1. When to Drink a Wine
    2. Wine Serving Temperature
    3. Opening Wine Bottles
    4. Serving Wine
    5. Introducing Oxygen to Wine
    6. Preserving Wine After Opening it
    7. Wine In a Restaurant


DRINKING WINDOW- Wine Will Have an Optimum Period of Time When It’s  Judged to Be at Its Peak of Maturity.  General Guidelines to When to Wait to Drink a Wine and When to Drink it.   The Window Usually Will Have a Period of  When to Start to Consider Drinking a Wine and When the Wine Will Start to Be Past Its Prime and Into Decline. Some Drinking Windows Will Be Small 1/ 2 Years and Some Can Be Quite Large 10+.

    • Varietal/ Grape     |    Style of Wine
    • Vinetage   |   Region
    • Wine Structure
    • Rose- 1 to 3 Years
    • Port- (Once Mature) 10 Years
    • Beaujolais Nouveau- 3 to 9 Months
    • Sauvignon Blanc- 1 to 5 Years
    • Bordeaux Varietals- (Once Mature) 10 Years


  • Wine & PHILOSOPHY? What’s the Different Between When Can I Drink a Wine vs. When Should I Drink a Wine?”
    • Wine Can Be Consumed the Day the Wine is Released. When Should You Drink a Wine is a Personal Decision.  A Red Wine is Usually Not at It’s Best On Release, In Many Occasion the Wine Will Benefit From a Few Years of Aging or In Some Other Cases 10-20 Years Later.

WINE CLOSING DOWN- Wine Sometimes Will Enter a Period of Dormancy When the Wine Seems to Have Muted Sense and Show Little Flavor or Character.  This Phenomenon is Still Not Really Understood But There is Some Commonalities.  The Closing Down Period Will Start After 3 Years and Sometime Last For Up to 3 Years.  Some Wines This Seems to Effect Are Bordeaux Blends/ Varietal and Rhone Wines.


  • WHITE= 45° to 55°  (Light Body) 48°   |    (Full Body) 53°
  • SPARKLING= 40° to 45°
  • RED= 64° to 49°  (Light Body)- 55°   |    (Full Body)- 63°
    • Room Temperature is Considered 64°, Storage of a Red Wine Should Be at 59*, Chilling a Wine is to 54*, Serving a Wine at 49° is Considered Cold.
  • SHERRY= -57°   |    Fino= 46°
  • PORT= 63°
  • BRANDY= 66°


  • These Are Ranges For Serving Temperature.  The Main Point of Getting the Temperature Right is to Find the Correct Temperature to Release the Best Expression of Aromatics.
  • Until Recently, Before to Advent of Central Heating and Air Conditioning, Cellar and Rooms Were Generally 5° Colder.
  • If a Wine is Too Cold For Your Personal Taste, You Can Slowly Warm the Wine by Caressing the Bowl of the Wine Glass In the Palm of Your Hand.  To Avoid Warming the Wine Too Quickly, Avoid Holding the Bowl and Use the Stem of the Glass.

Personal Preference Should Take Precedence When Serving Your Wine.

  • DEMYSTIFYING PROCEDURES~  ~Be Aware of Your Wines Temperature.~
    • Red and White Wines Have Different Chemical Compositions That are Influenced by the Temperature of the Wine.  The Temperature Has a Noticeable Effect On a Wines Sensory Traits and Our Sensory Perception.  Structural Elements and Aromatics are Dampened or Enhanced with Temperature Change In Wine.
    • White= Aromatic Varietals Show Better Cold, -Thin Body
    •  Red= Aromas and Flavors Become Muted, Tannins Astringent
      • Oak Doesn’t Show Well-Big Structured Tannins Don’t Show Well.
    • Wine Projects Their Fruitiness
    • Increased Astringent Phenolic Sensation
    • Suppresses Sugar -Suppressed Alcohol Sensation
    • Conceal Oak, Masks, Hides, Aroma, Flavors
    • Non-Aromatic Whites
    • Greater Aromatic Expression
    • Shows Faults
    • Heightened Alcohol Sensation, Alcohol Volatizes and Gets In the Way
    • Wines Shows Sourness
    • Aromas Will “Escape” at a Greater Pace
    • White= Chardonnay, Marrsanne, Roussane, Viognier
    • **Most Whites Show Better Chilled/ Cold. 
    • **Certain White Styles Show Better Chilled Compared to Cold
    • Red= Barbera, Blaufrankisch, Dolcetto, Frappato, Gamay, Garnacha, Grignolino, Grolleau, Lagrein, Lambrusco, Mencia, Pinot Noir, Pouslsard, Refosco, Zinfandel, Zweigelt
    • **Most Reds Can Be Served Chilled, Some Some Better

Qualities For Chilling Reds- Low Body, Low Tannins, Medi Acid, Fruity, Less Structure

  • Wine & PHILOSOPHY? Do We Generally Drink Our Red Wines to Warm and Our White Wines Too Cold?”
    • People Should Drink Wine at the Exact Temperatures They Like.  If  They Enjoy White Wines Overly Chilled With Ice-Cubes, or if  They Enjoy There White Wine and Room Temperature Both of  These Are Fine.  This is True Unless They Are Passive Drinker and Are to Lazy to Adjust Their Wine to the Proper Temperature.



CAPSULE/ FOIL CUTTER Apparatus With Hidden Sharp Edge to Cut Through the Capsule/ Foil Covering the Cork and Top of Wine Bottle.

    • French Cut- Cutting the Foil Above the Lip of the Bottle Mouth.
    • Spanish Cut- Cutting the Foil Below the Lip of the Bottle Mouth.
    • Northern Irish Pull- Gripping the Whole Foil and Pulling it Entirely Off.

WAX CAPSULE Dig In Cork-Screw All the Way Through Center of Wax and Into Cork, Hold Steady Get Grip On Wax, Use Little More Force and the Cork Should Pop Up Through Wax.

  • Heat Wax With a Candle/ Lighter to Help Open
  • Carve Around Top of Lip.
  • **Refer to CONTAINERS/ Bottles For Additional Information On Capsule/ Foils.

WINE OPENER Device that Enables the Removal of Corks From Bottles.

  • History- 1681 First Bottle-Screw Produced, Refinements Improved Them With Increase Mechanization, Leverage and Force.
  • Helixophile- Someone Who Collects Corkscrews.

CORKSCREW Twist & Pull

WAITERS FRIEND/ CORKSCREW/ TWO-STEP A Two-Step Corkscrew and is Often Thought of a the Preferred Opener of Sommeliers and the Beverage Industry Because of Its Ease of Use and the Size Which Fits Easily Into a Pocket. The Waiters Friend Contains a Retractable Knife Use to Cut the Foil and a Two-Step-Leverage Opener.

  • Waiters Friend In Use- Industry Standard Calls For the Operator to Preform 6 Twists Before Activating the Leverage Mechanism.  I Use and Purpose a Extra 7th./ 8th. Twist Before Extracting the Cork. This Better Assure That the Corkscrew Reaches and Grasps the Botton of Cork.

LEVERAGE BASED OPENER Winged Corkscrew,  AKA=Bunny Ears, Wine Lever.

AH-SO Butler’s Choice, 2-Finger Handled Tool with Two Rubber Tongues That are of Slightly Different Lengths. To Use Slide Tongues Between Cork and Bottle and After a Little Wiggling Back and Forth to Fully Insert, Slowly Pull-Out.

  • Good With Old Disinherited Corks, Doesn’t Damage Cork.

DURAND- Device That’s Extremely Effective at Removing Compromised or Fragile Corks From Older Wines. Durand Wine Openers Combines the Corkscrew Opener With an Ah-So Opener.

CORAVIN Offers Tasting or Wine By the Glass Without Removing Cork From the Bottle. A Needle Enters/ Pierces the Cork Without Damaging it. The Wine is Exchanges With and Inert/ Argon Gas. The Cork Seals Itself and You Can Continue to Age Your Wine.

  • How Long Does the Coravin Last?
    • The Regular Size Cartridge Last Long Enough to Empty 3 Bottles.
  • How Long Does a Wine Preserved Under Coravin Last?
    • This is Debated But 3 to 6 Months is Generally Considered the Time Period.  This Figure Ranges Depending On if there is a Couple Onces Withdrawn Out of the Bottle Compared With Half a Bottle Withdrawn Which Would Leave a Greater Percentage of Oxygen.


  • DEMYSTIFYING PROCEDURE~ ~When Opening Old Wines the Main Goal is to Get It Out In One Piece.~
    • No Matter How Much Time and Effort it May Take the Clean Open is Your Objective. Take All the Time You Need and All the Opener Resources You May Have to Achieve This.


TONGING- Cast Iron Graspers With Wooden Handles Heated to Crack Open Bottles In Which Cork Has Become Degenerated and Too Fragile to Remove With Cork-Screw. Tongs Applied to Neck of Bottle Followed by Ice and Minor Force to Cleanly Break Neck.

SABORING/ Vin de Sabre Using a Saber or Sward to Open a Bottle a Champagne.

Using a Saber-Sword or Knife to Open a Bottle of Champagne or Sparkling Wine.  The Art of Sabrage or Sabering Wine to Me is the Pinnacle of Opening a Wine Bottle Wine Showmanship.

Here Are My Guidelines That You Should Follow For a Successful Sabering Display.

  1. Wine Bottle Must Be Sparking, Use Champagne or Traditional Method Sparkling Wine. (Don’t Use Prosecco, the Lower Pressure In Bottle Isn’t Optimal For Guaranteed Break.)
  2. Make Sure the Bottle to Be Sabered is Properly Chilled Overnight.
  3. Put the Bottle Up-Side Down In Ice For 10-15 Minutes.
  4. Find a Safe Place to Saber Bottle, (The Bottle Could Explodes Upon Contact With Knife to Lip of Bottle.)
  5. Un-Twist Wire Cage, and the Cage Up One Rung to Expose Lip of Bottle.
  6. Find Seam of Bottle, Use This Seam to Guide Your Knife Down the Body of the Bottle.
  7. Hold Bottle Firmly With Thumb In Punt of Bottle. Make Sure Your Fingers Are Out of the Way.
  8. Run Saber Along the Bottle Seam Confidently and With Conviction.  Make Sure to Swing Through the Lip of the Bottle.
  9. If All Thing Go Well There Should Be a Clean Break at the Lip, Check For Shards On the Lip of the Bottle, Then Enjoy.
  10. A Smooth Move is to Have a Wine Glass Immediately Handy For the 1 Oz. of Wine That Spills Out.

WITHOUT A OPENER- Use a Screw and Pliers, Push it Through.

  • Wrap the Base of the Bottle With a Shoe and Smack it Out.
  • Use a Knife and Dig it Out.


WINE DISPENSING SYSTEM- Enomatic” Machine That Houses a Series of  Wine Bottles Individually and Dispenses Wine Accordingly.  This is Achieved by Connecting the Bottle to a Spout Through a Closed System and Fills the Bottles With a Mixture of Inert Gas Nitrogen/ Argon as the Wine is Dispensed.  This Keeps the Wine From Being Altered by Oxygen and Protects the Integrity and Freshness of the Wine as It’s Poured Out In Various Amounts. (Usually In 1 oz., 2 oz., 3 oz. and 5.5 oz. Proportions).   The Amounts and Costs Are Kept Tract With Debit-Like Card That Are Inserted Into the Machines On Demand.  On the Business Side the Advantages of This Technology Are Increase Sales and Profits.  Also Enhancing Your Wine by the Glass Program While Keeping the Wine Preserved, Refrigeration and Precise Portion Control.   The Customer Benefits With a Fun Way to Increase Their Wine Palate With a Wide Range of Wines to Taste.  You May Have Seen These Machine In Restaurants and Bars and Some Are Even Popping Up In the Homes of Wine Connoisseurs.  Some Popular Brands and Producers or These Machines Are: Eno Direct, Enomatic, EuroCave, Napa Technology, Winekeeper

  • For the Beginners- Get a Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc to Compare.
  • For the Intermediate- Get a 2 and a 10 Year Old Cabernet Sauvignon to Compare  
  • For the Advanced- You Can Get a Barolo and a Barbaresco to Compare

WINE ON TAP- Stainless Steal Tanks, Best For Wines Meant to be Consumed Within 1 Year, No Sulphur to Preserve, Last 3 Months, But Perfect With Monthly Barrel Turnover.

