HAIL– Frozen Rain That Freezes as it Falls to From Cumulonimbus Clouds

VITICULTURECHALLENGE– –Hail Storm– -Potential Catastrophic Damage by High Trajectory Hail Can Strip the Vine of Fruit and Leaves, Strip Bark and Shoots and Affect the Development of Buds for the Following Season.

  • SRING– Damage to Flowering Buds
  • FALL– Damage to Ripening Grapes…Direct Hit to Grape Causes an Explosion That Results In Havoc by Potential Moisture Damage Which Leads to Fungal Issues.

HAIL NETS– Installed to be Relatively Discreet but Can Be Extended Over the Majority of the Vineyard Quickly When Forecasted to.

SNOW– Atmospheric Water Vapor Frozen Into Ice Crystals and Falling In Light White Flakes When Temperature Falls Below 32*


  • Hilling Up– Plowing Dirt Up On the Trunks of the Vines Above the Graft as Instillation to the Effects Against the Frozen Earth.
  • Debuttage– The Removal of the Protected Earth Piled Around the Base of the Vine the Previous Winter.

“Snow is Fine In the Vineyard as Long as the Vines Are Dormant.”

FOG–  Thick Cloud of Tiny Water Droplets Suspended In the Atmosphere at or Near the Earth’s Surface.

VITICULTUREBENEFIT–  ~Fog~ Fog Has Cooling Effect or Moderating Influence On Exposed Coastal Areas and Rivers. Fog Cools Temperature On Hot Days and Warm Temperature On Cold Days, Contributing to the Effects of Diurnal Shifts.

VITICULTURECHALLENGE–  ~Excessive Fog~ As Valleys Near Oceans Heat Up Hot Air Rises Allowing Fog That’s Sitting Off the Coast to Funnel in Underneath. The Fog Usually Remains Until it is Burned Off the Next Morning. Rivers and Mountain Gaps Act as Fog Highway to Allow Fog Inland

  • Fog Dog– A Daily Break/ Bright Spot or Clearing That Appears In the Fog
    • Sonoma Coast AVA.
    • Anderson Valley AVA.
    • Barolo DOCG.

**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced