• Sun Exposure
    • Frost/ Freeze
    • Rain/ Hail
    • Rain Shadow
    • Drought
    • Wind/ Wind Gap
    • Temperature/ Humidity
    • Hail/ Snow/ Fog

SUN EXPOSURE Direct Sun, Exposure to Ultra-Violet.

  • To Fully Ripen, Grapes Need a Sufficient Amount of Heat During Growing Season Which is Crucial for Photosynthesis, Heat Absorption and Tannin Pigment Development. Lack of Sun Exposure and Grapes Don’t Develop Enough Sugar Leaving Wine is Too Acidic and Unbalanced. Excessive Sun Exposure and Grapes Develop Too Much Sugars Leaving Wine Lack Acidity and with Elevated Alcohol Levels.


  • Less Than 50* and the Vine Become Dormant.
  • Ripening Starts to Occur at Temperatures Above 63°.
  • Optimal Ripening is Between 70°- 82°
  • Temperatures Above 90° and the Vine Begins to Shut Down.
  • “Light vs. Heat”  The Sunlight at Higher Altitudes is More Intense Than at Lower Altitudes, Even If the Temperature is Greater at Lower Altitude.
    • Having Enough Sun is the #1 Benefit to Great Grapes.
    • Excessive Sun Exposure- Pruning and Canopy Management is Needed to Moderate Accumulation of Sun Exposure.
    • In Extremely Sunny/ Hot Regions It’s Imperative That the Grape-Grower Manages the Sunlight.


  • Technique for Classifying the Climate of Wine Growing Regions. Geographical Areas Area Divided Into Five Climate Regions Based On Temperature. Climate Classified  by Counting the Number of Hours During Which Temperatures Exceeded 70° Over the Course of the Growing Season.
  • PIONEERS~  ~A.J. Winkler~  Published “General Viticulture/ Winker Scale”.
    • Growing Degree Days GDD.- A Measure of Heat Accumulation Used to Predict Vine Development Rates, an Effective Metric of a Wines Region’s Capacity to Ripen Grapes.

LIGHT INTENSITY Ratio of Radiometric Light to Photometric Light.

  • Heat and Light Have Different Effects On Vines.
    • Radiometric Light-
    • Photometric Light-

FROST Ice Crystals Formed by the Freezing of Water Vapor On Objects Which Cooled Below Freezing 32°. Cold Air Settle On the Surface of Vineyard Pushing Warmer Air Up.

  • On Cold Night In Early Spring Frost Can Damage Young Buds or Fall Frost Can Damage Grape Cold Leading to Frost and the Potential For Vine and Grape Damage.
  • Topography is Biggest Factor of Where Frost Goes and Where Frost Damage Occurs.,Cold Air Like Water Flows Down to Lower Levels, Where it Has a Chance to Sit and Accumulate. The Bottom of a Slope or Basin is More Susceptible or Prone to Frost Damage  Than Hills Sides.
  • Reductive Frost Frost That Occurs Under Clear Sky’s Reductive Frost Can Be Protected Against by Drawing Warmer Air Down.
  • Averted Frost Frost That Occurs Under Cloudy Sky’s.
  • Screen/ Air Frost Temperature is 32° or Lower 1.5 Meters Above the Ground.
  • Ground Frost Temperature is 32° or Lower On Ground.
  • Frosted Term Used For a Crop or Area That Has Been Effected Adversely by Frost Damage.
    • Frost Damage- Ice Forms In the Plant Tissue of Buds, Young Shoots, Leave, Inflorescence -If Prolong Frost Damage Area Turns Brown and Die.
    • Frost Event- An Instant or Time Either Overnight or a Period In the Early Morning Where Frost Became an Issue.
  • VITICULTURECHALLENGE– ~Frost~ Runs Like Water and Pools In Lower Locations.

WIND MACHINE- Machine Used to Combat the Effect of Frost On a Vineyard Either by Blowing Cold Air Up-Ward or to Blowing Warm Air Down-Ward. This Also Reduces Humidity and Warm Vineyards During Spring Frost.

  • Wind Machine Can Be Portable or Fixed, Surfaced Mounted (Low to the Ground) or Up On Towers (High In the Air), Gas or Propane Powered.  1 Wind Machine Can Protect 10-15 Acres and Guard Against Temperatures That Can Drop Down to 28°.