  • Save of Bottle, Cork, Label.
  • Anaerobic Environment.
  • No Chance of Getting Glass of Wine Form Bottle Opened 3 Days Ago.
  • No Use of Extra Sulfur to Ensure Stability.
  • Dispensing Wine From a Keg- Pure Argon, Pure Nitrogen Isn’t Perfect For Dispensing Wine From a Keg. There Should Be a Portion of Carbon Dioxide Mixed With the Nitrogen or Argon to Maintain the Dissolved Carbon Dioxide In the Wine.
  • In Solution at Warm Temperatures(Like Wine), Gases Come Out Faster.
  • When Dispensing Wine From a Keg a Proper/ Correct Blend of Inert Gas Will See That Gas Stays Dissolved In Wine. If Not the Carbon Dioxide Will Dissolve and Boil Out of the Wine. How Much Argon and Nitrogen Should Be Used In Dispensing Wine by the Keg Depends On the Temperature of the Wine and How Much Pressure is In the Keg.
  • The Guinness Mix, 75% Nitrogen & 25% Carbon Dioxide.


  • Stand Bottle Upright For 2-4 Hours.
  • Be Careful to Be Slow and Gentle or to Limit Movement.
  • Be Careful of Aged Cork. (Cork Begins to Break Down After 10 Years)
  • Clean Inside of Neck Bottle, Sediment Can Be Lodged Inside.
  • Decant the Wine, Sediment is Present In Most Aged Wines and Should be Caught.
    • (If the Wine is Very Old and Perceived as Delicate Try to Avoid a Wide Based Decanter.)


  • A Symmetrical Ring Around the Base of the Cork is a Good Sign the Cork Was Stored In Good Condition.
  • Wine Stains Half Way Down the Cork…A Sign That the Bottle Needs a Little Investigation.
  • A Cork with Wine Stains Down the Entire Cork (Runners), a Sign the Bottle Got Hot.
    at Some Point In the Storing Process, and Possible a Sign of a Cooked Wine.

SOMMELIER’S WINE KIT- Tools Needed to Extract Difficult Aged Corks or Broken Corks.

  • AH-SO Wine Opener
  • Strainer(Stainless Steal/ Coffee Filter/ Cheese Cloth)
  • Have a Single Pour Spout Handy, the Minimum Out Put Pour Will Trap Cork Pieces.

SERVING UNIT/ SIZES- It Takes an Adult About an Hour to Process One Unit of Alcohol So That There’s No Alcohol Left In Their Bloodstream. (This Varies From Person to Person/ Weight/ Tolerance)

  • 1 Unit Wine- 76 Milliliter 1 Unit Cider- 218 Milliliter
  • 1 Unit Whiskey 25 Milliliter 1 Unit Beer- 250 Milliliter


  • Submerge the Wine Bottle In a Bucket Filled With Ice, Water and Salt.
  • Put the Wine Bottle In the Freezer.  It Will Generally Take 25 Minutes to Chill a Room Temperatature Wine to 50 Degrees.
  • Wrap the Wine Bottle In a Wet Dish Towel.


  • Adding Oxygen to Wine is Something That Can Be Achieved Slowly/ Gentle or Quickly/ Violently.  Oxygen Mixes With Esters and Activates Volatile Aromas and Flavors. Prolonged Exposure to Oxygen Opens Up and Soften a Wine Often Emphasizing Its Structure and Enhancing Its Aromas. There’s Always a Balance Between the Positives Effects and the Inevitability of the Wine Deteriorating Due to Extended Oxidation.
  • Oxidation Scale Low   |   Medi-   |    Medium   |   Medi+  |   High

BREATHING  Deliberate and Controlled Exposure of Oxygen to Wine by Removing the Cork and Letting the Bottle Breath.

  • A Unopened Wine is In a Non or Low Oxygen Environment.  Wines Naturally Produces Sulfur and Some Add Sulfur Doing the Vinification Process to Kill Bacteria and Preserve the Wine. It’s Adventitious For You to Give the Wine Time to De-Absorb the Sulfur. Breathing Times Can Range From 1-5 Hours Depending On the Wines Needs. Because of the Small Surface Area “Breathing” Has the Slowest Effect On the Wine. This Breathing Process is Also Referred to as Mico-Oxidation.
  • Any Wine Will Benefit From 20 Minutes of Breathing, But Highly Structured Full Body Wine Such as Cabernets, Malbec, Nebbiolo, Syrah , Zinfandels Will Open Up More With a Couple Hours of Breathing.

The Common Purpose of Both Aerating and Decanting Wine is to Increase the Wines Surface Area So Oxygenation Occurs.

AERATING WINE  Deliberate and Controlled Exposure of Oregon to Wine(Violently) by Pouring Wine Through a Agitation Device.

  • Wine Aerating Devices Are Best Used For Young Wine, Around 5 Years Old Younger.  You Have Less Control of the Amount of Contact the Wine Has With the Air as You Pour it Through the Aerator.
  • Aerator– Spout Device Usually Put In the Opening of the Bottle or a Hand-Held Pour Through Apparatus.
  • Height Aerating- By Pouring a Wine From a Height it Can Act a Aerator, and Agitate Your Wine.
  • Hand Swirling- The Process Of Moving the Wine Around In Circular Motion to Expose the Wine to Oxygen and Open Up Its Aromas.
  • DEMYSTIFYING PROCEDURE~ ~Open and Systematically Drink a Bottle of Wine Over the Course of a Week.~
    • This Practice Will Help Understand and Quantify the Development of the Oxidation Leading to the Degeneration of the Wine.

DECANTING WINE  The Act of Removing a Wine From It’s Bottle.

  • Deliberate and Controlled Exposure of Oxygen to Wine by Pouring a Wine Out of Its Bottle Into a Decanter/ Container/ Wine Glass.
  • The Term Decanting is Also Used When Removing a Wine From Its Bottle and Leaving the Sediment That Has Fallen Out of Suspension.
  • Decanting a Wine is Best For Wines Over 10 Years Old.  The Process of Decanting Exposes the Wine to Oxygen Allowing it to Breathe at Much Slower Controlled Pace Than Aerating the Wine.
  • History- Throughout History Decanters Have Been Used to Serve Wine.  As Early as the 3rd. Century BC. Ancient Greeks Poured Wine From Their Large Clay Amphora Into Smaller Containers That Would Allow Them to Serve the Wine In Smaller Amounts.   During Roman Time and the Age of Glass Blowing Lead to Decorative Glass Decanters Being Used.  In the 1600’s During Renaissance Times the French Began to Store Wine In Glass Bottles With Corks.  This Starting the Age of Aging Wines and With That the Decanters Being Used to Separate Wine From Its Sediments.
  • DEMYSTIFYING PROCEDURES~  ~Decanting Your Wine When Possible~
    • When You Pour the Wine Into the Decanter it Gets a Splash of Oxygen With the Introduction of Air. Once Inside the Decanter the Wine Has a Huge Surface to Mix With the Oxygen. When You Pour From the Decanter to a Glass the Wine Get Another Blast of Oxygen. Besides Air Exposure Decanting a Wine Helps With Older Wine Which Had Dropped Some Sediment. When You Pour Into a Decanter You a Can Leave the Sediment In the Bottle.

Are You Decanting the Wine to Remove Its Sediment or Are You Decanting the Wine to Improve Its Qualities.

  • Glass Decanter Wine Glasses Are Small Decanter, So Even In You Don’t Decant Your Wine Into a Decanter, Your Wine is Still Being Decanted On a Smaller Scale.
  • Decanter A Vessel In Which Wine is Decanting Into. While Vary In Shape and Design a Decanter is Usually Made From Glass or Crystal and Typically Have a Narrow Neck and a Extremely Wide Bottom.
  • Decanting Basket- A Basket or Cradle Who’s Main Purpose is to Move a Bottle From the Cellar to the Table Without Disturbing the Sediment or the Wine.
    • Cornett   |    Swan
    • Duck   |    Standard
    • **Some Wine Consumers Have Different Shapes and Sizes of Decanters to Achieve Different Purposes or Outcome For Their Wine They Are About to Enjoy.
  • DEMYSTIFYING PROCEDURES~  ~Calibrating the Wines Needs Before Decanting.~
    • Before You Can Decant a Wine, You Must Qualify the Wine and  Quantify the Style and Character of a Wine In Order to Accurately Choose What Decanting Measure and Duration to Use. Think of a Bottle of Wine as “Sleeping” or “Hibernating” Do You Want to Violently Wake it Up or Gently Wake it Up. Some Wines Won’t Benefit From the Decanting Process at All and Decanting Will Actually Be Harmful to the Wine.
  • Is the Wine a Young Tannic Wine That Needs to Be Violently Awaken or is it Aged For +15 Years Pinot Noir That Would Be Best to Uncork and Breath?
  • Decanting Times Can Range From 30 Minutes to Many Hours Depending On the Age of the Wine and Varietal.
  • The Younger and More Tannic the Wine the Longer the Need For Decanting.
  • Be Careful Decanting Old Wine Which May Be Delicate and Extended Exposure to Oxygen Might Accelerate Oxidation.
  • Recant/ Double Decanting a Wine- After Decanting a Wine Pouring it Back Into Its Bottle.  It’s Possible to Decant Wine In a Decanter at Home, Put Wine Back In Bottle, Re-Cork it and Bring it Somewhere Else to Enjoy.  Your Guest/ Friends Will Enjoy Seeing the Original Bottle the Wine Was Put In  With No Risks of Deposits as You Finish the Bottle.
  • Be Sure to Decant In Good Lighting Conditions, Use a Candle or a iPhone Light to See the Sediment at the Bottom of the Bottle.
  • Immediately After Decanting Try the Wine For Calibration Purposes and Then Monitor the Wine to See When the Perfect Time is to Enjoy it.
  • **Refer to WINE STYLES/ Oxidation For Additional Information.

The Younger the Wine The More You Want to Subject it to Oxidation and Decanting.

    • Vintage Port   |   Old Wines
    • Young Wines   |   Acidic/ Tannic Wine
    • Wine With Sediment
    • **Most Wines Should Be Decanted In Some Way and Length Either Gently or Violently.
    • **Be Careful With Old Wine Because They Are Delicate, They Should Be Decanted Primarily Because of Sediment and Not to Open Them Up.
    • Hot Water   |   Salt & Ice
    • Water & Vinegar   |   Rice & Vinegar
    • Cleaning Beads  
    • ***Always Avoid Detergents When Cleaning Your Decanter.
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY? Is There a Psychological Effect to Decanting Wine and Drinking it From the Decanter?”
    • The Act of Decanting a Wine and Waiting to Drink it Will Make the Wine Seem Slightly Better In Your Mind.  Also Decanting a Wine Will Have a Tangible Effect On the Wine That Can Be Smelled and Tasted.

PLACEBO EFFECT- A Beneficial Effect Produced From a Thing or Treatment Which Can’t Be Attributed to the Properties of the Thing or Treatment Itself, and Must Therefore Be Due to the Patient’s Belief In the Treatment.

  • Research On the Placebo Effect is Difficult to Quantify, and is Also Focused On a Relationship With Mind and Body and Expectations.  If a Person Expect Something to Happen Then Its Possible For the Mind/ Body to Cause a Similar Effect In Their Head.
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY? Is Knowing the Price of a High End Wine Before Consumption Going to Produce a Placebo Effect?”
    • Often Knowing the Price of a Wine (Say $150 From a Famous Producer) Will Often Mentally Encourage the Drinker to Like the Wine or Except it as a Great Wine They Should Like.  The Same Effect is True When You Know the Price of a $10 Wine Before Consumption.

TASTEVIN- Burgundian Word Designating a Tasting Cup.  A Small Shallow-Domed-Bottom Tasting Cup With Single Thumb Handle.

  • Used 1600’s-On to Reflect Hue, Clarity and Wine Color In Candle-Lit Wine Cellars With No Electricity, Little Light.
  • Originally Produced From Silver, Now Generally Silver Plated.
  • Bordeaux Model- 65 mm.-110 mm. In Depth and 2.5 mm.- 4.5 mm. In Diameter.
  • AKA= Tasse A Vine, Goute-Vin, Essai a Vin, Epreuve, Tasse a Oreille.


LIFE SUPPORT Termed Used For a Opened Bottle of Wine That’s Done Being Consumed But the Owner Wants to Enjoy it at a Later Time. Once a Bottle is Opened It’s On Life Support.  Remember to Keep the Wine Out of the Light, And Away From Heat and Oxygen.  After Two Days a Steady Decline In the Quality of the Wine Through the Effects of Oxidation Will Be Apparent….But Try these Tips.

From the Moment You Uncork the Bottle, Wine is an Evolving Thing, Changing if Not Minute to Minute Then Every 5 Minutes.

  • Let-It-Ride- If Yours Plans Are to Consume the Remaining Wine the Next Day Leave it On the Counter With the With the Cork Out. The Next Day, Red Wine Left at Room Temperature Will Taste as Good, if Not Better Than the Previous Day. Most Wines Will Improve With a Little Controlled Amount of Air. (Like he Amount Wine Gets From the Open Space Inside a Partially Filled Bottle.
  • Refrigerate-It If you Are Note Sure When You Will Finish Wine From Bottle Put Remaining Wine In the Refrigerator, Wine is a Living Life-Full Food, Refrigeration Slows the Aging and Deterring Process and Keeps the Wine Relatively Fresh.
  • Transfer- Put Leftover Wine to Smaller Bottle(375ml.) to Limit Oxygen Exposure, and Then Match it With Another Preserving Technique For Double Protection.
  • Vacuum- Apparatus That Sucks Air Out of Bottle, Although Modestly A Vacuum Will Keep the Freshness for a Couple of Days.
  • Argon Gas- Gas Filled Container Filled With Harmless and Odorless Argon Gas. The Apparatus Shoots the Inert Gas Into Bottle to Take Place of Oxygen.
  • Stopper- Due to Their Effervescence and Acidity, Sparkling Wine Has a Enhanced Preserving Power. A Champagne Stopper Will Keep Your Bubble Sparking For Several Days.
  • Vinfinity- System Which Lets You Mechanically Suck Out the Optimal Amount of Air In Opened Bottle In less Than 2 Seconds.
    • System is Highly Reliable and Easy to Install and Use. Requires minimal Bar Space, No Regular Maintenance  and Low Operating Cost.
  • Marble It!– Put as Many as You Need Marbles In Bottle to Displace Wine and Limit Oxygen.
  • DEMYSTIFYING PROCEDURE~  ~Using Half Wine Bottles to Preserve Wine.~
    • When Not Planning to Drink the Entire Bottle of Wine Put Half the Wine In a Half Bottle With Filled to the Top. I Find This the Best Way tho Preserve the Wine, Often For Up to 10 Days.

What Preservation Technology Are You Using to Keep Your Wine Fresh?

SPARKLING WINES How Long Will the Bubbles In a Sparkling Wine Stay Persistent?

  • By Keeping Sparkling Wine Chilled it Slows-Down the Loss of Carbon Dioxide Out of the Solution/ Wine. Bubbles Have Been Known to Last For Up to 4 Days if the Proper Precautions are Taken and There is a Inherited Quality Consideration.
  • Champagne Stopper Stopper Specifically Designed to Preserver Champagne.  Its Technology Offers Week long Sparking With No Carbon Releasing Out.
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY? How Long Will Wine From a Bottle Last After Opening It?”
    • Young, Full Body Wines Will Keep Integrity Longer Than Older, Thin Wines. Wine is “Almost” Perfect to Drink the Next Day, and Some Wine Lovers Find That Day Old Wine Has Opened and Developed Into Something More Complexed and Enjoyable the Day After.  There is the ”Law of Diminishing Returns”  With Wine, it Will Decrease In Quality From Day Two Onward and Be Relatively Fine For to Up to a Week. While Wine Will Lose Flavor and Taste It’s Can Be Consumed Harmlessly For Months.
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY? Does a Wine Spoil or Does it Just Go Bad?”
    • When a Wine Goes Bad Organic Molecules Soften and Their Structure Starts to Subside, Go Flat or Lose Their Aromatics as Time Goes On Due to Oxidation. When Something Spoils it Involves Micros Developing In the Item, Making You Sick When You Drink it.


RESTAURANT A Place Where People Pay to Sit and Eat Meals That Are Cooked and Served On the Premises.

  • Restaurants Can Be the Worst Place to Buy Wine, the Selection Can Be Limited, the Mark Up is Considerable.  But the Best Place to Pair Wine With Food In a Good Environment.
  • THE WINE LIST- Used Prodominatly In Restaurants and Wine Bars.
    • The Wine List is an Opportunity to Drive Business and is a Effective Sales Tool.
    • Wine Lists Should Be  Layed Out and Organized In Strategic Manner.
      • What Are the Categories Called, Are There Sub-Categories?
      • Are the Wine Listed Alphabetically?, According to Region? Grape? Body?
    • Wine List Should Be Formatted Correctly and Free of Errors.
    • Must Have Reasonable Price Increments.
    • Descriptions Should Describe Differences.
    • Descriptions Should Be Insightful.
    • Description Should Be Food-Focused.
  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY?CONTENTIOUS WINE ISSUE!” It’s Fair For Restaurants to Mark-Up Their Wine So Drastically!
    • NOThe Mark-Up On Wine (Up to 500%) is Ridiculous, and On Some Level It’s a Major Detractor For Me to Go Out and Drink Great Wine In Restaurants.
    • YESRestaurant Which Have Wine Programs Also Have People Making the Entire Operation Go. Hosts In the Front Seeing You to Your Tables, Food Preps In the Back, Cooks In the Kitchen, Dishwashers, Polishes Making Sure Not Spots Remain On Your Wine Glasses. Bartenders and Sommelier’s Making Your Drinks and Pouring Your Wine. The Nicer the Place You Want to Drink Your Wine the More Expensive the Rent is. The List of Things That Need to Go Right On Behind the Scenes So You Can Sit In Peace and Smell and Taste Your Wine is Endless.


Bringing Your Own Bottle of Wine to a Restaurant Which Servers Wine. The Average Corkage Fee Ranges From $10 to $50 But Can Be as Much as $100 Depending On the Restaurant.

    • Looking to Pair a Wine to a Meal That the Restaurant Serves.
    • The Restaurant Doesn’t Have That Particular Wine.
    • The Bottle is Special and Will Make the Occasion.
    • Money Lost From the Customer Not Purchasing the Restaurants Wine.
    • The Use of the Restaurants Space.
    • Do They Even Allow You to Bring In Outside Wine Into the Restaurant.  Call Ahead to See Their Policy.
  • DEMYSTIFYING PROCEDURE~ ~Always Bring a Great Bottle From Your Home Cellar and Pay the Corkage Fee.~
    • This Practice Will Help You Avoid the Absorbent Mark-Up That Restaurant Charge While Enjoying thr Perfect Wine From Your Cellar. If a Restaurant Has a Corkage Fee of $25 It Will Be Far Better Than Buying the Wine Valued at $30 That the Restaurant is Charging $125 For.


WHAT Is The PROGRAM- Having a Selection of Wine In Half Bottles/ 375 Ml.. Half Bottle Programs Can Be a Valuable Revenue-Boosting Tool and a Restaurant’s Disposal.

  • The Up-Sale- They Provide a Revenue Producing Trade-Off.  No Restaurant Can Pour Everything by the Glass, It’s Not Feasible. A Great Half-Bootle Selection Can Provide a Good Option For the Restaurant and the Guest.  A $35 Bottle of Sancerre Can Get a Guest Up-Sold Off a $12 Glass of Sauvignon Blanc From New Zealand.  It’s Difficult For a Gust to Spend $30 On a Glass of Napa Cabernet Sauvignon But a $55 Half Bottle Might Be Doable.
  • Increased Pairing Options- A Guest Might Not Buy and Second Bottle to Pair With Their Third Course of Their Meal, But a Half Bottle Might Be Temping For That Perfect Food Pairing.


WHAT Is The PROGRAM- Selling a Series of Wine From a Fixed Menu By the Glass and Sometimes By the Half Glass.

  • Serving Wine by the Glass Has Become More Popular In Wine Bars and Restaurants.  Customers Want to Drink a Variety of Wines Without Making a Commitment to an Entire Bottle. Wine Directors Are Starting to Use Their By the Glass Programs to Effect Their Bottom Line In a Positive Way.  This is Good For Business Owner Who Seek Higher Margins and Sales.
  • Benefits of “By the Glass
    • Introducing Their Customer to Wines That Are Unfamiliar to Them or Are Hesitant to Spend a Large Sum of Money On a Entire Bottle of Wine.
    • Having Half-Glasses Will Entice Customer to Match Wines to the Different Courses of Their Meal.
  • Preservation System This is an Important Aspect to the by the Glass Program. It May Come as an Initial Investment But Will Upgrade You Program and Pay Off In the Long Run. By Drastically Reducing the Threat of Spoilage, the Wine Bar or Restaurant Can Offer More Premium Wine.

**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.