CHOICES & DECISIONS


  • SUB-TOPICS Of CHOICES & DECISIONS
    • What Are Choices & Decisions?
    • Irrigation
    • Trellising Systems
    • Planting the Grape Vines
    • Vine Training 
    • Canopy Management
    • Pruning
    • Other Sub-Topics of Choices and Decisions
    • My Personal Viticultural Experience

WHAT ARE CHOICES & DECISIONS?

The VINEYARD

VINEYARD MANAGER The Person Responsible For the Land and the Vine Management All Thing Happening In the Vineyard Throughout the Year. This is Done by the Coordination of People and Resources to Achieve the Goals Owner or Wine Maker.

There Are 1,000 Decision to Make Between Putting the Vine In the Ground and the Moment You  Put the Wine In the Bottle, It’s All About How Many of Those Things You Get Right.

MAPPING FOR VINEYARD SUITABILITY

  • What’s Theoretically Appropriate In a Vineyard and What Are the Risks Involved With the Potential Sight. Bringing Data and Expertise Together to Come Up With a Grading System.
    • Choosing a Climate– Warm Climate Region Have Consistently Warmer Temperatures During Growing Season and Grapes Naturally Develop Higher Sugar Levels Than Cooler Climates.
    • Topography/ Aspect-
    • Wind Exposure
    • Historical Rainfall Levels
    • Frost- Ground/ Air
    • Grape– It’s Imperative to Match Grape Varietal to Vineyard Sight.
    • Soils– Finding the Right Sight With the Right Soil to Match Can Be a Challenge But It’s Choice That Can’t Be Understated.
      • Soil Sampling is Used to Produce Soil Maps That Show the Soil Patterns and We Make Interpretation For…Site Selection, Vineyard Development.

PRECISION SOIL MAP

  • These Maps Help Interpretive Grapevine Vigor Through Thematic Soil Map That Shows Relative Vigor Index.

The Best Vineyards Are Generally Planted In Close Proximity to Water, On Hillsides or Hight Plains, With a South Facing Orientation.

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM GIS.

  • Utilizes Field Data to Better Understand Changes In Elevation, Soil, Structure, Temperature and Other Factors That Effect Grape Quality.

SITE PREPARATION

DRAINAGE In Some Regions it May be Necessary to Drain the Sites Artificially. Site Drainage Usually is Only Done Before the Site is Planted.

TERRA-FORMING Usually Done at Part of a Vineyards “Site Preparation”. Eliminate Gullies and Imperfections by Making High-Points and Low-Points More Conducive to Vine Planting. Terra-Forming Also Includes the Making of Terraces to Lesson the Possibility of Soil Run-Off, While Making Vineyards More Uniform and Making Blocks Easier to Manage.

SITE GRADING Some Potential Sites Are In Need of Flattening or Filling Some Depressions or Removing Some Humps and Bumps. Some Sights Need to Be Terraced Before Planting Can Start.

  • Some Vineyards Are Too Rocky or Have Big Boulders and Must Be Broken Up With the Use of Dynamite, or Extremely Large Drilling or Earth Moving Tractors.

FALLOW Process of Ripping Vineyards or Old Crops, Ploughing the Land and Leaving the Ground “Fallow” or Left Alone For a Period Without Being Sown or Cultivated In an Effort to Restore Its Fertility. Before the Next Crop.

  • After the Old Vines Are Pulled Out of the Ground They Are Gathered In a Pile, Usually by the Help of a Bulldozer.   These Piles of Vine That Can Be In Numbers of Hundreds or Thousands Are Left to Dehydrate and Dry-Out Over a Period of Time.  Later a Hugh Wood Chipper is Brought In to Reduce the Mass Down to a Dramatically Smaller Size Where It Can Be Worked Back In to the Site or Taken Away For Different Projects

GPS SATELLITE POSITIONING- Stakes and Trellising Are Now Being Positioned by Lazar GPS. Precision Accurate to 15 mm..

  • SITE PREPARATION TOOL/ MACHINES
    • Rotary Tiller
      • Tilling Produces Loose Textured Soils That hold Moisture and Reduces Erosion.
    • Soil Conditioners
      • Implement Break up Clods and Creates a Fine Level Surface.
    • Vineyard Incorporators 
      • Till, Buries Weeds and Other Material For Decompositions.

IRRIGATION Simulation of Rainfall, Used to Make Up Rain Deficits. Irrigation Allows For the Growing of Grapes In Hot, Arid, Climate Possible.

  • HISTORY- Evidence of Grape Growers Using Irrigation Goes Back in Time Babylonians, Chinese, Egyptian, Early South American Civilizations
  • VITICULTURE- ADVANTAGES– Able to Maximize Yields in Table Grapes, Drying Grapes, Bulk Wine by Over Watering Leading to Over Hydration.
  • VITICULTURE- CHALLENGE– Negative Effects of Irrigation is it Doesn’t Challenge the Roots to Explore or Go Deep into the Soil Profiles.
  • **Refer to “CLIMATE/ Rainfall” For Detailed Information.
  • Being Able to Use Irrigation is an Enormous Advantage. The Ability to Control When Water is Applied and In What Quantity and Not Leave it to Mother Nature is a Benefit. The Grape Grower Can Control/ Manipulate the Soil/ Vine Growth/ Vigor/ Berry Size.   All Irrigation is Now Done by Drip Systems. Irrigation Can Be Metered Out So Precisely That Each Row by Row Can Be Adjusted to Benefit Complexity of Soils In a Vineyard.
  • Evaporation Rate Determining Factor- Influenced by: Shading, Soil Conditions, Wind Speed, Humidity, Cover Crops, Air Temperature.
  • Irrigation Sources– River, Canal, Pond, Lake, Water Tank, Irrigation Lagoon
  • VITICULTURE-  CHALLENGE
    • ~Water Abundance~
      • Vines Grow Vegetative (Leaves, Shoots)
    • ~Water Deficit~ Vegetative Vines Growth Slows and Efforts Are Put In Caring For Fruit.
      • By Veraison the Vineyard Manager Should Induce the Desired Amount of Water Stress to the Vine by Decreasing Irrigation Amount.  This Can Be Achieved Either By Lengthening the Interval Between Irrigation or by Decreasing the Application Volume of Water.