SPRINKLERS/ Apersion- Using Water Sprinkling to Protect Against Spring Frost. When Temperatures Hit Freezing the Sprinklers Are Turned On and the Water Forms a Protective Barrier of Ice That Protect Vine Buds From Colder Temperature.

SMUDGE POTS- Oil Burning Heat Bearing Device Used to Prevent Frost From Settling In Vineyards. (Once In Fashion, Now Replaced by Wind Machines)

  • Chaufferette– French Burning Pots Used Primary In Champagne and Burgundy to Prevent Spring Frost.

FREEZE Frost is More of an Issue Because the Fruit is Likely to Be Effected But Not the Vine Itself. Winter Freeze During the Dormancy Period is a Problem Because it Can Kill the Vine.

  • Freezing to the Ground- Term Used When the Vine is Killed Above the Roots Because of Freezing Temperature. In the Chance the Vine is Planted On Its Own Roots the Vine Will Grown Back. If the Vine is Grafted Onto Rootstock the Vine Must be Pulled, and a Grafted Vine Must Be Replanted.
  • Hilling Up the Soil- Using a Specially Designed Plow, It Pushes Soil Up Against the Vine Creating a Dirt Ridge Covering the “Graft Union”.  In Some Extreme Cold Countries They Cover the Entire Vine.  “Hilling Up the Soil” Creates a Blanket For the Vine, Preventing Trunk/ Vine/ and Cane Damage.

RAIN– Major Component of Climate and One That Can Be Qualified as the Quantity of Rain Falling Within a Given Area In a Given Period of Time.

Rainfall Affects Grapevines In Many, Sometimes Conflicting Ways.

  • VITICULTURE- ADVANTAGE– ~Rain~ Has a Moderates, Cooling or Warming Effect On Temperature In Vineyard. On Frosty Days Rain Can Increase Temperatures.
  • VITICULTURE- CHALLENGE– ~Excessive Rain~ Rain Before Fruit Set Can Cause Millerandage or Coulure (Grapes Don’t Fertilize Properly Due to Cold and Rain)
  • Too Much Rain Before Harvest Dilutes the Grapes/ Wine, Sugar/ Acid Balance.
  • Too Much Rain During Summers Pushes Back Harvest.
  • For Vineyards Depending On Rainfall Enough Rain is Essential and at Certain Periods to Stimulate Growth and Avoid Water Stress.
  • Water Stress and Excessive Rainfall Can Be Detrimental to Bunch Development, a Fine Balance is Needed to Maximize Quality.

SOIL EROSION- Naturally Occurring Process That Affects All Landforms, Refers to the Wearing Away or Dispatching and Transfer of Sediment or Aggregate of Top-Soil by Natural Forces of Rain or Wind.

HAIL Rain That Freezes as it Falls to Earth.

    • Burgundy
    • Piemonte

RAIN SHADOW EFFECT– Wet Area Separated by Overly Dry Area Separated by Mountains Due to Effect of a High Altitude Mountain Range.  When Storms Hits or “Wall-Up” Against Mountains Range Pressure Forces the Front to Ascend to a Higher Elevation.  This High Elevation Forces the Storm to Precipitate or Extract Water/ Moisture Leaving Clouds Waterless or Even Dissipated Altogether Before Reaching the Other Side.

  • Windward- “Side”
  • Leeward- “Side”


  • OKANAGAN VALLEY    @Canada, British Columbia  
    • Topography– ~Coast Mountains Range~
  • COLUMBIA VALLEY AVA.     @Washington
    • Topography– ~Cascade Mountains~
  • YAKIMA VALLEY AVA.     @Columbia Valley
    • Geography– Washington, REGION-Yakima Valley AVA.
      • ~Snipes Mountains~   EFFECTS/ Snipes Mountain AVA.
    • Topography– Coast Mountains Range
    • Geography– California, REGION-Central Coast ‘North
      • ~Santa Lucia Mountains~  EFFECTS/ Santa Lucia Highlands AVA.
      • ~Santa Cruz Mountians~  EFFECTS/ Santa Cruz Mountain AVA.
  • CURICO     @Chile
    • Topography– ~Coastal Mountains~
  • NEW ZEALAND      @New Zealand
    • Topography– ~Southern Mountain Range~    
    • Topography– ~Santa Cruz Mountains~
  • SHENANDOAH VALLEY     @Virginia
    • Topography– ~Afton Mountains/ Blue Ridge Mountains~
  • MEDOZA     @Argentina
    • Topography– ~Andes Mountains~


