WINE & FOOD
- SUB-TOPICS OF WINE & FOOD PAIRING
- Wine as Food
- What is Wine & Food Pairing?
- Pairing and the Structure of Wine
- Pairing Wine With Food
- Cooking With Wine
- Cooking Methods
- Kosher Wine
- Eating Grapes
1) WHAT As FOOD
CULTURE– Unlike In America Where Wine is Seen as Form of Alcohol, Wine In Europe is Seen as a Food. With a Heighten Scene of Culture Wine is Seen as an Important Food, One That is Just as Important as Vegetable or Protein.
FUNCTIONAL FOOD- Foods That Have Nutritional Value, and Beneficial Effects On One or More Body Functions. Functional Foods Improve Health and Reduce Risk of Developing Certain Diseases. According to the French Paradox Wine Would Fit Into This Category.
- WINE & PHILOSOPHY? “Is Wine Considered a Food?”
- “Ever Since Wine Was Discovered it Has Been a Part of Meals But is it a Food. Wine Does Contain Calories, Small Amounts of Protein and Trace Amounts of Minerals.”
CALORIES & WINE
- A 5 Ounces Serving of Wine (10% ABV. to 16% ABV.) is Equal to (100- 200 Calories) Depending On Alcohol Levels.
- *Generally– Calories Derived From Alcohol, Carbohydrates and Sugars.
- Red Wines Containing Higher Alcohol and Sweet Wines are Higher In Calories.
- RED WINE
- Port- 200-225
- Zinfandel- 131
- Sangiovese- 128
- Cabernet Sauvignon- 125
- Pinot Grigio- 123
- Syrah- 123
- Grenache- 122
- WHITE WINE
- Sauvignon Blanc- 122
- Chardonnay- 118
“Consider Wine is Liquid Food.”
CARBOHYDRATES & WINE
- 5 Ounce Serving of Wine Contains About 4 Grams of Carbohydrates.
- Pharmacist Would Steep/ Brew, Flavor, Drinks to Cure Common Elements Such as Fever, Anxiety, Colds, Stomach Ailments.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EATING GRAPES AND WINE GRAPES
- Grape Species
- Skin Thickness
- Sweetness Level
- Grape Size
- Grape Yields
2) WHAT IS WINE & FOOD PAIRING?
WINE & FOOD PAIRING OUTCOMES
- Wine Will Overpower the Food.
- Food Will Overpower the Wine.
- Food and Wine Enhancement.
“Goal of Wine & Food Pairing is 1+1=3.”
- Do You Want to Match Your Wine With Food or Your Food With Wine?
- Would Your Dish Benefit From Addition of Specific Wines Marker?
- When Looking For a Wine/ Food Pairing Consider These Attributes of the Wine:
- Structure, Sweetness, Body, Tannins, Alcohol, Acidity
Wine Tasting Sequence- Sight, Aroma, Palate, Finish
Food Tasting Sequence- Sight, Aroma, Touch, Try, Chew, Finish
“Both the Wine and the Food Should Be Good, Balanced and Able to Be Enjoyed On Their Own.”
BASIC RULES FOR SYNERGY, BALANCE & HARMONY
- Rule #1, In Wine/ Food Pairing is Your Own Personal Wine Preference Overrides All Other Rules. With All of Food Pairing Guidelines, Rules, Condition and Exceptions, It’s Always Acceptable to Mach Your Favorite Wine With Anything You Like. Look For Complementary Flavors and Complexities.
- Red Wines With Red Meat (Cabernet Sauvignon With Steak)
- White Wines With White Meats (Pinot Gris With Chicken)
- Red Wines With Red Sauces (Sangiovese With Pomodoro)
- White Wines With White Sauces (Chardonnay With Alfredo)
“As a Wine Sommelier You Should Always Be Thinking About What Wine Pairs Well With What Food or Dishes.”