IRRIGATION SYSTEMS Of The WORLD

  • DRIPPER SYSTEM IRRIGATION- Delivers Exact Amounts of Water Applied as Drops to Base of Each Vine From Pressure Reducing Plastic Devices. Allows For Precise Amount of Water to Be Used at Precise Time to Precise Area.
    • Allows Irrigation of Undulating Lands and Maximizes Water Supple
    • As a Negative, Drip Irrigation Promotes an Elevated Rooting Zone.
  • FIXED SPRINKLER IRRIGATION- Water is Pumped Through Sprinkler So Water Breaks Up Into Small Drops and Fall to Ground. Downfall is It’s Not Precise and Much of the Water is Wasted.
  • TRAVELING OVERHEAD SPRINKLER- Can Cover Large Areas With One Sprinkler and Can Be Used On Multiple Vineyards In a Day.
  • UNDER-VINE MINI-SPRINKLER- Attached to Supple Pipes and Usually On Every Other Row, and Spray In a Circle In a 2-5 Meter Radius.
  • LEAKY HOSE- Hoses Laid Along Every Row of Vines and Holes Punched In Pertinent Positions.
  • FURROW IRRIGATION- Water is Funneled Into Furrow Channels the Vines Are Planted In.
  • FLOOD IRRIGATION- Water Fed From Supply Canal is Flooded Down the Rows and Absorbed Into the Vineyard.
  • IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT- Ceres– Water Stress Management- Offers Precise Aerial Imagery Management For Vineyards to Reduce Cost and Optimize Your Water Use and Vineyard Yields..
  • IMPORTANT IRRIGATED WINE AREAS Of The WORLD
    • Australia
    • Columbia Valley
    • San Jacquin Valley

DRY-FARMED  Growing Grapes or Crops With Only Rain, No Irrigation.

  • Dry-Farming Makes Vines Stress Sending Roots Deep Through Multiple Soil Profiles Looking For Water and Nutrients. This Results In More Complexity, More Intense Aroma and Flavors, the Grapes Are Smaller, More Dense With Higher Brix Level.
  • Different Climate and Soils Dictate and Effect Ability to Dry Farm.
  • Grape Vines Generally Require Less Water Than Many Other Agriculture Crops.
  • Dry-Farming is No Problem In Some Regions of the World Like Burgundy and Marlborough Where Getting Too Much Water is a Greater Danger Than Not Enough Water.
  • If You Do Dry-Farm Meticulously Following Viticultural Techniques Can Help to Produce Great Crops.
  • Proper Matching of Root-Stock That Promotes Deep and Extensive Root Growth.
  • Pruning Back/ Proper Canopy Management.
  • Vine Spacing is Needed and Exaggerated +10 Feet x +10 Feet Between Vine.
  • Vine Are Usually Head Trained.
  • In Order to Dry Farm an Area Needs at Least 20 Inches of Rain.
  • In a Vineyard In Which You Would Like to Dry-Farm It’s a Good Idea to Water Your Vines as Needed the First Few Years In Order to Establish the Vines and Roots. This Reduces Wine Mortality, and Increases Vine Uniformity. Water Young Vines Also Gets More Growth From Them the Second Year and Yield Better Fruit the Third Year.

Using Water as a Substitute For Rainfall Isn’t a True Expression of Terroir.

  • IMPORTANT DRY-FARMED VINEYARDS Of The WORLD
    • Bucklin Old Hill Ranch @Sonoma
    • Dark Horse Vineyard @Ukiah
    • Bordeaux
  • CONTENTIOUS WINE ISSUE!  Calling Your Vineyard “Dry Farmed” In a Climate Where There is a Abundance of Rain!
    • NOIn Regions Such as Oregon or Burgundy Where There’s an Over Abundance of Rain Some Grape Grower Shouldn’t Refer to There Farming Practice as “Dry Farmed”. This Term Should Be Reserved For Regions Where Rain is a Challenge to Receive.
    • YESIf the Vineyard is Dry-Farmed Then It’s Considered a “Dry-Farmed Vineyard Regardless of How Much Rainfall the Region Gets Annually.

ROW ORIENTATION Consideration In Which Direction the the Vineyard Row Are Planted.

  • Soil, Climate, topography, and Viticulture Practices, Wine Style Should Be Considered For the Idea Orientation.
  • Sunlight Interception by the Vine Canopies Should Be Maximized In “Northern Hemisphere” Row Orientation In a North-South Direction. This Receives More Sunlight, Have Better Air-Flow, Than Those Oriented to West-East.
  • Influences- Canopy Microclimate, Grapevine Leaf Function, Bud Fertility, Yield, Shoot Lignification.

ROW SPACING- Growing Must Decide How They Want to Work the Vineyard Either by Hand or by Machine and Space Accordingly. In Deciding Row Width, One Must Consider the Potential Height of Canopy and Avoid Shading the Fruiting Zone.

VINE SPACING Measure of How Closely Vines Are Spaced In a Vineyard, Both With In Rows and Between Rows.

  • Enormous Variation of Vine Density In the Different Wine Regions of the World.
  • Vineyards From 1,000 to 10,000 Vines Per Hectare.
  • Done For Shade, Yield, Fertility, +Altitude, Vine Training, Aspect.
  • High Density Planting- In Some Cases High Density Planting is Use to Control Vigor This is Achieved by Making Vines Compete For a the Limited Amount of Resources In a Vineyard, Which Reduces Yield On Individual Vines.
    • High Density Planting is Beneficial For Deep Fertile Soils.
  • Low Density Planting- Closely Spaced Vines Limit Vine Vigor, While Limiting Production and Improving Quality.
  • How Do They Get the Rows of Vines So Straight? Long Length Weighted Fishing Line Stretching Down Mountains or Across Valley, and White Paint or Chalk to Mark Exactly Where Young Vines Are to Be Planted.

CHOOSING APPROPRIATE VARIETALS FOR YOUR SITE

VARIETAL SELECTION Choosing the Correct Grape For the Sight/ Vineyard  is the Most Important Decision.

  • Consideration Should Be Taken to Match Early, Mid and Late Ripening Grapes Appropriately to Sight/ Vineyard and Climate.
  • Certain Grapes Are Naturally Higher In Sugars and Lend Themselves to Produce Sweeter Wines.

Some Grape Growers Plant Accounting to Climate, Some Growers Plant According to Soil Type.

  • Weather Consideration
  • Length of Growing Season
  • Soils
  • Vineyard Location
    • Aspect
    • Orentation

ROOTSTOCK SELECTION Specific Rootstock Benefits Have Been Used Agriculturally On Both Species Level and Clonal Levels.

  • Some Root Stock Naturally Stay Around the Surface of the Vineyard and Some Have a Greater Tendency to Dig Deeper.
  • Some Root Stock Can Have a Denigration Effect On the Yields.
  • TYPES OF ROOT-STOCKS
    • 039-16
    • 5BB  (Kober)
    • 5C  (Teleki)
    • 44-53M  (Malegue)
    • 99R  (Richter)
    • 101-14 Mgt
    • 110 R  (Richter)
    • 125AA  (Kober)
    • 140Ru  (Ruggeri)
    • 161-49C  (Couderc)
    • 420A Mgt. (Millardet et de Grasset)
    • 1103 P  (Paulsen)
    • 1616C  (Couderc)
    • 3309C  (Couderc)
    • Gravesac
    • Fercal
    • Freedom
    • Montpellier
    • Riparia Gloire
    • Rupestris du Lot
    • Ramsey
    • Schwartzman
    • SO4-(Selection Oppenheim)
    • St. George  (Rupestris du Lot)
  • **Refer to “THE GRAPE ITSELF/ AMPELOGRAPHY-ANATOMY/ Rootstock” For Additional Information.

PHYLLOXERA- Only Way to Deal With Phylloxera is to Pull Effected Vineyard and Replace With a Program Using Vines Grafted On Phylloxera Tolerant Rootstock.

  • This Epidemic Was Solved With the Innovation of Grafting Vitis Vinifera Vines With American Root Stock. (ARX1) by the Viticulturist TV. Munson.
  • To Combat Phylloxera Vine Growers Graft Euro Vines to American Rootstock. This Works Because America Vine Rootstock Had Already Adapted to the Louse by Developing a Tolerance Mechanism That Allows Formation of a Layer of Corklike Tissue Around the Root Lesion and Developed Thicker Root Surface.
  • **Refer to “VITICULTURE/ Phylloxera“ For Additional Information.
  • REGIONS NOT GRAFTED To ROOT-STOCK
    • Washington
    • Chile
    • Sicilia
    • Canary Islands

PRECISION VITICULTURE- Practice of Growing Grapes Using Viticulture That Promotes Precise Vineyard Management Practices. These Practices Use Technological Tools to Measure Local Variation, and Manages Different Vineyard and Regions to Maximize Yield and Quality While Minimizing Risk and Environmental Impact.

  • Soil-Moisture Monitors
  • Rain Meters

HIGH-GRAFTED vs. LOW GRAFTED VINES- The Age or the Number of Years In a Vine Nursery is an Important Factor.


TRELLISING SYSTEMS

TRELLIS Physical Support Structure Made of Metal or Wood and Consists of Stakes, Posts, Support Wines, Catch Wires That Position the Vines and Provides the Framework Required For a Given Training System. Usually Constructed With Well-Anchored, Heavy Wood End Post Anchored by Strong Row-End Braces. (This Allows the Use of High-Tensile Wire That Can Be Tightened Firmly to Support the Weight of Vines.)

Trellising, Vine Training and Pruning Are Often Used Interchangeably, But Are All Different Things.” Trellising is a Long-Term Decision About the Vines Architecture and Pruning is a Short-Term Decision About the Up Coming Season.

  • Choosing a Style/ Trellis System Depends On Different Inputs and Possible Outcomes.  Great Forthough and Planning Should Be Put Into This Decision.
  • HISTORY- Training Vines Go Back to Egyptian & Phoenician Times 500 BC..
    • Over the Last Few Decades Advancements In Vineyard Design, Trellis Systems, Training Systems, and Canopy Management Practices Have Improved Grape Production and Fruit Quality. More Attention is Paid to Site Specific Factors Influencing Vine Vigor, Climate, Soil Type, Root- Stock, Varietals and More Effort is Put Into Matching All of These Factors to Influence Quality of the Grapes Produced.
  • PARTS OF TRELLIS SYSTEM
    • End Post/ Anchorage- Treated Wooden/ Metal Post
    • Row Posts
    • Crossarms
    • Assembly
    • Inverted V System
    • H-Brace End
    • Tie-Back
    • Wire
    • Foliage Wire
    • Catch Wire
  • LOW VINES SYSTEMS- Reduce a Vines Exposure to the Sun and Moderate Temperature Variation. This Aspect of Vine Training is More Common In Warmer Climates.
  • HIGH VINES SYSTEMS- Lifts Grapes Higher Off the Ground to Increase Airflow, Decreased Fungal Infections and Increase Sun Exposure. This Aspect of Vine Training is More Common in Cooler Climates.
  • TYPES Of TRELLISING POST
    • Diamond Back, Double Diamond Back, Grape Stake, Round Edge, Trainer Stake, Vineyard Post, Cross Arms
    • Variations– Most Trellis Post Are Available In Different Lengths/ Heights, Steel (Bare or Galvanized), Holes, Notches, Gauges

Getting a Vine to Grow is Easy, Getting the Grape to Their Full Expression by Being Grown In a Favorable Place is a Challenge.