  • PHATZ     @Germany
    • Topography–  ~Haardt Mountains~
  • ALSACE     @France
    • Topography– ~Vosges Mountains~
  • VALLE D’AOSTA     @Italy
    • Topography– ~Western Alps~
  • DOURO VALLEY     @Portugal
    • Topography– ~Marao Mountains~

DROUGHT Prolonged Server Deficit of Rainfall In Specific Area

  • Dry Years Often Produce Great Red Wines, But Multiple Years of Deficit of Rainfall is Detrimental to the Vine.
  • Even Though Grapes Are Relatively Drought Resistant They Are Not Invincible. Period of Stress From Lack of Water Will Cause the Vine to Shut Down Fruit Production In an Effort to Stay Alive.

OBTAINING WATER- In Certain Regions Water/ Snow Melt From Mountains is Carried by Various Rivers to the Vineyards Below That Can Be Diverted Off In Channels and Canals and Used For Irrigation.

IRRIGATION Simulation of Rainfall, Used to Make Up Rain Deficits. Irrigation Allows For the Growing of Grapes In Hot, Arid, Climate Possible.

  • HISTORY- Evidence of Grape Growers Using Irrigation Goes Back in Time Babylonians, Chinese, Egyptian, Early South American Civilizations.
  • VITICULTURE- ADVANTAGE– Able to Maximize Yields in Table Grapes, Drying Grapes, Bulk Wine by Over Watering Leading to Over Hydration.
  • VITICULTURE- CHALLENGE– Negative Effects of Irrigation is it Doesn’t Challenge the Roots to Explore or Go Deep into the Soil Profiles.
  • **Refer to “CLIMATE/ Rainfall” For Detailed Information.
  • Being Able to Use Irrigation is an Enormous Advantage. The Ability to Control When Water is Applied and In What Quantity and Not Leave it to Mother Nature is a Benefit. The Grape Grower Can Control/ Manipulate the Soil/ Vine Growth/ Vigor/ Berry Size.   All Irrigation is Now Done by Drip Systems. Irrigation Can Be Metered Out So Precisely That Each Row by Row Can Be Adjusted to Benefit Complexity of Soils In a Vineyard.
  • Evaporation Rate Determining Factor- Influenced by: Shading, Soil Conditions, Wind Speed, Humidity, Cover Crops, Air Temperature.
  • Irrigation Sources– River, Canal, Pond, Lake, Water Tank, Irrigation Lagoon
  • VITICULTURE- CHALLENGE– ~Water Abundance~
      • Vines Grow Vegetative (Leaves, Shoots)
    • ~Water Deficit~ Vegetative Vines Growth Slows and Efforts Are Put In Caring For Fruit.


  • DRIPPER SYSTEM IRRIGATION- Delivers Exact Amounts of Water Applied as Drops to Base of Each Vine From Pressure Reducing Plastic Devices. Allows For Precise Amount of Water to Be Used at Precise Time to Precise Area.
    • Allows Irrigation of Undulating Lands and Maximizes Water Supple.
    • As a Negative, Drip Irrigation Promotes an Elevated Rooting Zone.
  • FIXED SPRINKLER IRRIGATION- Water is Pumped Through Sprinkler So Water Breaks Up Into Small Drops and Fall to Ground. Downfall is It’s Not Precise and Much of the Water is Wasted.
  • TRAVELING OVERHEAD SPRINKLER- Can Cover Large Areas With One Sprinkler and Can Be Used On Multiple Vineyards In a Day.
  • UNDER-VINE MINI-SPRINKLER- Attached to Supple Pipes and Usually On Every Other Row, and Spray In a Circle In a 2-5 Meter Radius.
  • LEAKY HOSE- Hoses Laid Along Every Row of Vines and Holes Punched In Pertinent Positions.
  • FURROW IRRIGATION- Water is Funneled Into Furrow Channels the Vines Are Planted In.
  • FLOOD IRRIGATION- Water Fed From Supply Canal is Flooded Down the Rows and Absorbed Into the Vineyard.
    • Australia
    • Columbia Valley
    • San Jacquin Valley

WIND– Perceptible Natural Movement of Air In Form of a Current of Air Blowing From a Particular Direction.

