HISTORY Of The VINE


  • SUB-TOPICS Of HISTORY Of THE VINE CHAPTER
    • Back-Story of “The Vine
    • Historical Time-Line of “The Vine”
    • Ancient World
    • Ancient Wine

BACK-STORY Of The VINE

  • The Back Story is Made Up of Things Like Country, Culture, Terroir, Winery, Winemaker, Grape. Do Knowing Them Make the Wine Taste Better, or Make the Experience More Enjoyable? Can You Taste the Backstory and is it Worth the Increased Price? You Can’t Fully Understand the Style of a Wine Produced Today Without Having a Appreciation of How it Evolved In Time Over the Centuries. Sometimes, it’s More Than What’s In the Bottle. The Back-Story Almost Transported You to the Place of Origin and Allows You to Consider What Went Into the Production of the Wine and the People Who Worked So Hard to Produce That Bottle.

History of “The Vine” is Limited to the Fact Wine Has Been Produced Longer Than Recorded History.

  • The First Appearance of a Vine Later Named Vitis Vinifera Sylvetris Appeared 65-Million Year Ago In the Super Continent of Pangea. All Grapes Today Are Descended From This Single “Vitis Vinifera” Wild-Grape Variety.  Over Time a Grape Vine Vitas Apelopsus and It’s Two Sub-Species: Vitis American and Vitas Eurasian Spread Throughout the World. The Caucasus Mountains/ Anotolo Highland Between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea In Mesopotamia(Now Georgia) and/ or the Taurus Mountains of South-Eastern Turkey Are Origin of Vitis Vinifera. This Area is Important Because It’s One the Only Places to Survive the Last Ice Age.  Vines, Wines and Viticulture Spread South Down the Tigris River and Euphrates Rivers to the Larger Cities of the Earliest Civilizations of Babylon and Persia (Now Iran). This Area Became Center of Ancient Grape Growing World. Eventually Wine Spread to Egypt, Who Introduced Wine to Greece, Who Advanced Viticulture.  After Bringing Wine to the Italian Peninsula the Romans Introduced Wine to the Rest of Europe, Who Introduced Wine Throughout the Modern New World.
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY?  Do People Who Posses a Greater Knowledge and Background About “The Vine” Enjoy Wine More or Have a Enhanced Perceptual Experience With Wine?
    • Knowing the Back-Story Can Lead to a Greater Appreciating of  Wine.  Knowing the Winemaker, Winery, History, Culture or Having Been to the Growing Area Adds to the Drinking Experience and Can Guide or Help Us With Better Buying Decisions.

WORLD HISTORIC TIME-LINE & The VINE

History Behind The Vine Makes Wine Fascinating and Lends Meaning to What’s In the Bottle.

  • HISTORICAL ACRONYMS

    • BC. Before Christ                               AD. Anno Domini(Refers to Birth of Jesus)
    • BCE. Before Common Era               CE. Common Era

**Refer to ”@OLD WORLD/ NEW WORLD for Information On All Historical References.

PRE-HISTORICTIME PERIOD– 5 Million- 6000 Years Before Christ

  • 65 Million Years Ago- First Grape Vine Evolved.
  • 6000 BC. @Georgia Zagros Mountains- Oldest Remnants of Wine Discovered.
  • 5000 BC. @Mesopotamians Phoenicians, Sumerians -All Making Wine.
  • 4500 BC. @                          – Oldest Painting of Wine Culture Done.
  • 4200 BC. @Eastern Macedonia Oldest Remnants of Wine In Europe.
  • 4100 BC. @Armenia Oldest Winery Found.
  • 4000 BC. @Spain Phoenicians Settled In Spain and Started Cultivating Wine.

ANCIENT EGYPT TIME PERIOD– 3500 BC.

  • 3500 BC. @Egypt Egyptians, Phoenicians, Pharaohs Rise to Power, Make Wine.
  • 3100 BC. @Egypt 1st. Wine Label, Stamped Into to Clay Vase.
  • 3000 BC. @Egypt Wine Started to Be “Written About” In Writing.
  • 3000 BC. @Egypt Wine Started to Be “Mass Produces”.

ANCIENT GREECE TIME PERIOD– 2500 BC.