  • TRELLIS SYSTEM PRODUCERS
    • Central Valley Ag. Supplies  @Napa/ St. Helena/, Healdsburg

STYLES Of TRELLIS SYSTEMS

  • Non-Divided/ Single Curtain
    • VITICULTURE ADVANTAGE– Good For Varietals With Low to Medium Vigor, Minimizes Shade and Get Most Light on the Canopy as Possible.
  • Umbrella Kniffin– UK.
    • WHAT IT IS- 2 Long Canes Originating Form Head Region In Middle of Vine Space Hanging Over and Down and Tied to Lower Wire.  This Resembles and Umbrella and Developing Spur Zone at Second Wire, or Just Below the Top Wire.
    • ORIGINS- William Kniffin, Grape Grower In the Hudson Valley, New York In 1850’s.
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • Best For Varieties Which Are Pruned to Very Long Fruiting Canes.
      • Spreads Shoot Growth Over Entire Vine Space.
        • CHALLENGES
      • Not Suitable For Machine Harvesting
      • Long Cane Pruning and Annual Tying
  • High Bilateral Cordon
    • WHAT IT IS- 
    • ORIGINS-
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • CHALLENGES
  • Vertical Shoot Positioning
    • VSP. 9 Wire System, Trunk Wire, 2 Fruiting Wires, 3 Catch Wire Pairs.
    • VITICULTURE ADVANTAGES– Exposes Bunches to Sun, Easy to Pick Divided/ Split Canopy System.  Good For Varietals With High Vigor, Allows Sun In Through Middle of Canopy and Through Sides.
  • 2 Wire Vertical
    • AKA=California Spraw, Simple Curtain
    • VITICULTURE ADVANTAGES–  Vines Hang Over Each Side and Covers the Fruit Zone, This Holds Back the Vine Tendency to Be Over Vigorous.
  • Geneva Double Curtain GDC.
    • Trained From Trunk to Bilateral Cordons/ Pruned to Retain Shots Canes, Shoots Positioned Down to Create “Curtain”.
    • VITICULTURE ADVANTAGES– Provides More Canopy Area for Hight Vigorous Vines
  • Four Arm Kniffin FAK.
    • WHAT IT IS- Quadrilateral Cane System, With 2 Canes On the Top Wire and 2 Canes On a Mid Wire.
      • Renewal Zones at 42″ & 72″ Height.  Also 6 and 8 Arm Versions But Not Often  Practiced.
      • AKA=True Kniffin, Four Cane Kniffin
    • ORIGINS– William Kniffin, Grape Grower In the Hudson Valley, New York In 1850’s.
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • Simple System to Establish and Maintain
      • Encourage Less Vigorous Vines to Produce More Fruit.
      • Works Well With Small to Medium Vines
      • Inexpensive 3 Wire Trellis, Encourages More Bud Retention.
        • CHALLENGES
      • Requires Precision Maintenance, Long Cane Pruning and Annual Tying.
      • Not For Machine Harvesters
  • Top Wire Cordon TWC.
    • WHAT IT IS- One of the Most Efficient Vine Training Systems.
    • ORIGINS-
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • CHALLENGES
  • Pergola
    • WHAT IT IS- Elevated (to 6 Feet) Vines and Grape Clusters, Allowing More Sunshine and Air to Circulate Underneath the Vines.
    • ORIGINS- 
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • Pergola Wick Away the Excessive Moisture Prevalent In Distinctly Damp Climates. @Rias Baxias
        • Can Work With Existing Gazebos
      • CHALLENGES
  • Single Curtain
    • WHAT IT IS- With Vertically Divided Folige.
    • ORIGINS-
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • CHALLENGES
  • Vertically Divided Double Curtain
    • WHAT IT IS- 
    • ORIGINS-
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • CHALLENGES
  • Espalier
    • WHAT IT IS- Ancient Trellis System of Controlling Growth by Prunning and Tieing Vines and Arms to a Frame.
    • ORIGINS-
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • CHALLENGES
  • Horizontally Divided Double Curtain AKA= Double Curtain, Wye Trellis
  • Lyre
    • Canopy is Divided Horizontally Into Two Curtains of Upward Pointing Shoots.
  • Bush Vine

PLANTING The GRAPE VINES

BEFORE YOU PLANT

  • CHECK YOUR SOILS PH.
  • The PLANTING SITE
    • Grapes Need Full Sun, 6-8 Hours a Day.
  • PLANTING TIPS
    • Dig Hole Large Enough For Roots to Grow.
    • Plant Deeper Than Soil Line.
    • Fill Hole 3/4, Then Add Fertilizer, Then Fill Completely.

VINE TRAINING

VINE TRAINING- Guiding or Training Vines Into Variety of Shapes and Styles or the Growth Form of Your Choice.  The Outcome or Vision of the Desired Structure and Establishing an Orderly Form. Vines Grow In Two Distinct Ways: by Clinging and Twining.

  • Twining Vines- Climb by Wrapping Their Stems, Leaves or Tendrils Around Support That They Twist Around or Weave Themselves Into. (Latticework, Trellises, Poles, String, Wire)
  • Clinging Vine- Attach Themselves to Flat Surfaces by Using Aerial Roots That Grow From Their Stems or Structures Called Holdfasts.  Vines Can Cling to Walls Without Having Any Support.

YOU ARE THE VINE TRAINER- It’s Important For the Vineyard Manager to Start Training the Vine and Directing Growth From the Time the Vine is Planted and Throughout Its Life In the Vineyard.

WHY TRAIN YOUR VINES

  • Aid Growers In Managing the Canopy and Controlling Yields.
  • Balancing Foliage to Facilitate Photosynthesis Without Excessive Shading That Could Impede Ripening or Promote Disease.
  • Pruning In Winter/ Summer so Shoots Trunks Are Located In Correct Trellis Area. “Vine Training Done to Promote.”
  • Maximize Vine Yield and Grape Quality at Harvest.
  • Lets Your Vineyard Be Uniform and Orderly.
  • Locate Bunches In Single Zone -Shoots/ Canes All Point In Same Direction.
  • FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CHOICE Of TRAINING SYSTEM
    • Sustainability
    • Pruning Techniques
    • Need For Fruit Exposure to Sunlight
    • Harvesting Methods
    • Concern For Node Quality In the Renewal Zone
  • SIGNS Of A POOR TRAINING SYSTEM
    • Difficulty Establishing or Maintaining the Form of the Training System
    • Poor Fruit Maturity
    • Poor Fruiting Capacity of the Vine
    • Dense Vine Canopies With Deteriorating Interior Leaves
    • Difficulty In Performing Good Vine Canopy Management

CLASSIFICATION Of VINE TRAINING SYSTEMS

  • BILATERAL CANE- One Fruiting Wire, With One Cane Trained to the Right From the Truck and One Cane Trained to the Left of the Trunk
    • (Bud Linear Density “Ideally”…Cane Will Be 3 Feet Long, With 4 Inch Bud Spacing)
  • QUADRILATERAL CANES- Two Fruiting Wires. Each Fruiting Wire Has One Cane Trained to the Right From the Truck and One Cane Trained to the Left From the Trunk.
    • (Bud Linear Density “Ideally”… Will Be Double That of Bilateral Cane)
  • BILATERAL CORDONS WITH SPURS- One Fruiting Wire, Each Wire Has One Cordon Trained to Right From the Truck and One Cordon to the Left From the Trunk.
    • (Bud Linear Density “Ideally”…2 Buds per Spur, and Spur Every 4 Inches)
  • QUADRILATERAL CORDONS WITH SPUR- Two Fruiting Wires, Each Wire Has One Cordon Trained Right from the Trunk and One Cane Trained Left From the Trunk.
    • (Bud Linear Density “Ideally”…Will Be Double That of the Bilateral Cane System)

VINE TRAINING SYSTEMS

SPUR-TRAINING

  • Alberate
  • Ballerina
    • WHAT IT IS- “Spur-Pruned”, 1/3 of Canopy Growing Vertically and 2/3 Growing Downward.
    • ORIGINS- Rome, 2000 Years Ago
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • CHALLENGES
  • Head Trained/ Bush Vine/ Goblelet
    • WHAT IT IS- “Spur-Pruned” No Support Wires, Spurs Are Arranged On Short Arms In (Circle) at Top Trunk.
    • ORIGINS- Rome, 2000 Years Ago
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • CHALLENGES
  • Chateau Thierry
  • Cordon Royat “Spur-Pruned” 1 Side Cordon Carrying 4-8 Spurs.
  • Fan Shape
    • WHAT IT IS-Several Permanent Trunks That Create a Fan.
    • VITICULTURE ADVANTAGES–  Relief From Excessive Summer Heat @Columbia Valley
  • Geneva Double
    • WHAT IT IS- 
    • ORIGINS-
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • CHALLENGES
  • Cane-Training/ Pruning(Guyot)
    • WHAT IT IS- 
    • VITICULTURE- ADVANTAGE– Commonly Used In Cooler Climate Regions. Limits Vines Lignified Growth to Just the Vines Trunk.
  • Chablis
    • WHAT IT IS- “Cane-Pruned” 4-5 Short, Bud-Bearing Canes.
  • Guyot
    • WHAT IT IS- 1 or 2 Cordons Along Fruiting Wire.
    • ORIGINS- Developed by Dr. Jules Guyot In France In 1800’s.
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • Easy to Establish
      • Easy to Prune
      • Limits Yields
      • No Need to Manage/ Renew Cordons.
        • CHALLENGES
      • Limits Number of Nodes Per Vine.
      • Limits Yields/ Vines May Be Under Cropped Relative to Their Size.
  • Duplex
    • WHAT IT IS- 
    • ORIGINS-
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • CHALLENGES
  • Mosel Arch
    • WHAT IT IS- 
    • ORIGINS-
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • CHALLENGES
  • Basket/ Kouloura
    • WHAT IT IS- Vine Weaving Basket.
    • ORIGINS- Santorini Island, Greece.
    • Vines Are Planted In Depressions In Ground. The Vines Are Pruned Between November and February With Vine Shoots Woven Into Round Crown Sharped Baskets and Grape Clusters Huddled In the Center. Each of the Shoots Have Three Eyes Where Bunches Will Come Out. Designed to Protect Against Harsh Sun and Wind and to Help Capture the Morning Dew Moisture.
  • Mid Wire Cordon
    • WHAT IT IS- 
    • ORIGINS-
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES– Easy to Establish
      • Easy to Prune/ No Tying
      • Machine Harvest Compatible
      • CHALLENGES–  Grape Cluster Renewal Zone
        • Leaf Removal is Mandatory
  • Pendelbogen
    • WHAT IT IS- “Cane-Pruned”
    • ORIGINS- Germany, ~Etymology~, In Germa,  Pendel Meaning Hanging/ Bogen Meaning Arch …Refereeing to the Shape Trellis
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES– Grape Cluster Zone/ Fruiting Zone Close to Ground.
      • CHALLENGES–  Low Fruiting Low Makes it Difficult to Prune and Harvest
  • Scott Henry
    • WHAT IT IS– System For Controlling Excessive Vegetation In Vineyards, Concentrating Growth In Grapes In Order to Improve the Wine Flavor.
      • Canopy is Divided Vertically and Shoots Are Separated Into Four Rather Than 2 Shoots and Trained In Two Curtains, Upward and Downward.
    • ORIGINS– Umqua Valley, Oregon
      • 1982 @Umpqua Valley– Scott Henry, Designs His Trellising System In Umpqua Valley.
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • Suitable For Large Vines/ Promotes Vine Valance.
      • Produces a Divided Canopy Without the Complexity of a 3-Dimensional Trellis.
      • Can Display a Large Canopy Without Shedding Fruit.
      • Can Be Used For Machine Harvester.
      • Can Result In Larger Yields of Quality Fruit.
        • CHALLENGES– 
      • Requires Long Cane Pruning For Best Outcome.
      • Shoot Positioning More Complicated Then Other Training Systems.
      • Not Suitable For Areas Susceptible to Frequent Winter Injury to Trunks or Cordons.
  • Smart Dyson
    • WHAT IT IS- Vertically/ Horizontally Divided With Upward and Downward Spurs.
  • Tendone Trunks 5 Feet On Wooden Frames and Cross Wires.
    • WHAT IT IS- 
    • ORIGINS-
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES
      • CHALLENGES– 
  • Top Wire Cordon/ Sylvos
    • WHAT IT IS- Places Fruit and Renewal Zone at the Top of the Trellis So Grapes and Fruiting Buds Have Opportunity For Maximizing Ripening.
      • AKA=Hudson Umbrella, Sylvos
    • ORIGINS-
    • VITICULTURE  ADVANTAGES– Used With Short Cane Pruning and Minimal Annual Tying.
        • Mechanical Harvesting
      • CHALLENGES–   Not Good For Vineyards With Frequent , Severe Winter Events.
        • Must Have Sturdy Trellis
        • Potential For Over Cropping

CANE & SPUR-TRAINING/ Pruning(Cordon)

VITICULTUREADVANTAGES– Commonly Used In Warmer Climate Regions.

  • Low Trained Near Ground to Absorb Heat
  • High Trained Far From Ground to Reduce Frost

CANOPY MANAGEMENT

CANOPY  Collective Arrangement of the Vine’s Shoots, Leaves and Fruit.

  • Canopy Management- Guiding the Vine On Wire or Trellis to Produce a Strait, Vertical Canopy to Absorb Sunlight, Manipulate Foliage to Enhance Wine Quality by Maximize Sun Exposure Without Burning the Bunches, While Balances Air Flow to Reduce Mildew Pressure.
  • Canopy Height Canopies Can Be Trained to Be at Different Heights Ranges to Achieve Different Goals.
  • Fruiting Wire
  • Shade Cloth– A Sunscreen For Grapes, a Portable Shade For the Vines That Can Be Rolled Out and Installed at Certain Parts of the Growing Season to Create Shape or a More Ever Distribution of Light.  These White Shade Cloths are Perfect For Heat Waves Late In the Season After the Canopy Has Been Thinned Out.
  • The Renewal Zone- The Area On an Established Grape Vine With an Established Training System Where the Fruiting Buds Are Located Which Produce the Clusters.

CANOPY MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

  • Shoot Thinning- Limits the Number of Shoots Available to Grow Into Maturity.
    • Making a Pass Towards the End of the Season Cutting the Over-Tall Shoot Which Are Flapped Over and Shading the Fruit Zone.
  • Shoot Devigoration- Aims to Limit and Reduce Shoot Length and Leaf Area.
  • Lateral Removal-
  • Shoot Positioning– Making a Pass Get Shoots In Right Direction and Properly Spaced
  • Leaf Removal- Opens Up/ Hollows the Canopy In the Grape Zone.
  • Leaf to Fruit Ratio- Viticulture Measurement Which Helps Indicates the Capacity of a Vine to Ripen Grapes. Yields Indicates How Much/ Many Grapes a Vine Will Produce While the Leaf to Fruit Ratio Represents How Well the Bunches Will Ripen.
  • Canopy Gap- Leaves Around Bunches Removed or Kept According to Sun Exposure.
    • Proper Air Ventilation Required For Drying After Rain or Lower Humidity Areas.
    • Directs Vines Energy to the Development and Ripening of the Grapes.
  • Desuckering/ Epamrage– Removing Unwanted Young Shoots, Usually From Trunk or Head of the Vine.
  • Hedge- Eliminate Excess Vegetative Growth From the Top and Sides In Order to Make a Uniform Canopy That Looks Like a Hedge.
  • Summer Pruning
  • Tucking- Process of Going Through Vineyard and Placing Shoot Under the Grow Wires.
  • RULES FOR CANOPY MANAGEMENT
    • Measurement of Canopy Quality
    • Pruning the Vine in Relation to the Weight of Wood Produced by the Vine
    • Trellis Design
    • Annual Canopy Management
  • CANAPY MANAGEMENT TOOLS/ MACHINES
    • Machine Vine Trimers
      • Available In Half Row, One and Two Row
    • Machine Leaf Removers
      • Available in Single or Double Defoliation Heads. In Row or Over Row Mounting

GREEN HARVEST/ Crop Dropping/ Thinning- Compliments Winter Pruning, Removal or Dropping of Immature Bunches Lagging In Ripening. Young Shots Are Cut Away Around Base of Trunk.

  • Removed to Direct More Nutrients and Sap to Remaining Bunches.
  • Reduces Yields, Improves Intensity of Remaining Grapes, Ensures All Bunches Ripen Together at Time of Harvest.
  • Absence of Green Harvest Vigorous Vines Produce, Diluted Unripe Grapes.

PRUNING

PRUNING Periodic Cutting Back of Cordons Which Determine Number of Buds That Are Allowed to Become Clusters or to Clear Out Unwanted Dead Growth. Usually Done Late In Dormant Season Before New Growth Begins.

  • Pruning and Training Are Performed In Order to Optimize the Production Potential of the Grape Vine. Your Goal is to Get the Right Number of Bunches Spaced  Correctly While Not Taxing the Vine or Leaving It Vulnerable to the Elements.
  • Vines are Not Pruned In a “One Prune” Fits all Approach, Each Trellising System is Diverse In Its Own Way and Need Special Trellising Technique Attention.
  • Traditionally Winemaking Regions Pruned Their Vines In a Local Style, One In Which Has a Positive Track Record and Has Viticultural Proven itself Over Time.
  • Helps Maintain the Training System. Maintain Wine Form, Regulates the Position and Number of Shoots On a Vine, Improves Grape Quality, Stabilizes Production.
  • Pruning Allows Vineyard Manager to Select Fruiting Wood and manipulates the Quality of the Grapes Produced.

WHEN TO PRUN-  Pruning is Done On Dormant Vines, Anytime Between Leaf Drop In the Fall and Bud Break In the Spring.  Most Vineyards Wait Until January to Begin their Winter Pruning Because This is When the Canes Become Woody.

  • VITICULTURAL CHALLENGES– It’s Important Not to Prune Too Early, if Low Temperatures or Strong Wined Folllow Pruning It’s Possible That the Pruned Part Will Freeze.  This Will make You Lose All or Part of Your Crop.

WINTER PRUNING- Trimming Unwanted Branches or Promotion of a Trellis System In the Winter Went the Vine is Dormant and Pruning Isn’t as Harmful On the Vine.Determines the Number of Buds Left On the Vine for Future Cropping.

SUMMER PRUNING- Should Be Done to Maintain the Structure In Which You Decided With Your Winter Pruning. Shortens the Annual Growth of the Canes.

  • Cane Pruning- (Replacement Cane Pruning) Taking a Shoot From the Previous Year and Lying it Down With All Its Buds Ready For the Next Years Growth.
  • Canes- Stem of a Mature Grapevine
  • Bearer- Fruiting Unit of Vine
  • Spur Pruning- Canes Are Cut Back to Two Bud Spurs
  • Spur- Shortened Grapevine Cane
    • Each Bud Should Produce One Bunch of Grapes.
    • Buds Are Retained On Longer Bearers Called Canes.
  • CropSeal- All-Natural Sealant to Protect Pruning Wounds and Prevent Destructive Trunk Disease. Provinces Protection Against Fungi-Causing Wood Disease.
  • VITICULTURAL PRACTICES– Check For Diseases or Abnormalities While Pruning In Winter Month.  A Visual Diagnosis Should Be Done Year Round But Walking Your Vineyards While Pruning is On of the Best Times.
  • PRUNNING TOOLS
    • Pruning Sheers
      • Manual Shears
      • Air Compressor (High Pressure Air-Actuate pistons to Drive the Blades)
      • Electronic Pruning Shears
    • Loppers
    • Saw
    • Ribbons, Garden Tape

OTHER SUB-TOPICS Of CHOICES & DECISION

COVER CROPS Planting Vegitation Between Rows of Vines For Benefit of the Vineyard and Vines.

  • There’s Cover Crops Ranging From Slight to Very Competitive For Root Space. Finding the Right Cover Crop For Vineyard is a Process.
  • COVER CROP BENEFITS
    • Erosion- Used as Protection Against Erosion(Holds Soils In Place), Builds Soil Structure.
    • Evaporation- Increases Water Holding Capacity, Can Be Left to Grow In Wet Years and Removed Early In Dry Years.
    • Natural and Organic Way to Fumigate the Vineyard of Pest and Disease Pathogens.
    • Increase Organic Matter- Enhances Biological Diversity In the Root Zone.
    • Control Vigor- Some Soils Produce Too Much Bio-Mass(Waste) and Some Soils Produce Excessive Nitrogen In Soil.

Keep In Mind That You Need to Managing Your Allies

  • COVER CROP INFORMATION
    • *Generally– Cover Crops Are Planted or Seeded Annually or Semi-Annually  In Spring/ Fall and Allowed to Grow Freely Until They Are Ether Tilled Or Crimped at Full Bloom.
    • Young Vineyards– Its Generally Accepted That You Should Not Have Cover Crops In a Young Vineyard (1-2 Years Old) Because of Need to Limit Competition For Water and Nutrients.
    • 4 “C’s” of Cover Crops
      • Compitition With Vines
      • Contribution of Nutrients
      • Conservation of Water
      • Control of Weeds
  •  COVER CROP MANAGEMENT“Tilling vs. Non-Tilling”
    • Some Vineyards Are Tilled Entirely and Some Choose to Till Every Other Row of Cover Crops.  Some Just Till Under the Vines With Tillage Tool.
    • Some Vineyards Aren’t Tilled.  There is Strong Support and Viticultural Philosophy That Having Living Roots In the Soils at All Times Feeds Soil Biology and Helps to Keep the Biology Alive.  80% of Biology In the Soil is In the Top 10 Centimeters Helping to Develop the Humus Layer Which In Turn Feeds the Organic Matter.
  • DIFFERENTIAL COVER CROPS- Have Multiple or a Diversity of Cover Crops Within a Block or Vineyard.
  • TYPES Of COVER CROPS
    • Dry Season Cropes- Grass, Rye, Barley, Weeds
    • Legumes- Beans, Chickpea, Lentil       
    • Wild Salad- Marigold, Wild Leeks, Crow Garlic, Asparagus
    • Other– Crimson Clover

UNDER VINE SOIL MANAGEMENT– Growing or Not Grower Weed or Other Planted Life Directly Under the Vineyard Rows.

  • BARE UNDER VINE STRIPADVANTAGES
    • Weed Free
    • No  Competition For Water or Soil Nutrients.
    • Provides Sun Reflection and Radiates Heat.
    • You Can Use Compost and Mulch Under Vines.
  • GROWING UNDER VINEADVANTAGES
    • Improves Soil Conditions and Vineyard Performance
    • Provide Beneficial Food Source For Soil Organisms, Bacteria, Fungi, Protozoa, Insects and Worms.
    • Plant Roots Provide Pathway For Water to Get to the Vines.

FERTILIZER A Natural or Chemical Substance Added to the Soil or Directly to the Plant to Increase its Fertility or Output.

  • **Refer to “VITICULTURE/ Sustainable Wine/ Fertilizer” For Detailed Information.

VINE STRESS The Sum Total of All Growing challenging Challenging a Vine Goes Through In Growing Season. When You Stress a Vine it Grows Less Fruit, Resulting In Enhance Attributes and Flavors.

  • EXAMPLES Of VINE STRESS
    • Deficit Irrigation
    • Weather Events

REPLICATING CROPS

  • By Repeating the Same Treatment In the Same Vineyards, While Having Other Test Vineyards Doing Other Treatments. This Will Allow You to Distinguish Between Random Variation In the System and the Real Effects of Your Work.
  • Split-Plot Design- Popular and Useful Design For Vineyard Research. This Allows You to Test One Vineyard and to See How They Differentiate and How They Are Similar.
  • Grape Grower Have the Opportunity to Replicate Their Harvest of Grapes Year After Year. Paying Strict Attention to Details In Growing They Can See What the Grapes Respond to In the Vineyard and In the Cellar. This Allows the Grape Grower to Make Subtle Change In Their Annual Crop to Shape or Bing Out the Best In Their Grapes.

CROP PROTECTION PRODUCTS

  • Things Done/ Preformed to/ In the Vineyard Throughout the Year to Protect Against Certain Negative Outcomes.
  • Preparation Application Schedule- What? When? Intervals?
    • Pruning, Tilling, Spraying, Leaf Thinning, Harvest

SULFUR USE IN THE VINEYARD (Elemental Sulfur)

  • Sulfur Used In the Vineyard. Elemental Sulfur Use is an Effective, and Economical Natural Spray Material For Managing Powdery Mildew In the Vineyard.  Now Much and When Depends On Humidity and Temperature (Mildew Grow Best Under Perfect Temperature Conditions Ranging From 70*-85*).  User of Elemental Sulfur Make Sure Not to Use it Late In the Growing Season Because of the Impact Of Sulfur Residue On Fermentation and Sulfur Related Off Aromas.
    • Conventional vs. Organic Vineyard Spraying
      • Organic Viticulture May Use Sulfur Spraying to Control Mildew Only if the Sulfur is Mined Directly From the Ground From a Sulfur Mine. Convention Viticulture Can Use Sulfur Obtained as a Waste Product From Refining Diesel Fuel.
    • Organic Spraying Preformed 5-14 Times a Year Depending On Mildew.
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY?  On a Biological Level “Mined Sulfur” and “Bi-Product Sulfur” Are Exactly the Same. Wouldn’t it Be Better to Use the Bi-Product Sulfur Rather Than the Mined Sulfur Which has to Be Shipped From Europe and Leaves a Greater Carbon Footprint On the Environment?
    • Sometimes What is Organic and What Makes the Most Sense Lead to Different Outcome.
  • CONTENTIOUS WINE ISSUE!  Using Organic Products Isn’t Always the Best Thing Overall For the Environment!
    • YESSometimes What’s Organic and What Makes the Most Sense Lead to Different Outcome.
    • NOUsing Organic Products On Your Vineyard is the Only and Best Way to Deal With Viticultural Challenges.

PLANTING IN PROXIMITY Planting Vineyards Around Other Things Including Bushes, Forest and Agriculture Will Have an Indirect Influence On Grape and the Vineyards Terroir. The Classic Example of This is Vineyards Planted Next to Eucalyptus Groves. The Oils of the Trees Will Cross Contaminate with the Early Morning Dew and Leave Its Oils On the Vine. When the Grape Are Fermented and the Wine Drunk it is Said to Show Hints of Eucalyptus.

  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY?  Is it Alright to Grow Grarrique Herbs Between Vine Rows Knowing That it Will End Up Part of the Terroir and Eventually Show In the Vine? If So is it Alright to Steep or Infuse Wine with Garrique Herbs Before Bottling?
    • Things Grown “In Nature” or In Your Vineyard That Will Influence Your Vines/ Wine is Fine.  Adding Things to Your Wine After Harvest Isn’t the Best Idea, Unless You State On the Bottle That There Was Something Added to the Final Wine.

GOING THERE…

  • If You’re Interested In the Health of a Vineyard the Time to Visit the Site is Right Before Harvest. Everything is Going to Be How It is/ or How It Isn’t. The Fruit Load is In Order, the Position of the Shoots, the Laterals All Are In Full Display.  You Can See the Leaves and Any Viral Situation That Might Be Present. The More Vineyards One Sees the Better One is at Recognizing the Health and Condition of the Vineyard.

WHAT To PLANT IN YOUR VINEYARD

  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY?  Should Wine Regions Outside of Europe Who Are Pressured to Plant Certain Varieties Abandon Commercially Popular Grape and Focus On Other Grapes Which Aren’t as Popular But Might Grow Better In That Particularly Environment?
    • In a Saturated Wine World With There is Not Shortage of Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon New Regions Should Focus On Producing New Flagship Grapes to Promote Their Region.
      • ~Example~ Rouge Valley AVA. Focusing On Vermentino
          • Empqua Valley AVA. Focusing On Tempranillo

OTHER VINEYARD MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES

SPRAYING YOUR VINEYARD

At Some Point I Had to Ask Myself, “Am I Going to Grow Grapes, Make Wine or Just Demystify The Vine My Whole Life.


MY PERSONAL VITICULTURE EXPERIENCE

  • **These Section Are Throughout DtheV.com and Follow My Personal Experience Planting a Vineyard and Making Wine.

The PHILOSOPHY Of KNOWING VS. The PHILOSOPHY Of DOING

  • Through My Wine Journey I Have an Immense Amount of Wine Knowable About Planted a Vineyard and Growing Grapes.  This is All Practical Until the Moment You Start the Process of Starting Your Vineyard.  What Grape to Plant Becomes the Major Issue Followed by Site Preparation, Row Orientation, Vine Tensity, Trellis System, Trellis Height, When to Plant.  All of These Choices and Decision Become Major Thoughts That Are All Important and Play of Each Other.
  • MY VINEYARD– Planted March 14, 2020
    • White– Grüner Veltliner (12), Albariño(9)
    • Red– Syrah(24), Garnacha(6(
    • GeographySTATE-California, REGION, South Coast AVA.
    • Topography“Flat/ Rolling”, On~Coast/ Pacific~Ocean~(Near 6mi.)
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY?  I Was Going to Dry Farm My Vineyard Until the Vine Started to Die?
    • Its One Thing to Say I Want to Dry-Farm, But the Second My Vine Health Was In Danger I Ended That Viticultural Practice.

MY PERSONAL VITICULTURE CHOICES AND DECISIONS

  • PRE VINEYARD
    • What Varieties to Plant
  • IN VINEYARD
    • Spacing
    • Low Orientation
    • Trellis Type
    • Training Method
    • When to Cut Back to One Trunk

  • SUB-CHAPTERS Of CHOICES/ DECISIONS 
    • Conventional
    • Organic
    • Sustainable
    • Bio-Dynamics
    • Natural Wine
    • Burgundian Method
  • **Refer to Proceeding Sub-Chapters For Detailed Information On These Topics


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.