    • Has Moderating Effect, On Vineyards, Decreasing Temperature On a Hot Day and Increase Temperature On a Cold Day. Winds Promotes Healthy Vines by Not Allowing Humidity While Discouraging Bugs, Mildew and Molds.
    • Reduces Canopy and Toughens Skins Resulting In Grapes Denser In Color and Flavors
    • Causes Poor Berry Fertilization, Poor Fruit-Set, Wind Stress Broken Shoots, Trellis Collapse, Leaf Damage (Causes Poor Photosynthesis), Photosynthesis Shuts Down When Winds Get Higher Than 15 MPH. Leaf Shade Removal. Hill Sides and Sloops Vineyards Are Generally Exposed to Increased Winds.
    • Callused- Scabbing Where Berries Are Constantly Rubbing Together
    • Windbreak- Barrier, Either Manmade or Natural/ Vegetation to Break the Force of Wind to Avoid Wine Damage or Wind Stress. Natural Windbreaks Are Trees or Shrubs


  • Cape Doctor      Geography– South Africa
    • Origins…                         Characteristics…Dry Air, South Easterly
  • Clipper      Geography– Central USA.
    • Origins… Central Canada               Characteristics…Cold, Freezing Wet
  • Howlers        Geography– Washington/ Columbia Valley
    • Origins…Columbia River
  • Polar            Geography– Western Argentina/ Mendoz
    • Origins…Cold Wind From the South/ Eastern Slope of Andes Mountains.
  • Santa Ana’s            Geography– Southern California
    • Origins
  • Carneros Express       Geography– Carneros(Sonoma & Napa)    
    • OriginsSan Pablo Bay
  • Sudestada            Geography– Western Argentina/ Mendoza
    • Origins…South-East Wind That Comes From the Atlantic/Uruguay River/ Parana River.
  • Westerlys          Geography- New Zealand
    • Origins
  • Wine Machine         Geography- High Valley/ Lake County
    • Origins
  • Zonda            Geography– Western Argentina/ Mendoza
    • Origins…Warming Western Wind That Sweeps Down Off the Eastern Slope of Andes Mountains.


  • Alicios           Geography– Carnary Islands
    • Origins…North Atlantic        Characteristics…Cold Air, Water Currant
  • D’Autan            Geography– South-West France/ Gaillac   
    • Origins…East-Central Africa
  • Borda            Geography Italy/ Friuli, Carso      
    • Origins…Adriatic Sea
  • Breva            Geography Lombardia/ Valtallina     
    • Origins…Off Lake Coma
  • Ciezo              GeographyCarinena
    • Origins
  • Foehn    @Generally Term For Down-Slope Winds On Lee Sides of Mountains That Are Producing Rain Shadow Effects
    • Foehn Effect– Dry Warm, Down-Slope Wind That Occurs On the Down-Wind Side of a Mountain Range, Creates a Microclimate That’s Milder & Dryer Than it Should Be at Altitude.
  • Gregale             GeographyWestern Mediterranean
    • Origins…South of Malta
  • Levant/ Solano             GeographySouthern France/ Spain
    • Origins…Atlantic/ Strait of Gibraltar
  • Libeccio            Geography- France/ Corsica
    • Origins
  • Meltemi           Geography– Crete
    • Origins…Balkan/ Hugary
  • Le Mistrel           Geography– Rhone Valley
    • Origins…StartS In the Massif Central of Central France and Blow South Through the Rhone Valley and Into the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Ostro             GeographyItaly
    • Origins…Adriatic Sea
  • Ponente              GeographyWest Mediterranean
    • Origins…Atlantic Ocean
  • Saharan           Geography– Carnary Islands
    • Origins…North Africa/ Sahara Desert        Characteristics…Hot Air
  • Sirocco            GeographySouthern Europe/ Mediteranean
    • Origins…Sahara Desert
  • Tramontane         Geography- Italy, Spain
    • Origins… Alps/ Northern Italy
  • West Winds       Geography- France/ Alsace
    • Origins… Atlantic Ocean, Across France/ Plain of Lorraine to Vosges Mountains


Predominate Opening Below a Ridge-Line/ Coastal Low Land Area That Allows Inflow of Fog/ Moisture/ Weather Into a Area. As the Inland Valleys Heat Up, Warm Air Rises Creating Low Pressure Effect This Draws In Cool Misty Pacific Ocean Air Into the Valleys Via Gaps. Wind-Gaps Have a Strong Effect on Many Aspects of Vineyards and Viticulture.