  • 2500 BC. @Greece Introduced to Viticulture by Phoenician/ Egyptians.
  • 1600 BC. @Mesopotamia Glass Making Emerges.
  • 1345 BC. @Egypt Tutankhamen Buried With 26 Wines.
  • 1153 BC. @Egypt King Rameses Buried With 20,000 Jars of Wine.
  • 1100 BC. @Phoenicians Influence Colonization of Mediterranean.
  • 1000 BC. @Rome ViticultureIntroduced to Region by Greece.
  • 800 BC. @Italy Etruscans Cultivated Vine Before Romans In Central Italy.
  • 800 BC. @France, Spain, Portugal Introduced to Viticulture Roman Empire.

ANTIQUITY  TIME PERIOD– 700 BC. to 479

  • 728 BC. @Sicilia Greeks Acquired and Starting Planting Vines, Know as Magna Graecia.
  • 700 BC.– 300 @Lazio Etruscans, Name For an Ancient Civilization Occupying Central Italy.
  • 600 BC. @France ViticultureIntroduced to Region by Greeks/ Roman Empire.
  • 600 BC. @Province ViticultureWine Culture Influence by Romans, Gauls, Catalans.
  • 500 BC. @Rhone Valley ViticultureIntroduced to Region by Greeks.
  • 500 BC. @Roussillon Romans Planted First Organized Grapes/ Vineyards.
  • 200 BC. @France Roman Empire, Mastered Viniculture.
  • 150 BC. @Rhone Valley Romans Establish Quality Vineyards and Reputation For Wine.
  • 100 BC. @England Romans Planted Vine In England During Their Occupation.
  • 00 @Jerusalem Jesus is Born.
  • 00 @Alsace ViticultureIntroduced to Region by Romans.
  • 30 @Jerusalem Jesus Christ Turns Water Into Wine.
  • 52 @BurgundyOccupationArea Controlled by the Romans.
  • 79 @Pompeii– Buried by Mt. Vesuvius Volcanic Eruption.
  • 200 @Roman Empire Wine as a DrugWine Used as Antiseptic, Tranquilizer, Drug.
  • 300 @Germany World Oldest Liquid Wine.
  • 379 @Bordeaux First Vineyards Planted In Region.
  • 400 @Bordeaux ViticultureIntroduced to Region by Romans.
  • 436 @BurgundyOccupationArea Controlled by Burgundian(People of Germanic Origins)

DARK AGES TIME PERIOD– 450 to 1000

  • 479 @Roma Fall of RomeViticulture Kept Alive During by Church, Monks & Monasteries.
  • 500 @Champagne Viticulture, Introduced to Region by Romans.
  • 500 – 1200s @Europe OccupationSouth-West France Was Ruled by England.
  • 534 @BurgundyOccupationArea Occupied by Franks(People of Germanic Origins)
  • 700 @Spain Moors Conquered Spain and Put a Stop to Most Wine Making.
  • 800 @Spain Viticulture”, Introduced by Roman Empire.
  • 910 @BurgundyDark Ages”, Monks/ Churches Took Over Wine Production.

MIDDLE AGES TIME PERIOD– 1000 to 1400

  • 1100 @Greater Europe Monks & Monasteries
  • 1100 @Spain Mid EvilChristianity Overtook Spain Reviving Wine and Wealth.
  • 1152-1453 @Bordeaux The English ConnectionArea Was Ruled by England.
  • 1200s @France Languedoc Region Has Belonged to France.
  • 1200’s – 1700s @Corsica– Ruled by Republic of Genoa.
  • 1300  @Iberian Coast Bark of Cork Trees Used to Seal Bottles.
  • 1363-1792 @BurgundyOccupationArea Controlled by Dukes.
  • 1400’s @Andalucia New MarketExports of Wine Starts to England.

RENAISSANCE TIME PERIOD–  1300 to 1600

  • 1530 @Mexico, Brazil Introduced to Viticulture by Portuguese & Spanish.
  • 1550 @Chile, Argentina Introduction of Viticulture/ Coming of Age 1990’s
  • 1564 @America ViticultureIntroduced to Region by European.
  • 1600’s @Medoc Dutch Built Dikes and Drained Marsh In Estuary.
  • 1607 @Virginia First Grape Vines Planted by English Settlers at Jamestown.
  • 1650 @Greater Europe Glass Bottles For Use of Storage.
  • 1650 @Bordeaux, France Cabernet Sauvignon as We Know it Evolved.
  • 1655 @South Africa Viticulture Introduced French.
  • 1659 @Roussillon Was Part of Spain Until the Treaty of the Pyrenees.
  • 1663 @Bordeaux– Haut-Brion, the First Estate to Be Referenced, Rather Than a Region.
  • 1670 @Pauillac, France Vineyard Planted at Lafite-Rothschild.

MODERN ERA TIME PERIOD–  1700+

  • 1700’s @Andalucia New MarketOne of First Wines to Be Consistently Imported Into America.
  • 1716 @Chianti– Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Delimited the Chianti Production Zone.
  • 1740 @Europe Corks Started to Be Used On a Grander Scale.
  • 1750 @Burgundy Wine Were Considered Inferior, Seen as Light Wines For Early Drinking.
  • 1769 @Corsica AnnexationThe Control of Island Goes to France.
  • 1776 @Philadelphia Madeira Drank After Declaration of Independence
  • 1789 @France After Revolution Land From Church Split Into Parcels, Sold
  • 1792 @Burgundy Over-Through of Elites, Led by Napoleon.
  • 1800’s @French The ModernizationTook  Place Across French Regions.
  • 1800’s @Montalcino– Brunello Was Referred to a Rosso-Vino di Montalcino.
  • 1821 @Canary Islands– Portuguese Gave Up Canary Islands to Spain In Exchange Madeira, the Azores.
  • 1836 @New Zealand Introduction of Viticulture/ Coming of Age 1980’s
  • 1845 @Germany Hock (Germany Wine) Becomes More Main Stream
  • 1855 @France Bordeaux Classification is Carried Out.
  • 1855 @BurgundyOccupationArea Controlled by Jules Lavelle.
  • 1857 @Sonoma (Buena Vista) 1st. Commercial California Winery.
  • 1860 @Europe Good Wine Labels Are Developed.
  • 1861 @Italia Independence”, On March 17, Italy Became a Modern Nation State.
  • 1864 @France Proof Fermentation is Carried Out by Living Yeast Cells
  • 1862 @France (Lirac) Ground Zero For Phylloxera Epidemic.
  • 1871 @Alsace Occupation, Region Controlled by Germany.
  • 1872 @Penedes– Cava/ Sparkling Wine Produced.
  • 1875- 92 @France Phylloxera EpidemicLouse Destroys 75% of French Vineyard.
  • 1876 @Spain Phylloxera Epidemic
  • 1890 @Rioja/ Spain Phylloxera FreeOther Countries Came to Rioja.
  • 1900’s @Sicilia Marked by a Century of Wars and Poverty.
  • 1910- 11 @Champagne Champagne Riots, Protest/ Riots Take Place.
  • 1918 @Friuli AnnexationOnce Part of the Austrian Hungarian Empire Until 1918.
  • 1919 @Alsace Annexation, Control of Region Back to France After World War I.
  • 1919 @Alto Adige/ Sud Tyrol  Annexation, Control of Region Back to Italy After World War I.
  • 1926 @Rioja– Wine LawDO. Officially Established.
  • 1930 @BurgundyArea of Burgundy Defined.
  • 1935 @France Appellation Control For Wine is Developed.
  • 1936 @Chateauneuf-du-Pape AOC. Established as First Official French Wine Appellation.
  • 1936 @BurgundyAOC. Laws Defined.
  • 1936-1939  @Spain Spanish Civil War
  • 1940 @Italia– Reputation For Lying About “What Was In the Bottle”.
  • 1940- 45 @Alsace Germany Occupied Alsace During World War II.
  • 1950 @Rioja Modernizationof Rioja Takes Place.
  • 1970s @Roussillon/ LanguedocWine BankBulk Wine Surplus That Plagued the Industry.
  • 1975 @AlsaceGrand Cru, Vineyard Delimitation Takes Place.
  • 1976 @Paris/ Napa Judgement of Paris TastingNapa Wines Beat French In Blind Tasting.
  • 1980s @Roussillon/ Languedoc Vine Pull Scheme, Government Plays Grower to Pull Vineyards.
  • 2000 @England New Wave of Sparkling Winemaking.
  • 2000 @Bordeaux– Rise of the Asian Market
  • 2ooo’s @Sicilia ResurgenceLast 25 Years Has Seen an Increase In the Regions Viticulture.


NEW WORLD TIME PERIOD–  1600’s

  • 1521 @Mexico Viticulture, Influenced by Conquistadors/ Dominican Missionaries From Spain.
  • 1607 @Virginia ViticultureFirst Vitis Vinifera Vines Planted by English Settlers at Jamestown.
  • 1770 @California Junipero Serra & Franciscan Missionaries Planted Vineyards at Missions From San Diego to Sonoma.
  • 1769 @California Junipero Serra Planted Grapes at Mission San Diego de Alcala.
  • 1780’s @California Junipero Serra and Missionaries Planted Vineyards at Missions From San Diego to Sonoma.
  • 1774 @Virginia Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello Estate Planted Cutting From Italy, France and Spain.
  • 1776 @Philadelphia Madeira, Claret and Muscat Drank After Declaration of Independence.
  • 1812 @Fort Ross ViticultureRussians Immigrants Planted Vines.
  • 1821 @California Mexican/ Spanish War,  Independence, Missions Become Less Religious and More Agricultural.
  • 1825 @Washington Viticulture, First Vines Planted by Settlers.
  • 1826 @California Joseph Chapman Started First Commercial Grape Growing In Los Angeles.
  • 1830 @California Nicholas Longworth- Establishes First Commercial Winery Los Angeles Called El Aliso Vineyard.
  • 1834 @Sonoma Historic WineryFirst Vines Planted at Mission of St. Francis.
  • 1836 @Yountville ViticultureGeorge Young Planted First Vineyards In Napa.
  • 1843 @Fort Vancouver ViticultureHudson’s Bay Company Plants First Vine In Oregon.
  • 1843 @Umpqua On Oregon Trail
  • 1848 @Sierra Gold Found, Gold at Sutter’s Mills, Influx of European Settlers.
  • 1848 @California Mexican/ American War,  American Wins California.
  • 1849 @California Gold RushBrought Prosperity and With it the Spread of Population and Vines.
  • 1849 @California Haraszthy, Buena Vista *Brought 165 Varietal From Europe.
  • 1850 @California Officially Becomes a State In America.
  • 1850 @America Trans-Continental RailroadConnects California to East Coast.
  • 1850 @Oak Knoll Joseph Osborne Planted 1,800ac. In Oak Knoll.
  • 1854 @Napa John Patchett, Open Napa’s First Official Winery.
  • 1854 @Calastoga Historic WineryAlfred Tubbs Build and Plants Chateau Montelena.
  • 1855 @Buena Vista Agoston Haraszthy- Build 1st. Grandiose Winery “Started” California Wine Industry.
  • 1856 @Alexander Valley Cyrus Alexander Plants First Grapes In Alexander Valley.
  • 1857 @Sonoma Buena Vista, 1st. Commercial California Winery.
  • 1860 @California End of Gold RushEuropean Immigrant Miner Become Grape Farmers.
  • 1861 @St. Helena Charles Krug, Plant Vines, Established Charles Krug Winery.
  • 1862 @Europe Governor Appointed Haraszthy Head of a Viticulture Trip to Europe.
  • 1862 @St. Helena German Jacob Schram Establishes Schramsberg Winery.
  • 1873 @Sonoma First Pinot Noir Vine Planted at Rochioli Estate.
  • 1870 @California Economy, Becomes Top Wine Producing State In America.
  • 1873 @California Phylloxera EpidemicStarts, by 1881 All Portion of California Effected.
  • 1873 @Sonoma First Pinot Noir Vine Planted at Rochioli Estate.
  • 1873 @California Phylloxera,Phylloxera Outbreak, Effecting Vitis Vinifera Grapes.
  • 1874 @St Helena Joseph Ghisletta, Plants Sunny St. Helena Winery.
  • 1876 @St. Helena German Jacob & Fredrick Beringer,  Establishes Beringer Winery.
  • 1877 @Napa PhylloxeraPhylloxera Hits Napa Valley.
  • 1877 @Howell Mountain Jean Brun & WJ. Chaix Plants First Vineyards.
  • 1879 @Calastoga Finland Gustave Niebaum, Established Inglenook.
  • 1880 @Pritchard Hill Charles Pritchard Planted Zinfandel.
  • 1881 @Oakville Hamilton Crab, Planted 119ac. Vineyard That Became To-Kolon.
  • 1890 @Napa Planting BoomPre 1900’s Planting Expansion.
  • 1890’s @Napa Phylloxera EpidemicPhylloxera Hits Napa, Destroying the Majority of Vineyards.
  • 1895 @Rutherford Historic WineryThomas Rutherford, Plants Vineyards, Becomes Rutherford.
  • 1900’s @Washington Growing Grapes For Juices, Jelly or Jams.
  • 1900 @Lake County Strong Wine Industry Throughout Lake County.
  • 1916 @Oregon ProhibitionStarting 4 Years Earlier In Oregon 1916 -1933.
  • 1920 @America ProhibitionJanuary 17th. 1920 to December 5th. 1933.
  • 1933 @America ProhibitionEnd of Prohibition.
  • 1920 @America ProhibitionJanuary 17th. 1920 to December 5th. 1933.
  • 1930’s @AmericaGreat DepressionGreat Depression
  • 1933 @America ProhibitionEnd of Prohibition.
  • 1933 @Oregon Historic WineryHoneywood Winery- Oldest Continuously Operating Winery In Oregon.
  • 1940’s @Washington Irrigation ProjectChanged Desert Into Profitable Farming Land.
  • 1944 @Napa Seven Members Formed Napa Valley Vintners Association.
  • 1960’s @Willamette ViticulturePre-Modern Winemaking Movement Began.
  • 1960’s @Napa Wine RenaissanceNew Generation
  • 1960’s @Washington ViticultureModern Wine Era Started.
  • 1960 @Lake CountyRe-Emergence, Wine Industry Starts Growing Again.
  • 1965 @Corvallis David Lett Plants First Pinot Noir In Southern Willamette Valley.
  • 1965 @Oakville Robert Mondavi, Leaved Krug to Start Robert Mondavi Winery.
  • 1969 @Washington Wine LawAllowing Imported Wines From Other States and Countries Into Washington.
  • 1970 @Dundee Sokol Blosser Plants First Vines In Dundee.
  • 1973 @Oregon/ Paris Paris Wine OlympiadDavid Lett’s Eyrie Pinot Noir Takes 3rd.
  • 1974 @California  1972, Ste. Michelle Riesling Wins Best White In LA. Time Wine Competition.
  • 1975’s @Napa IrrigationDrip Irrigation Introduced
  • 1976 @California/ France Judgement of ParisNapa vs. France Blind Wine Tasting
  • 1980’s @Virginia ViticulturePlanting Shifted From French Hybrids to Vinifera.
  • 1980’s @America French ParadoxEpisode On 60 Minutes Generates Interest In Wine In USA..
  • 1981 @Walla Walla 1978, Woodward Cabernet Sauvignon Wins Best Wine In America Award.
  • 1982 @Umpqua Valley Scott Henry, Designs His Trellising System In Umpqua Valley.
  • 1983 @Napa Robert Mondavi & Philippe de Rothschild Collaborate on Opus One.
  • 1983 @Napa Wine LawNapa Valley Became California First AVA..
  • 1987 @McMinnville FestivalsFirst International Pinot Noir Celebration.
  • 1989 @Sonoma EconomyGrapes Become Sonoma County’s Top Revenue Crop.
  • 1990 @Willamette PhylloxeraFirst Appears In Oregon.
  • 2000 @Lake County Investment, Increased In Promoting and Establishing New Vineyards.
  • 2014 @NapaEarth Quake, On August 14, Magnitude 6 Earthquake.

The ANCIENT WORLD

  • Region Surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and “Near-East”.  This 5,000 Year Time Period That Starts Off Recorded Human History and Goes to Early Middle Ages 476 AD. Finishes with the Fall of Rome.
  • GEOGRAPHY- Ancient World Was Considered Armenia, Asia Minor, Canaan, China, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Rome, Sumer
  • The Number of Different Varietals Were Limit In the Ancient World, the Lower the Income Level, the Less Choices There Were.
  • In Ancient World Sweet Wines Were More Coveted Because Sugar Was Expensive and Not Easily Available, People Were Drawn to Sweets.

Modern Civilization Began When Man Started to Cultivate Grape-Vines.

FERTLE CRESCENT/ Cradle of Civilization A Crescent Shaped Region In Western Middle East Where the First Organized Civilization Were Said to Have Started. The Fertile Crescent Was Made of What is Today Modern Day Southern Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and Northern Egypt.

  • The Fertile Crescent Contained Moist and Fertile Land With Major River In Otherwise Arid Western Asia.
  • GEOGRAPHY– Area Stretching From Northern Egypt and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea Area to the Western Persian Gulf and North of the Syrian Desert.

TRANS-CAUCASUS Term Used for the Collective Civilization Area of Georgia, Armenia, Turkey, Phoenicia During the Ancient World. The Area Located On the Western Coastal Part of the Fertile Crescent.

  • GOEGRAPHY
    • Modern Day-
  • HISTORY– This is Where Vitis Vinifera Vine First Appeared and This Are Get Credit For Where Wine Was First Produced.

PHOENICIA TIME PERIOD 2300 BC. to 65 BC.

  • GEOGRAPHY– Europe, Eastern Mediterranean Coast
    • Modern Day– Coastal Syria, Lebanon, and Israel(North)
  • CULTURE– As a Sea Fairing Country the Greek Get Credit For Spreading Wine/ Wine Culture Around the Mediterranean Sea/ Basin.
  • HISTORY– Great City Civilization and Maritime Trading Culture of Carthage Established Trading Ports Around Mediterranean Sea at North African Coast, Cadiz, Portugal.
    • Phoenicia Included
  • CARTHAGINIANSTIME PERIOD700 BC. to 200 BC.
    • GEOGRAPHY- Coast of North-West Africa
    • CULTURE–  Dominated Mediterranean Trade Prior to the Romans. As Rome Expanded They Defeated Carthage In the 100’s BC..

MESOPOTAMIA TIME PERIOD 3100 BC. to 539  BC.

  • GEOGRAPHY– The Sumerians and Akkadian (Including Assyrians Empires and Babylonian Empire.  Area Surrounding the Tigris & Euphrates River System Bordered by the Zagros Mountains In North-East and Arabian Plateau In South-West
    • Modern Day– Iraq, Syria, Kuwait
    • Mesopotamia Included
  • BABYLON TIME PERIOD
    • GEOGRAPHY- In Fertile Crescent, Between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
    • HISTORY– Fall of Babylon took Place In 539 BC.
  • EGYPT TIME PERIOD–  3500 BC. to 500 BC.
    • GEOGRAPHY- Nile Delta
      • Modern Day- Africa(North)
    • HISTORY**Refer to “LOCATIONS/ Egypt” For Detailed Information.
    • CULTURE– Wine Often Traded/ Bartered For Grain, Fruit, Livestock.

CONSTANTINOPLE TIME PERIOD500 to 1300

  • GEOGRAPHY-  Boundary Between Europe and Asia, On~Bosporus~River~
    • Modern Day- Transcontinental, Straddles Istanbul, Turkey
  • HISTORY– One Capital of Roman Empire/ Byzantine Empire.
  • CULTURE– Constantinople/ Turkey is Said to Be at the Cross Roads of Europe and Asia.
    • During Constantinople Time Period it Was the Largest and Wealthiest City In Europe.

PERSIA TIME PERIOD

  • GEOGRAPHY- Stretched From Egypt In the West to Turkey In the North and Centered Around Modern Day Iran Other Historic Areas of the Modern Day Mediterranean Basin.
  • HISTORY– Series of Imperial Dynasties Centered Around Persia.

ETRUSCANSTIME PERIOD– 800 BC. to 300

  • GEOGRAPHY- Modern Day Central Italy (Abruzzo, Lazio, Tuscany, Umbria)
  • CULTURE– People Who Occupied Central Italy Before Being Absorbed Into the Empire of Rome.

CELTS GAULS TIME PERIOD–  400 BC. to 300 AD.

  • GEOGRAPHY- Western Europe
    • Modern Day- Northern-France, Belgium, Luxembourg and Parts of Netherlands and Switzerland.
  • CULTURE– Ancient People and Important Wine Trading Partner, First Barrel Makers. The Celtic Gauls Ruled the Land Before the Rise of Rome.
    • During Ancient Time Wine Was Diluted With 2 to 4 Times as Much Water Then Wine.   Not the Celts/ Gauls Who Were Ridiculed by the Civilized World For Drinking Their Wine Unadulterated. The Supposed Drunkenness of the Celts/ Gauls Lead to Their Barbaric Reputation In History.

GREECE TIME PERIOD  1,000 BC. to 300 BC.

  • GEOGRAPHY– Lower Mediterranean Sea
    • Modern Day- Europe, Greece
  • CULTURE– Trade Throughout Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

ROMETIME PERIOD  753 BC. to 476

  • GEOGRAPHY- The Mediterranean Sea Borders 3 Continents and Its Waters Have Long Been Instrumental to the Transport and Trade of Wine.
    • Modern Day- Europe, Italy, City of Rome In Lazio
  • VITICULTURE– Romans Planted Vines Where Ever They Conquered.
  • CULTURE- 
    • Romans Influence On the Spread of Viniculture
      • Romans Enthusiastically Spread Wine Throughout Roman Empire, As Rome Conquered New Lands it Would Establishing New Vineyards. This Made Sure There Was Ample Wine For the Soldiers But Also Stimulated the Economy and Moral of the Recently Conquered. France, Germany, Spain All Saw Establishment of Viticulture During the Roman Empire. Rhone River Valley Funneled Viticulture Into France and Rest of Europe, by Fall of Rome 479 AD. All of Great French Vineyards Had Been Planted.
    • Wine & the Church

I Want to Drink Wines That Have a Reason to Be Interesting, or Understand Its History.


The ANCIENT WINES

  • Types of Wines That Have Significants Impact Over Wines History.
  • Also a Term For the Search and Discovery of the Origins of Viticulture.
  • VITICULTURE- Most Ancient Wines Were Produced as a Village/ Region and Made In Co-Operitives and Generally Had a Regionally Style or Taste.
  • VINICULTURE- Ancient Wines Had a Tendency to Get Heavily Oxidized.
    • The Greeks Where the Ones Who Really Figured Out That Wine Had to Be Tougher to Withstand Spoilage.  The Style They Produced Was Late Harvest, Drying On Maps, Extended Maceration. All of Which Increased Sugar and Alcohol Which Would Extend Life of Wine.
    • The Greeks Shipped Considerable Volumes of Wine to Present Day France, Egypt, Danube and the Black Sea.
  • CULTURE– Civilized People In the Ancient World Didn’t Drink Their Wine Straight.  Wines Were Diluted With 2 to 4 Times as Much Water as Wine.  Also Wine Was Mixed With Herbs, Rosins, Seawater, Citrus Juice, Chalk.
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY?  Can We Think of All the Wine From the Ancient Wine as Regional, Meaning a Country or Region Only Produced 1 or 2 Styles of Wine Base On Region or Geography?”
    • In a Time When There Was Limit Grape Varietals and Wine Making Techniques Regions Usually Produced a Couple or Few Wines That Were Distict to the Local Area They Were Produced.

WINES Of The ANCIENT WORLD

  • Alban–  Time Period-BC. to 100
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome   Modern Day- Albani Hills South-East of Rome.
    • VITICULTURE–  Sweet
    • CULTURE– Consumed by Upper Class, Excellent Reputation/ Quality,
  • Baeterrae
    • GEOGRAPHY– Gallic  Modern Day- Narbonensis, France
    • VITICULTURE– Enjoyed by the Romans
  • Balearic
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome, Hipania  Modern Day– Balearic Islands, Spain
    • VITICULTURE– Exported Around Mediterranean
    • CULTURE– 1 of 3 Balearic Wines That Had Excellent Reputation/ Quality and Were Exported Around the Mediterranean.
  • Caecuban–  Time Period- 1 BC. to 100
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Ancient Rome. Modern Day- Lazio(EastCoast)
    • VITICULTURE– Sweet
    • CULTURE– Excellent Reputation/ Quality
  • Calenian
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Ancient Rome, Cales
    • VITICULTURE– Produced From Calenum Grape
  • Chalybonium
    • GEOGRAPHY– Damascus   Modern Day- Sryia
    • VITICULTURE– Produced From Calenum Grape
  • Chian
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Ancient Greece
    • VITICULTURE– Excellent Reputation/ Quality
  • Falernian–  Time Period- 100 to 400
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Ancient Rome   Modern Day- Campania, Mount Falernus
    • VITICULTURE– Produced From Amninean Grape, Full Body Red, One of First Wines to Be Aged.
    • CULTURE– Prized/ Upper Class, Excellent Reputation/ Quality
  • Hippocras
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Mid-Evil
    • VITICULTURE– Flavored Wine
  • Gauranian
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Baiae & Puteoli,
    • VITICULTURE– High Quality, Full Bodied
  • Laletani
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome, Hispania    Modern Day- Spain
    • VITICULTURE– Low Quality Wine Produced Form High Yielding Grapes.
    • CULTURE– Lower Class
  • Lauron
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome, Hispania   Modern Day– Balearic Islands, Spain
    • VITICULTURE– Exported Around Mediterranean
    • CULTURE– 1 of 3 Balearic Wines That Had Excellent Reputation/ Quality and Were Exported Around the Mediterranean.
  • Lesbian
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Ancient Greece   Modern Day- Lesbos Island &  Mytilene Island
    • VITICULTURE– Considered Light
  • Lora
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome
    • VITICULTURE– Skins Soaked In Water, Fermented
    • CULTURE– Consumed by Slaves, Lower Class
  • Mareoticum
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Ancient Egypt, Alexandria
    • VITICULTURE– White, Sweet, Light
  • Massic– 
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome  Modern Day- Campania, Naples
    • VITICULTURE– Reputation For Being Low Quality
    • CULTURE– Consumed by Lower Class
  • Mustum– 
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome
    • VITICULTURE– Mixed With Vinegar and Drank Fresh After Pressing
  • Mulsum
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome
    • VITICULTURE– Sweetened With Honey
    • CULTURE– Consumed by Lower Class
  • Neheleschol
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Verona/ Pre Alps,
    • VITICULTURE– Drunk In Italy
  • Passum
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Ancient Rome, Modern Day- Crete, Greece
    • VITICULTURE– Sweet From Completely Dried Grapes
    • CULTURE– Excellent Reputation/ Quality
  • Posca
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome
    • VINICULTURE– Vinegar Like Wine, Mixed With Water Reduce Bitterness
    • CULTURE– Consumed by Soldiers, Lower Class
  • Rhaetic
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Ancient Rome  Modern Day- Veneto
    • VITICULTURE– Sweet
  • Setinum
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Ancient Rome  Modern Day- Lazio
    • VITICULTURE– Sweet/ Sweet +Abv.
    • CULTURE– Consumed by Upper Class/ Excellent Reputation/ Quality
  • Surrentine
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome  Modern Day- CompaniaBay of Naples
    • VITICULTURE–  One of the First Wine Capable of Aging
    • CULTURE– Consumed by Middle Class
  • Taenioticum
    • GEOGRAPHY–  Egypt, West Nile Delta
    • VITICULTURE– Aromatic, Astringent
  • Tarraco
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome, Hispania  Modern Day– Balearic Islands, Spain
    • VITICULTURE– Exported Around Mediterranean
    • CULTURE– 1 of 3 Balearic Wines That Had Excellent Reputation/ Quality and Were Exported Around the Mediterranean.
  • Vinum Dulce
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome
    • VITICULTURE– Sweet Wine Produced From Dried Grapes
  • Vinum Diachytum
    • GEOGRAPHY– Ancient Rome
    • VITICULTURE– Vinum Dulce But Grapes Dried Longer In Sun


  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY?  Did Wine and Beer Save All of Humanity?”
    • In the Ancient World the Two Main Causes of Death Was Hunger and Dysentery. With the Threat of Deadly Water You Had to Drink Wine or Beer or Die.  In Times of Plague and Disease Epidemics Wine Was the Solution. Wine Will Sterilize Water With Bacteria In it.

History Has Always Had an Great Influence On Wines and Their Regions, One Should Always Seek Historical Context and the Wines Backstory.


FOOD & AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

  • Agricultural Heritage Systems Ca be Found All Over the World. Characteristically These Systems are Rich In Agricultural Biodiversity and. Associated Production Are Important Resources to the Economy and the Indigenous Knowledge and Culture of Its People.
  • ~Important Agricultural Heritage Systems~ Cultivation of Muscatel Grapes In Malaga
  • ~Important Agricultural Heritage Systems~ Soave Traditional Vineyards


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.