3) PAIRING And The STRUCTURE Of A WINE
WEIGHTY/ +BODY WINES
- Weighty/ +Body Wines Needs Weighty Food
- Intensity Wines Needs Intensity Food
- (Sweetness, Tans, Body, +Above)
- Sweet Wines Needs Sweet Food
- Sweet Wines Loves Salty Food
- Sweet Wines Loves Spicy Food
- Pair Dessert Wines with Richer, Intensely Sweet and Robust Flavors
- (Pecan Pie, Almond Tort, Nut, Carmel)
- +ABV. Wines Balances Weight/ +Body Food
- +ABV. Wines Hates Spices Food
- Acid Balances Rich/ Fatty (Dishes Must Exceed Acid of Food)
- Acid Cuts Fat
- Acid Needs Acid (Compatible)
- Acid Love Fish (Oily Fish)
- Acid Cuts Salt
- Tannins Love Fat
- Tannins Hates Cheese/ Fish/ Acid
- Fruit Hide Tannins/ Tannins Hide Fruit
- Sweetness Takes the Edge of Tannins, Tannins Take Edge of Sweetness.
- Spicy Food Hates +ABV. Wine
- Spicy Food Loves Sweet Wine
- Spicy Food Hates Dry Wine
DELICATE/ LIGHT FOOD
- Delicate/ Light Food Hates Rich/ +Body Wines
- Fatty Food Like +Acid Wines
- Fatty Food Like +Tannin Wine
- Sweet Food Needs +Sweet Wines
- Salty Food Likes +Sweet Wines
- Salty Food Likes +Acid Wines
“Having a Wine With Enough Power to Clean Your Palate From the Previous Bite and Allow You to Enjoy the Next Bite.”
DEGREE Of COOKING/ IMPACT LEVEL ON The FOOD
SAUCES & CONDIMENTS
“Eat What You Want to Eat, Drink What You Want to Drink.”
4) PAIRING WINE & FOOD
WINE & CLASSIC PAIRINGS
- Beef Bourguignon With Red Burgundy
- Blue Cheese With Port
- Chicken Salad With Gruner Veltliner
- Fish & Chips With
- Hamburgers With Malbec
- Moo She Pork With Riesling
- Mussels With Muscadet
- Oysters With Chablis
- Pulled Pork With Petite Syrah
- Red Tomato Sauce With Sangiovese
- Salmon With Pinot Noir
- Steak With Cabernet Sauvignon
- Truffles With Nebbiolo
WINE & VEGETARIAN PAIRINGS
- Asparagus With Sauvignon Blanc
- Mushrooms With ?
- Egg Plant With ?
WINE & ADVENTUROUS PAIRINGS
- Vanilla Ice Cream With Pedro Ximenez Sherry
PAIRING WINES WITH COMMON CUISINES
- Asian With Chenin Blanc, Gewürztraminer, Riesling, Sparking Wine
- Chinese With Gewürztraminer, Riesling
- Greek With Agiorgitiko, Assyriko, Moscofilero, Xinomavro
- Indian With Chenin Blanc, Gewürztraminer, Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc, Sparkling Wine
- Japanese With Chenin Blanc, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Sparkling Wine
- Mexican With Riesling, Sparkling Wine, Zinfandel
- Middle East With Gamay, Pinot Noir, Rose
- USA. BBQ. With Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Riesling(Sweet), Zinfandel
- Thai With Gewürztraminer, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc
FAST FOOD & WINE PAIRINGS
- French Fries With Sparkling Wine
- Onion Rings With Pinot Blanc
- Fried Chicken With Chardonnay(Buttery)
- Pizza With Chianti
- Hot Dogs With
- Hamburger With Zinfandel
- Hard Carnitas Tacos With Tempranillo
- Cheesy Puffs With Chenin Blanc
ICE CREAM & WINE PAIRINGS
- Vanilla With Sparkling Wine
- Strawberry With Rose
- Sorbet With Crisp Whites
- Caramel With Light Reds
- Chocolate With Full Reds
WINE & CHEESE PAIRINGS
- **Refer to “CHEESE & WINE/ Pairing Wine With Cheese” For Detailed Information.
FOODS THAT DON’T PAIR WELL WITH WINE
- Artichokes, Asparagus, Leafy Green, Vegetables Eggs
- Chiles, Garlic & Onions, White Wine Vinegar
MEDITATION WINE- A Wine That You Can Drink by Itself Without Food as Opposed to a Wine Style Meant to Be Enjoyed With Food.
PAIRING WINE WITH NON-FOOD
- Sunshine With Sauvignon Blanc
- Fireplaces With Port
- Celebration With Champagne
5) COOKING WITH WINE
- Wine Used In Cooking Loses Much of Its Alcoholic Strength as it’s Heated. Leaving the Remaining Wine Components to Blend With those In the Dish.
- When Wine is Reduced, Components Such as Residual Sugar and Acidity Become Prevalent, and Adds Depth and Dimension to Dish.
- The Earlier the Wine is Introduced into the Cooking Process the More Alcohol Evaporates.
- Wine is Often Added to Dished to Provided Texture in the Form of Acidity or Tannin.
- After Alcohol is Burned Off What’s Left is the Grapes Primary Flavors Profiles. Certain Grapes or Wines Primary Flavors Can Enhance a Dish Either as a Similar-Flavor or Contrasting-Flavor Way.
- When Using Fortified Wines in Cooking Be Aware of the Inherent Elevated Alcohol Levels and That Some of These Fortified Wines Come In Sweet and Dry Versions.
- Wine Has a Boiling Point of 175° While Water Has a Boiling Point of 212°.
PRIMARY FLAVOR PROFILES
- STILL WINES (White)
- Chardonnay- Apple, Pear, Melon
- Sauvignon Blanc- Grapefruit, Lemon, Lime, Herbal, Vegetal
- STILL WINES (Red)
- Cabernet Sauvignon- Blackcurrant, Cassis Bell Pepper
- Pinot Noir- Cherry, Mushroom
- Merlot- Red Plum
- Zinfandel– Blackberry
- FORTIFIED WINES (White)
The OLIVE OIL And BUTTER LINE
- WHAT IT IS?- The Olive Oil and Butter Line is an Imaginary Line That Runs West to East Across Europe and Represent the Divide Where Countries and Regions Stop Producing Butter and Start Producing Olive Oil.
- Geography- The Line Runs Across Southern France, Northern Italy Below the Alps and Cross to Croatia. All the Countries and Region Below Predominately Produce Olive Oil and the Countries and Region Above Produce Predominately Butter.
- Culture- This Divide is More Than Butter and Olive Oil, it Leads In to a Country and Regions Culture Starting With Its Cusine.
6) COOKING METHODS
DEGLAZING– Adding a Wine to a Sauce-Pan to Loosen and Dissolve Food Remnant (Fond) that are Stuck to Bottom of the Pan After Sautéed or Roasting Something. The Flavorful Mixture Produced by Deglazing can Then be Used to Make a Sauce. (White Vermouth)
MARINADE– A Liquid That you Soak Foods, Particularly Meats in Before Cooking. A Marinade Adds Flavor to Foods and Makes Them More Tender by Beginning the Breakdown Process of Cooking. The seasoning You Add to a Marinade are Carried Into the Food by Use of an Acidic Ingredient In the Marinade Like Vinegars or Fruit Juices.
COURT-BOUILLON– For Cooking Fish, Shellfish, White Meat.
- Herbs, Spices, Infused With White Wine and Water in Food is Poached In.
STOCK– Wine and Water to Provide Essential Base For Soup and Sauces.
- Red Wine for Game, White Wine for Fish, Chicken.
SAUCES– A Liquid or Semi-Liquid Dressing or Condiment Served as an Accompaniment to or an Ingredient In a Dish or Recipe.
- Bordelaise- Red Wine and Shallots
- Sauce Robert- White Wine, Mustard, Onion
- Periqueux- Madera, Veal Stock, Truffles
- Cuisine Bourgeoise- Acidic Wine
- Dry- Used for Savory Dishes, Adds Nutty Flavor and Caramelization.
- (Beef Tenderloin, Veal, Turkey, Chicken, Mushrooms.)
- Sweet- Used for Sweet Viscous Sauce
“All Great Wines Drinks Well by Themselves Without Food.”
COOKING WITH PORT
- White Ports Are Used For Sauces.
- Ruby Ports Are Used For Marinating Meats For Up to 3 Days. (Goats, Wild Boar)
- Sediments From Ports Are Used as Rubs Prior to Grilling.
7) KOSHER WINE
KOSHER WINE- Wine That’s Produced Under the Supervision of a Rabbi and According to Judaism Religious Laws and Said to Be Ritually Pure or Clean.
- Tradition of “Shittah”, “The Sabbatical Year”, Dictates That Vineyards Must Be Allowed to Rest Every Seven Years.
- No Animal Products. (Gelatins, Egg Whites, or Dairy Based Agents.)
- No Finning or Clarifying of the Wine.
- Made and Supervised by Sabbath Observing Jew…Created, Bottled, Opened Handled and Poured Only by Jews.
- If a Non-Jew or a Non-Sabbath Observant Jew Touches the Wine Even Accidentally It Can’t Be Considered Kosher and Therefor Can’t Be Consumed by Someone Who Follows Kosher Dietary Law.
- Mevushal Wine- Wine Made Properly But Handled by Non-Jews. Wine Would be Boiled Making It “Morally Sterilized”. Mevushal Wines Can Be Shared by Non-Jews and Non-Observers of Jewish Faith.
- OLD WORLD-
- Estate/ Producers-(Israel)– Barkan, Binyamina, Golan, Segal, Shiloh, Teperberg, Tulip, Yarden
- (The World)– Laurent-Perrier(Champagne, France), Pascal Bouchard(Chablis, France), Cellar Capcanes(Montsant, Spain), Bartenura, Terra de Seta(Italy), Lascombes, Malartic-Lagraviere(Bordeaux, France), Roubine(Provence, France)
- Estate/ Producers-(Israel)– Barkan, Binyamina, Golan, Segal, Shiloh, Teperberg, Tulip, Yarden
- NEW WORLD- Weinstock, Baron Herzog, Hagafen(USA.), Goose Bay(New Zealand)
- PIONEERS~ ~Philip Herzog~ Slovakian Winemaker Who’s Wines Were Coveted By the Rules of The Austro-Hungarian Empire.
- FESTIVALS~ ~Kosher Food and Wine Experience~ (February, Los Angeles)
8) EATING/ TABLE GRAPES
Table Grapes or Eating Grapes and Those Destined to Be Eaten. Sometimes They Are Considered For Juice Production or To Be Dried to Be Raisened.
VITICULTURE- The Mojority of Eating Grape In California Are Grown In the San Joaquin Valley or Coachella Valley.
IMPORTANT EATING GRAPE
- WHITE= Autumn Crisp AKA=Sugrrathirtyfive, Autumn King, Early, Great Green AKA=Green Envy, Milano, Prime, Pristine, Sheegene, Starbright, Sugraone AKA=Superior Seedless, Summer Crunch, Sundance, Thompson AKA=Sultana, Victoria, Waltham Cross
- RED= Allison, Autumn Royal, Bohneur, Candy Snap, Crimson, Flame, Flavor Pops, Gum Drops, Holiday AKA=90-3618, Krissy, La Rochelle, Magenta, Melody, Midnight Black, Midnight Beauty, Moon Drops, Red Flame, Red Globe, Sable, Scarlet Royal, Starlight, Scarlotta, Sugrannineteen, Summer Royal, Sunred, Sonera, Sweet Celebration, Tear Drops, Timco, Van Buren
**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.