  • Berryessa Gap
    • Geography– California, REGION-Central Valley
      • Gap In
  • Chalk Hill Gap
    • Geography– California, REGION-Napa Valley AVA.
      • Gap In– Mayacamus Mountains
  • High Valley Gap
    • Geography– California, REGION-Clear Lake AVA.
      • Gap In
  • Lamari/ Altoplano Gap
    • Geography– Chile, REGION-Limari Valley
      • Gap In– Coastal Range- Tongoy Bay/ Talinay Hills
  • Monterey Bay Gap
    • Geography– California, REGION-Central Coast ‘North
      • Gap In– Coast Mountain Range
  • Rainbow Gap
    • Geography– California, REGION-Temecula AVA.
      • Gap In
  • Rockfish Gap
    • Geography– Virginia, REGION-Shenandoah Valley AVA.
      • Gap In– Blue Ridge Mountains/ Afton Mountains
  • Russian River Gap
    • Geography– California, REGION-Russian River Valley AVA.
      • Gap In
  • Petaluma Gap
    • Geography– California, REGION-Sonoma Coast AVA.
      • Gap In– Coast Range, Between Bodega Bay and Tomales Bay
  • San Francisco Bay Gap
    • Geography– California, REGION-Central Coast ‘North’ AVA.
      • Gap In– Coast Mountain Range
  • Templeton Gap
    • Geography– California, REGION-Paso Robles AVA.
      • Gap In
  • Van Duzer Corridor Gap
    • Geography– Oregon, REGION-McMinnville AVA.
      • Gap In– Coast Mountain Range, Gap- 800ft. “Gap” In the 3,000ft. Coast Mountain Range
        • Holmes Gap– Gap at the End of the Van Duzer Corridor Gap Which Funnels Cool Breezes to a Small Sectio of Vineyards.
  • Wallula Gap
    • Geography– Washington, REGION-Walla Walla AVA.
      • Gap In


  • Gap
    • Geography– Lisbon- REGION-Obidos
      • Gap In– Peniche Peninsula

TEMPERATURE Degree or Intensity of Heat Present In a Substance or On a Particular Object, Expressed/ Shown by Thermometer.

You Can Grow Grapes Almost Everywhere On Earth, but There’s a Difference Between Growing Grapes In Sweden and Making a Commercially Viable Wine With the Grapes.

  • VITICULTURE- ADVANTAGE– The Most Important Aspect to Growing Grapes In Ample Sun and the Ability to Ripen the Grapes.
  • VITICULTURE- CHALLENGE–  ~High Temperature~
    • Effect On Acidity and Ripening, Viticulturist Must Match Varieties to Temperature, Regions. Grapes Don’t Like Hot Temperatures During Harvest, This Upsets Sugar and Acid Balance. Grapes Will Not Ripen In Regions with Annual Temperature Average Under 50*. Low Temperature at Altitude Can Negatively Effect Bud Break and Ripening.
    • Vines Closing Down- When It’s Too Hot the Grape-Vine Will Close Down. This Closing Down Process Will Stop Photo Synthesis and Put the Vine In a Recovery Response.   In Doing So the Vine Will Try to Protect Itself From Water Damage/ Lack of Water Damage.   If Too Much Water is Evaporating Throught the Leaves Will Lead to Cell Damage.
  • VITICULTURE- CHALLENGE–  ~Freezing Temperature~
  • **Refer to “VITICULTURE CHALLENGES/ Freezing” For Detailed Information

DIURNAL SHIFT Degrees of Temperature Fluctuation Between Day-Time High and Night-Time Low (90° Day Time Temperature,  55° Night Time Temperature is Diurnal Shift of 35°)

  • Diurnal Shift Scale  Large +50°   |   Medi 40°   |   Short -30°
  • Diurnal Shifts Can Be Quantified In Day or Year.
  • During Day Grapes Expand In Size, and at Night Grapes Cool and Reduce In Size. This Natural Phenomena Allows Ripening Grapes to Balance Sugars With Acidity. The Acidity Gives Wines a Liveliness In Their Youth and Also the Ability to Achieve Longevity Though Aging.
  • Malic Acid Slowly Dissipate In Constant Warm Temperature, Cool Nights Help Preserves Acid.

INVERSION LAYER Deviation From the Normal Change of Atmospheric Property With Altitude, Increase In Temperature With Height. Inversion Layers Tend to Prevent the Air Below From Rising Above.

  • TEMPERATURE INVERSION Thin Layer of Atmosphere Where the Normal Decrease In Temperature With Height Switches to Temperature Increasing With Height. An Inversion Acts Like a Lid, Keeping Normal Atmosphere From Penetrating Through the Inversion.
  • Every +Alt.100mt./ 330ft. Reduces Temperature 1.08°

HUMIDITY Amount of Water Vapor In Atmosphere at Any Given Time, Measured as Percentage of Relative Humidity (%RH.).

  • VITICULTUREADVANTAGE– Perfect For Botrytis
    • Wet and Humid Weather is Associated With Disease Pressure Like Mold/ Mildew/ Fungal Diseases and Has Effects On Vine Growth and Development as Well as Storage of Wine In Barrels.
    • Perfect Conditions For Botrytis
    • Rheingau Tokaj Aszu DHC.
    • Heusiedlesee-Hugelland
    • Contnari Alsace AOC.
    • Sauternes AOC.
    • Brazil

DEW Water Which Condenses On Vines When Air is Cool Below “Dew Point”.

  • Dew Point- Point When Air Becomes Fully Saturated by its Water Content.

EVAPORATION Conversion of Water From Liquid to Gas or Vapor Brought About by Absorption of Heat.

  • From Soil (Reduces Water Available to Vine and Causes Water Stress.)
  • From Grapes Vine Leaves (Transpiration)
  • From Grape Bunches
  • From Storage (Causes Loss of Wine Stored in Oak Barrel During Maturation)

TRANSPIRATION Process of Water Movement Through a Plant From the Roots to “Aerial” Parts, Such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers Where it Changes to Vapor and is Released to the Atmosphere.

HAIL Frozen Rain That Freezes as it Falls to From Cumulonimbus Clouds.

    • Potential Catastrophic Damage by High Trajectory Hail Can Strip the Vine of Fruit and Leaves, Strip Bark and Shoots and Affect the Development of Buds for the Following Season.
  • SRING- Damage to Flowering Buds
  • FALL- Damage to Ripening Grapes…Direct Hit to Grape Causes an Explosion That Results In Havoc by Potential Moisture Damage Which Leads to Fungal Issues.
  • HAIL NETS- Installed to be Relatively Discreet but Can Be Extended Over the Majority of the Vineyard Quickly When Forecasted to.

SNOW Atmospheric Water Vapor Frozen Into Ice Crystals and Falling In Light White Flakes When Temperature Falls Below 32°.

    • Having Snow On the Grounds When the Vines Are Dormant Isn’t an Issue. Having Snow When the Vines Are Not In Dormantcy Can Be Detrimental to the Vines.
  • Hilling Up- Plowing Dirt Up On the Trunks of the Vines Above the Graft as Instillation to the Effects Against the Frozen Earth.
  • Debuttage- The Removal of the Protected Earth Piled Around the Base of the Vine the Previous Winter.

Snow is Fine In the Vineyard as Long as the Vines Are Dormant.

FOG  Thick Cloud of Tiny Water Droplets Suspended In the Atmosphere at or Near the Earth’s Surface.

  • Fog Dog– A Daily Break/ Bright Spot or Clearing That Appears In the Fog.
    • Fog Has Cooling Effect or Moderating Influence On Exposed Coastal Areas and Rivers. Fog Cools Temperature On Hot Days and Warm Temperature On Cold Days, Contributing to the Effects of Diurnal Shifts.
  • VITICULTURE- CHALLENGE–  ~Excessive Fog~
    • As Valleys Near Oceans Heat Up Hot Air Rises Allowing Fog That’s Sitting Off the Coast to Funnel in Underneath. The Fog Usually Remains Until it is Burned Off the Next Morning. Rivers and Mountain Gaps Act as Fog Highway to Allow Fog Inland.
    • Sonoma Coast AVA.
    • Anderson Valley AVA.
    • Barolo DOCG.

**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced