERS– ~Wladimir KoppenGerman Climatologist Responsible For Koppen’s Climate Classification.

CALIFORNIA CLIMATE REGIONS

  • I Less 2,500 Degree Days (Sonoma, Santa Barbara/ Similar to Champagne)
  • II 2,501-3,000 Degree Days (Monterey, Santa Ynez/ Similar to Asti, Auckland)
  • III 3,001-3,500 Degree Days (Mendocino/ Similar to Milan)
  • IV 3,500-3,000 Degree Days (Sierra Foothills/ Similar to Capetown, Tuscany)
  • V +4,000 Degree Days (San Joaquin Valley, Temecula/ Similar to Perth)
  • **Degree Days Calculated Between April 1 and October 31.

HARDINESS ZONE Geographically Defined Area In Which a Specific Category of Plant Life is Capable of Growing, as Defined by Climatic Conditions Including Minimums and Maximum Temperatures, Elevation, Latitude, and Proximity to Coast.

  • Hardiness Zone Scale Ranges From 1-11, Grape Usually  Prosper In Hardiness Zones of 6-7.

GRAPE GROWING CLIMATES

Climates Types or Zones Don’t Usually Stop and Then Start as a New Climate or Zone. (Although it Can With a Geographic Feature Like a Mountain Range or Body of Water). Climate Zones Tend to Transition Into One Another In What Called a “Transition Zone”, and Some Regions Can Share a “Duel Climate Zone” or On That’s Predominately One Climate Type Influenced by Another Climate Type.

TEMPERATE/ TEPID CLIMATE

  • Temperate Climate is Often Seen as a Larger Mother Climate That Other Climates Are Often Divided Into.
  • Temperate Climate Occur In the Middle Latitudes, From Between the Tropics to the Polar Regions of Earth.  These Climate Zones Have Wider Temperature Ranges Throughout the Year and More Distinct Seasonal Changes Compared to Tropical  Climates. (Latitude of 35° to 66°)

    • Temperate Climates Are Often Divided In to Several Smaller Climate Zones:  Humid Subtropical, Mediterranean, Oceanic, Continental.

ATLANTIC/ MARITIME CLIMATE

  • *Generally– Features Cool Summers and Cool Winters, and a Relatively Narrow Annual Temperature Range With Few Extremes Due to the Moderating Effect of the Ocean.
    • True Maritime Climate Never Reach Day Time High Temperatures Above 80* Unless Heat Wave/ Weather Events Hit the Area.
  • Oceanic Climates Are Characterized by/ Defining Seasonal Features:

    • Summers– Dry, Sunny, Warm   |   Winters– Cold/ Mild, Rain
  • AKA=Atlantic Climate, Maritime Climate, Oceanic Climate

    • These Words Are Used Interchangeably But My Philosophy is That If it’s Referring to Europe the Term Atlantic Climate Should Be Used.
  • VITICULTURE ADVANTAGE
    • Large Bodies of Water Moderate Temperatures, Protect Vineyards From Extremes While Reflecting Heat and Light. Long Reliable Growing Season.
    • Most Great Vineyards are Tempered by the Moderating Effects of Water.
  • VITICULTURE CHALLENGE– Excessive Fog Can Sit On Vineyard.
  • MARITIME CLIMATE REGIONS
    • Rias Baixas DO.
    • Dundee Hills AVA.
    • Elkton AVA.
    • Santa Rita Hills AVA.
    • St. Julien AOC.
    • West Sonoma Coast AVA.
    • Vancouver Island VA.
    • Victoria GI.
    • New South Wales 
    • Hawkes Bay

MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE

  • *Generally– Distinguished by Warm/ Dry Summers, Mild/ Cold, Wet Winters But Never to Extreme.
    • Combination of “Continental” & “Maritime” With No “ Weather Event” Out of Season
  • Mediterranean Climates Are Characterized by/ Defining Seasonal Features:

    • Summers– Hot, Dry, Sunny, Long   |   Winters– Cold/ Mild, Rain
  • VITICULTURE ADVANTAGE– Large Bodies of Water Moderate Temperatures, Protect Vineyards from Extremes While Reflecting Heat and Light. Long Reliable Growing Season.
    • Most Great Vineyards Are Tempered by the Moderating Effects of Water.
  • VITICULTURE CHALLENGE– Excessive Fog Can Sit On Vineyard/ Area For Extended Period of Time Post “Noon”Depriving Needed Sun
  • MEDITERRANEAN CLIMATE REGIONS
    • Sonoma Coast AVA.
    • Cassis AOC.
    • Swan District GI.
    • Casablanca Valley
    • Swartland
    • Santorini PGI.
    • Stellenbosch
    • Yarra Valley GI.

CONTINENTAL CLIMATE

  • *Generally– Distinctive Seasonal Weather From Season to Season, and Extreme Temperature Variation From Day to Night. Continental Climates Usually Located In Interior of a Large Land Masses, Away From Bodies of Water Which Moderate Temperature.
  • Continental Climates Are Characterized by/ Defining Seasonal Features:

    • Summers– Long, Dry   |   Winters– Cold, Wet
  • Continentality– The Accumulation of Heat is Greater Over a Land-Mass Rather Than Over Water or an Area Near Water. The Heat is Released Into the Atmosphere During Colder Periods.
  • Continental “Cool” Climate    |   Continental “Warm” Climate
    • Continental Cool and Warm Are Un-Offical Terms But Helpful.
  • VITICULTUREADVANTAGE– Grapes Develop Thick Skin, Always Ripe.
  • VITICULTURECHALLENGE– Winter and Early Spring Frost, Hail, Irrigation Needed.
  • CONTINENTAL CLIMATE REGIONS
    • Ribero Del Duero DO.
    • Hunter Valley GI.
    • Rioja DO.
    • Adriani PGI.
    • Columbia Valley AVA.
    • Ribatejo DOP.
    • Mendoza
    • Plesivica
    • Solmo DHC.
    • Cote-Rotie AOC.
    • Romania

TROPICAL CLIMATE

  • Tropical Climates Are Characterized by/ Defining Seasonal Features:

    • Summers– Hot, Humid  |    Winters– Warm, Wet
  • Zone Between Tropic of Cancer/ Capricorn & 38th. Parallels, (23* & 35* Latitude)
  • VITICULTURE CHALLENGES – Sight Selection
    • Matching Varietal to Climate
    • Canopy management
  • SUB-TROPICAL VARIETALS
    • White=
    • Red=
    • (Regions Bordering Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn With Pronounced Wet and Dry Season)
      • Tropical Rainforest – (Singapore, Panama, Samoa)
      • Tropical Monsoon- (South Bernett GI., Miami, Jakarta)
      • Tropical Savanna- (Mumbai, Bangkok, Taiwan)

DESERT/ ARID CLIMATE

  • Desert Climate Are Characterized by/ Defining Features:

    • Summers– Extremely Hot, Dry   |   Winters– Extremely Cold
  • Arid, Treeless Barely Suitable Due to Extreme Temperature from Hot to Cold. Planting
  • Vineyards at Higher Altitude Has Cooling Influences, +Diurnal Shifts
  • “Arid & Simi-Arid”
  • Chaparral Climate– Refers to a Climate That’s Hot and Dry Consisting of Scrub Bushes and are Subjective to Fires and Times of Drought.
  • VITICULTURE Irrigation Needed, Thick-Skin, Ripens Late In Season

    • ADVANTAGE– Low Mildew, Ripeness Not an Issue
    • CHALLENGE– Little Rainfall, Irrigation a Necessity
      • Proper Viticulture is Needed Because the Extreme Temperatures.
  • DESERT/ ARID CLIMATE REGIONS
    • Bakaa Valley
    • Little Karoo(South Africa)
    • Red Mountain AVA.
    • Lower Murray Valley GI.
    • Sonoita AVA.
    • Iran
    • Lima

POLAR CLIMATE

  • Polar Climates Are Characterized by/ Defining Seasonal Features:

    • Summers– Dry, Warm/ Cool   |     Winters– Very Cold/ Mild, Rain, Snow
    • Tundra Climate- (Northern Russian, Northern Canada)
    • Ice-Cap Climate-
    • Alpine Climate- Area Above the Tree Line
  • POLAR CLIMATE REGIONS
    • “Seasonal Descriptors”
    • Summer Scale– Usual   |   Mild   |   Severe
    • Winter Scale– Usual   |   Mild   |   Severe
  • Polar Vortex- Upper Level Low-Pressure Area Lying Near the Earth’s Poles(North & South)
    • These Polar Vortex Sometimes Drop Down Into Canada and Northern Extreme of America Effecting Weather

COOL CLIMATE VITICULTURE

  • **Cool Climate Viticulture Isn’t a Type of Climate But a Type of Viticulture.
  • Cool Climate Viticulture is Growing Varietals In Cool Climates and is Characterized by/ Defining Features:
    • Summers– Warm Dry   |   Winters– Cold, Wet
  • Cool Climate Varietals Need Sunlight But Don’t Like Heat.
  • VITICULTURE Thin-Skin/ Regularly Ripens Early In Season, Certain Cool Climate Viticulture Techniques Use to Support Grape Growing.
  • VITICULTURE CHALLENGE
    • Sight Selection
    • Matching Varietal to Climate
    • Limits Fruit Ripening
    • Canopy management
    • Having Vines Survive Winter
  • COOL CLIMATE REGIONS
    • Willamette AVA.
    • Anderson Valley AVA.
    • Carneros AVA.
    • Montegne De Reims AOC.
    • Vosne-Romanee AOC.
    • Wachau
    • Mosel
    • Trentino
    • Alto Adige DOC.
    • Finger Lakes AVA.
    • Okanagan Valley VA.
    • Atlantic North-West
  • COOL CLIMATE VARIETIES
    • White= Baccus,  Chardonnay, Chasselas, Gewurztraminer, Madelenin Angevine, Muller Thurgau, Pinot Gri, Riesling, Savagnin
    • Red= Cabernet Franc, Chambourcin, Gamay, Pinot Noir, Poulsard, Regent, Rondo, Schiava, Trousseau

COLD CLIMATE VITICULTURE

  • **Cold Climate Viticulture Isn’t a Type of Climate But a Type of Viticulture.
  • Cold Climate Viticulture is Growing Varietals In Cold Climates and is Characterized by/ Defining Features:
    • Summers– Warm, Some Rain Events   |   Winters– Cold, Wet, Rain, Snow
  • Cold Climate Varietals Need Sunlight But Don’t Like Heat.
  • VITICULTURE CHALLENGE
    • Sight Selection
    • Matching Varietal to Climate, Early to Mid-Season Ripeners.
    • Specific Cold Weather Root Stocks Need to Be Grafted to the Vines.
    • Limits Fruit Ripening
    • Finding a Nursery That Can Provide Strong and Healthy Planting Material to Ensure That You Can See the Young Vines to Maturity
    • Canopy Management
    • Having Vines Survive Winter, Covering Canes With Soil by Tractor Often Needed.
  • COLD CLIMATE REGIONS
    • British Columbia
    • Michigan
    • Minnesota
    • Quebec
    • Ontario VA.

FACTORS INFLUENCING CLIMATE

PROXIMITY To WATER Water Has a Specific Heat Capacity and Stores Heat Better that Land. Water Heats Up and Cools Down Slower Than Land. This Cools the Land and Equalizes Temperature and Humidity Levels. The Further You Are From a Large Body of Water the More Continental the Climate Will Be.  It’s Always Advantageous to Have a Body of Water Near the Vineyard. Water is Said to Possess Heat Conduction and Heat Refraction Qualities.

  • VITICULTURE- ADVANTAGE– This is Ideal For Cooler Regions and Warmer Regions For Several Reasons, When the Air Temperature Falls Water is Able to Release the Heat. Inversely, In Summertime Warm Air From the Land Rises In Afternoons to Be Replaced by Cooler Air From the Water.
  • Depending On the Size of the Water Mass it Can Have an Influence On the Temperature From 5-15 Degrees.

LUMINOSITY EFFECT Light That’s Refracted Off Oceans Has a Luminosity Effect Which is Beneficial For Vineyards and Vine Development. Instead of Only Originating From the Sun/ Sky Above Light is Diffused and Emanate Off Rivers, Lakes and Oceans. Indirect Light or the Luminosity Effect Is Common to Many of the Great Wine Regions of the World.

  • Oceans
    • West Sonoma Coast AVA./ California…Pacific Ocean
    • Bolgheri DOC./ Italy
    • Etna DOC./ Italy
  • OCEAN EFFECT Oceans Causes Cool Breezes to Blow Along the Coastal Area. During Fall the Warm Air Above the Ocean Flows Onshore Creating a Warmer Environment Extending the Grape Growing Season.
  • Rivers
    • Germany Rivers- Mosel, Rhine, Rhone
    • USA. Rivers- Columbia, Russian, Willamette
  • RIVER EFFECT When Water is Moving it Prevent Fog From Settling In and Effecting the Vines. With Larger Rivers It Creates a River Effect Which Moderates the Temperatures of the Vineyards In Proximity.
    • Enhanced Water Reflectivity The Reflection and Change In Direction of the Sun With the Interface of Water. The Case of Vineyards the Sun is Reflective Off a River or Lake and Onto a Vineyard.
  • Lakes
    • Lavaux/ Switzerland…Lake Geneva
    • Chelan AVA./ Washington…Lake Chelan
    • Finger Lakes AVA./ New York…Finger Lakes
  • LAKE EFFECT Refers to stabilizing Temperature Influences Created by Large Lakes. Weather Change is Triggered by a Lake That Causes Temperature Changes In a Wine Growing Areas. During Winter the Lake Effect Keeps Temperature Warmer and In Summer the Proximity to the Lake Keeps Temperatures Slightly Cooler.
  • Currents
    • Alaska Current- Origins…From Oregon North to Alaska.  Effects…Pacific North-West Climate.
    • Benguela Current- Origins…Antartica.  Effects…South Africa Climate
    • California Current- Origins…From Gulf of Alaska South.   Effects…Western Europe Climate
    • Canary Current- Origins…From Canary Islands South Towards Africa
    • Gulf Stream Current- Origins…From Caribbean North to East Canada.  Effects…Main Current Across Atlantic.
    • Humboldt Current- Origins…Antarctica North to Equator.  Effects…Chile Climate
    • North Atlantic Dirt Current- Origins…East Canada East Across Atlantic.   Effects…Europe
    • North Equatorial Current- Origins…From South Canary Current West Towards Caribbean Sea.
  • CURRENT EFFECT Continuous, Directed Movement of Sea Water Generated by Earths Forces, Including Coriolis Effect, Temperature and Gravitational Pull of the Sun and Moon.

ATMOSPHERIC RIVERS AR. Flowing Narrow Corridors of Condensed Water Vapor Moisture In the Atmosphere. Atmospheric Rivers Are Generally Responsible For Producing Meaningful Rain and Snow Events.  These Rivers Consist of Bands of Enhanced Water Vapor Transport.

  • When These Atmospheric Rivers Move Inland and Over Mountains the Vapor Rises and Cools Leading to the Creation the Rain.
  • Scientists Are Accumulated a Greater Understanding of AR.’s In the Past 15 Years Though Scientific Studies and Bright Young Scientist Getting Into the Field.  Increased Observations From a This New Generation of Young Scientist Using Modern Satellites Radars, Aircraft and Numerical Weather Models Has Accelerated the Scientific Field.
    • Numerical Weather Model- Weather Prediction Using Mathematical Models of the Atmosphere and Oceans to Predict the Weather Based On Current Weather Conditions
  • PIONEERS~ ~Reginald Newell/ Yong Zhu~ Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Who Coined the Term “Atmospheric River” In 1990.
  • ACADEMIC~ ~Tamara Shulgina~ Postdoctoral Researcher Developing the Methodology and the Tools For AR. Identification On Regional Scales, Studying Long Term Climatology  and Seasonal Predictability of AR. Activity In Western North America.
  • FACTS & FIGURES
    • Generally 3-5 Atmospheric Rivers In a Hemisphere at Any Given Time.
    • These “Rivers” Are Typically Along Boundaries Between Large Areas of Divergent Surface Air Flow.
    • Atmospheric Rivers Have an Influence and Role In Global Water Cycle.
    • Absence of Atmospheric Rivers Are Linked to the Occurrence of Droughts.
    • Integrated Water Vapor Transport VT..
    • Atmospheric Rivers Can Range In Size From 250-390 Mile Wine.
  • QUALITIES OF ATMOSPHERIC RIVERS
    • These Qualities of Atmospheric Rivers Are Generally Bases On Rivers Effecting the West Coast of the United States.
    • ORIGIN- Usually Accumulate In the Tropics and Approach California From the Southwest, Bringing Warm, Moist Air.
    • DURATION- Atmospheric Rivers Can Last For Over a Month, and Can Effect the Entire Region of the World.
    • ORIENTATION- If an Atmospheric River Approaches a Mountain Range Directly Most of the Water Condenses Out.  If it Approaches at an Angle a “Barrier Jet” Can Be Created That Flows Along the Mountain Range, Dispensing the Water On the Mountainside.
    • BUOYANCY- Warm, Moist Air Mass Rises Easily Up and Over a Mountain Range, As it Does the Air Cools and Moisture Condenses Into Rain.  At This Point the Atmospheric River Decays Into Random Local Storms.
    • IMPACT- Atmospheric Rivers Approach as a Series of Storms.  They Will Often Wander Northward or Southward, the Greatest Intensity of Rains Will Usually Fall In a Narrow Band Along the Coast.
  • ATMOSPHERIC RIVERS Of The WORLD
    • Pineapple Express–  Originated Over the Hawaiian Tropics That Follow a Path Towards California
    • North America West Coast
    • Western Europe
    • Iberian Peninsula
    • New Zealand
  • HOW ATMOSPHERIC RIVERS EFFECT VITICULTURE…When Planning a Vineyard and Planting a Vineyard the Weather Pattern of the Potential Growing Area Will Directly Effect the Successfulness of the Vineyard.  The Ability to Predict Weather Patterns and Climatic Events is Crucial, Specially Around Harvest When Weather Has a Direct Effect at Harvest Time In Term of Picking Decisions.

OTHER FACTORS INFLUENCING CLIMATE

  • SIZE OF LAND MASS
  • TOPOGRAPHY
  • GEOGRAPHY
  • GLOBAL WIND PATTERN
  • ELEVATION/ ALTITUDE

CLIMATE CHANGE

  • A Long-Term Change In the Earth’s or a Regional Climate, Especially a Change Due to an Increase or Decrease In the Average Atmospheric Temperature, and Negative Gases Emitted.
  • Climate Change Involves a Slight Increase In Temperature, But Not the Climate Itself.
  • Single Weather Events Throughout the Growing Season Are More Pertinent to Grape Yields and Quality Then Climate Change Itself.
  • Wine Producers Can Focus On Better Management of CO2 In the Winery. Thousands of Tonnes of CO2 Are Emitted During The Fermentation Process, Wineries Need to Focus On Ways to Capture Carbon and Reuse it.
    • One Way is to Utilize Smarter Energy System That Recycle CO2 From Fermentation to Produce Compressed Natural Gas Such as Methane Which Can Be Used to Fuel Forklift Truck and Winery Transportation.
  • The Biggest Proportion of Carbon Emissions In the Wine Industry is the Packaging and Shipping Rather Than the Production of the Wine.
  • CONTENTIOUS WINE ISSUE!  Climate Change is Here and Real and It’s a Horrible Thing For Viticulture and the World!
    • YESClimate Change is Here, and It’s the Worst Thing In the History of the World.  It Effects Everyone and Everything Including Grape Growing Directly or Indirectly by Rising Temperatures, Extreme Weather Events Increased CO2 Emissions and Changing Climate Patterns.  If This Continues Wine as We Know it Will Be Ruined Within a Decade.
    • NOWhether It’s Man-Made or a Repeating Cycle of the Earth Its Not That Bad.  Slightly Warmer Temperatures Caused by Climate Change Are Helping Wine Growing Countries Such as Burgundy, England, Germany, Oregon and Canada Produce Their Best and More Consistent Wines Nearly Every Year.
  • VITICULTURE ADVANTAGE
    • Ability to Ripen More/ Different Grape Varieties.
    • Ability to Ripen Grapes More Consistently.
    • Decrease In the Number of Frost Days.
    • Early Harvest…More Time to Ripen Grapes at the End of Season.
    • Increase In the Number of Growing Degree Days.
  • VITICULTURE CHALLENGE
    • More Frequent Weather Events Throughout Growing Season.
    • Increase In Mold and Mildew Activity.
    • Early Harvest.
    • Increase Drought Pressure.
    • Early Bud Burst.

HOW To ADAPT YOUR PLANTED VINEYARD To CLIMATE CHANGE

  • Use Cover Crops
  • Adapt Irrigation
  • Manage Canopy to Reduce Heat On Bunches

HOW To ADAPT YOUR UNPLANTED VINEYARD To CLIMATE CHANGE.

  • Plant Grape Varieties Better Suited For the Climate.
  • Pick Rootstock That Can Thrive In the Climate
  • Plant In Higher-Elevation Area
  • Plant In North to South Orientation

Some Wine Regions Will Become Extinct and While Others Will Blossom, I Worry About the Wine Regions That Will Lose Their Typicity.

  • ASSOCIATIONS~  ~Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change~
    • ~International Wineries For Climate Action Group~

OTHER SUB-TOPICS Of CLIMATOLOGY CHAPTER

INDIAN SUMMER   Period of Unseasonably Warm/ Dry Weather That Sometimes Occurs In Autumn Late September to Early November In the Northern Hemisphere.

  • Indian Summer Usually Follows a Patch of Cold Weather or Frost Event.

BANANA BELT MICRO CLIMATE  Any Segment of a Larger Geographic Region That’s Generally Warmer Than the Rest of the Region as a Whole

In Cold Climate Regions, the Main Focus is Getting the Grapes to Ripen.

  • Riper Grapes Leads to More Sugar, Higher Alcohol by Volume, More Flavors and Complexities. In Colder Climates Vintage is More of a Factor Where Grapes May Vary From Ripe to Sightly Unripe. Proper Time and Care Should Be Taking When Matching Varietal to Vineyard Sight.
  • Certain Measures and Precautions Should be Taken When Planning to Grow In a Cool Climate Region. Matching Best Adaptable Varietal to a Vineyards Climate. Constant Vineyard Management Should Be a Concern Including Canopy Management and Proper Irrigation.
  • Different Climates In the Same Region Are Usually Due to Distance Apart, Altitude Change or Mountain Range Separation In Region.
  • The Characteristics of a Particular Climate of a Wine Region Will Have a Significant Influence On the Vineyard and the Grape.
  • Slight Variation In Climates Do Exist In the Form of Microclimates.
  • WORDS To MAKE YOU SOUND LIKE A CLIMOLOGIST
    • Incoming

CLIMATES EFFECT ON WINE

  • HOT CLIMATES EFFECT ON WINE
    • +BODY,  +RIPENESS, +ABV., +RS.
  • COOL CLIMATES EFFECT ON WINE
    • -BODY,  -RIPENESS, -ABV.,  -RS.

  • SUB-CHAPTERS Of CLIMATOLOGY
    • Sun Exposure
    • Frost
    • Rain
    • Temperature
    • Humidity
    • Hail/ Snow/ Fog
  • **Refer to Proceeding Sub-Chapters For Detailed Information


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced