1. What is Structure
    2. Body 
    3. Tannins
    4. Alcohol
    5. Acid
    6. Other Structure Topics


STRUCTURE Relationship Between the Elements That Make Up a Wine’s Backbone. Think of it as a Framework That All the Flavors and Scents Hang On.

  • Gives Wine a Presence In Mouth, Without Structure Wine is Thin, Flabby.
  • Mouthfeel- Evaluation of Perception of Wine On the Palate.
    • (Mastication, Swallowing, Aftertaste)
  • Attack- The Way the Wine Feels/ the First Sensation We Perceive the Moment the Wine Hits Your Palate.
  • With Flavor and Appearance We Talk About How Something Tastes and Looks Which Are Quantifiable and Straight Forward.  With Structure and Texture We Talk About How Something Feels Which is More Subjective.
  • Wines With Solid Structure Will Generally Age Well.
  • Wines With Poor Structure Are Unlikely to Improve With Age.
  • Without Ability to Smell Only the Structure of a Wine Will Be Perceived.
    • (Sweetness, Tannins, Alcohol Level, Mouthfeel)
  • Residual Sugar (Sweetness vs. Dryness) Add to Wine Structure, Body, Texture.
  • Wine Structure Scale Low   |   Medi-   |    Medium   |    Medi+   |    High
  • Wine Structure Descriptors Absent, Foundation, Back-Bone
    • Tannins   |   Alcohol   |   Acid        
    • Residual Sugar   |   Body         

2) BODY  A Wines Impression of Weight On the Palate and Tongue.

  • Effected by Viscosity, Extraction Levels, +ABV., Tannins, Sur-Lie, Residual Sugar.
    • Higher Alcohol   |   High Residual Sugar
    • Dissolved Solids   |   Tannin                                  
    • Polyphenols   |   Fixed Acidy                        
    • Glycerol   |   Minerals
  • Body Scale Thin   |   Body-   |    Body   |   +BODY    |     Full
    • Thin   |   Mid Weight   |   Full
  • Body Descriptors Body, Creamy, Full, Rich, Viscosity, Volume, Weight, Tight Hollow
  • Milk Scale- Compared Wine On Your Palate by Calibrating Whole Milk vs. Non- Fat Milk.
  • Water Scale- Is the Wine Fuller Than Water On the Palate or Thinner On the Palate.

3) TANNINS  A Naturally Occurring Phenolic Chemical Compounds In Wine. Tannins Attribute A Variety of Things to the Wine Drinking Experience, as Well as Contribute to the Ageability or Longevity of a Wine.

  • Tannins Have an Astringent or Mouth Puckering Effect, Attacking and Binding With the Proteins In Your Mouth, and Have a Dying Effect On the Palate and Are Responsible For Leaving Your Mouth Feeling Dehydrated and Chalky With a Touch of Bitterness. Tannins Can’t Be Smelt or Tasted, They Cause a Tactile Sensation. Tannins In Wine is More of a Feeling or Impression Than a Flavor. Tannins Can Be Felt On the Palate In Form and Grip. Think of Tannins In Association With a Texture Such as a Fabric Being Silky, Satin, Suede, Cotton In Felling.  Tannins Add to a Wines Structure, Color Pigmentation, Texture, Age-Ability, Antioxidant and Preservation Qualities.

Tannins Dehydrate Your Palate, Making You Pucker, Acidity Makes You Salivate.

  • Tannin Scale  Low   |   Medi-   |   Medium   |   Medi+   |   High
  • Grape Tannin Descriptors Aggressive, Astringent, Bitter, Chewy, Coarse, Dry, Firm, Grainy, Granular, Gravelly, Grippy, Hard, Harsh, Leathery, Powerful, Pungent, Rigid, Robust, Rough, Sand Paper, Savory, Silky, Smooth, Structured, Supple, Squeaky, Velvety
  • Tannins Are Found Naturally In Seeds, Stems and Skins of Certain Grapes Varieties. Tannins Can Also Be Extracted From Oak Barrels During an Extended Aging Process or Added by Additives.
  • On a Molecular Level Tannins Belong to a Class of Chemical Compounds Called Polyphenols That Are Based On the Phenol Molecule Which is Itself Based On a Bensine Molecule. There Are About 8,000 Phenolic Compounds In Nature.  There Are Two Classes of Phenols: Flavonoids and Non-Flavonoids.
  • The Term Tannin Refers to Any Large Polyphenols Compound That Can Come Together by Binding to Proteins.
  • White Grapes Have Low Tannins and Are Even Less of a Factor In Wine Because the Juice is Pressed Off the Skins Before Fermentation.
  • Tannins Diminish or Fall Out of a Wine Over Time.  Pigmented Tannins Polymerize or Form Larger Chains. Eventually These Chains Get So Large/ Heavy That They Precipitate or Fall Out of the Wine or Resolve In the Form of Sediment.
  • Tannins Will Make Your Mouth Pucker Up, While Acid Makes Your Mouth Water.
  • Things With High Tannins: Tea, Blueberry, Blackberry, Grapes, Cranberries.
  • Tactile Impression is a Textural Description or Impression of Weight or Thickness On the Tongue or Sensory Impact On the Palate, Drying, Puckering, Mouth Coating.
  • Tannins Need/ Benefit From Oxygen Near the End of Fermentation to Soften Up Around the Edges.  Tannins Need Oxygen to Polymerize or Bind Together and Become One or Chain Together.
  • Cooler Climates and Cooler Vintages as Well as Grapes That Are Picked Earlier Will Lead to More Aggressive/ More Astringent Tannins.  Warming Climates and Grapes Harvested Later Will Lead to Softer, More Developed and Polymerized Tannins.
  • ADAMS-HARBERTSON TANNIN ASSEY-  Measures Multiple Categories of Phenolic Compounds In Must and Wine.
    • Tannins, Phenolics and Color- All Can Be Assessed to Provide Winemakers Decision-Making Related to Skin Contact (Pre & Post Fermentation), Fermentation Temperatures, Yeast and Nutrients.
    • Total Anthocyanins- Grape Skin Pigment, Indicative of Wine Color.
    • Free Anthocyanins- Anthocyanin That Bind With Tannins to Form Polymeric Pigments
    • Bond Anthocyanins- Total Amount of Polymeric Pigments Found In the Wine That Affects Textural Qualities Like Mounthfeel, Density.


  • Tannins In Wine Can Be Managed or Influenced by a Number of Factors: Grape Variety, Vintage Variation, Viticultural Practiced In the Vineyard and Winemaking Practices In the Winery.
  • Seed Tannin Which Are Referred to as Catechin Are Not Desirable and Are Avoided During the Pressing Process.  This is Achieved by Not Breaking Open the Seeds During the Pressing Process.
  • To Increase Tannin Extraction In the Winery Frequent Punchdowns, Warmer Fermentation Temperatures, Extended Maceration and Enzymes Are Used.
  • Post Fermentation Maceration- Process of Building Tannin/ Structure to Wine After Fermentation.  This Can Last From 1 Day to 30+, Tasting Everyday is Needed to Assess.
    • Amount of Tannins Extracted From the Skins.
    • How You Extract Tannins From Skins.
    • How Oxygen Interacts With Tannins Over Time.
    • What Type/ Quality of Oak Used.
    • Condensed Tannin Any Tannins With Antioxidant Properties Occurring Naturally In Plants, Comprising Polymers of Flavonoids Linked by a Carbon to Carbon Bond.
    • Hydrolysable Tannin Type of Tannin That When Heated With Hydrochloric or Sulfuric Acids Yields Gallic or Ellagic Acid.
    • Polymerization- Process of Reacting Monomer Molecules Together In a Chemical Reaction to Form Polymers Chains or 3-Dimensional Networks.
    • Amount of Tannins
    • Ripeness of Tannins
    • Texture of Tannins
    • Type of Tannins
    • Where Tannin Hits On Palate

Bitterness vs. Astringency

Bitterness In a Wine Comes From Tannins, Astringency In a Wine Comes From Acid.

  • In Wine Making Tannins Are Preferred From Grape Skins and Not Seeds or Stems. Seed Tannins Need Ripening or They Remain Green and Soft and Can Impart Harshness. Tannins Are Noticeable When Wine is Young.  As Wine Ages Tannins Break Down, Smooth Out, Precipitate Out of Wine In the Form of Sediment. Young Reds Get Their Color From Pigmented Tannins and Anthocyanin’s, Both Decreases In Concentration as Reds Age.

OAK TANNINS Tannins That Are Imparted Specifically From Barrel Aging.

  • Oak Tannin Descriptors Opulent, Plush, Rich, Silky, Smooth, Supply, Velvety, Polished, Rounded
  • During Oak Barrel Aging, Tannins and Other Compounds and Flavors Interact, Leaching Out Into the Wine Adding Structure and Complexity. Over Time Short-Chain Tannins Join Together and Form Long-Chain Tannins and Eventually Fall Out of the Wine. This Process Smooths Out the Wine and Becomes Soft and Velvety On Palate.
  • Short Chain Grape Tannins Come From Skins, Seeds Stems…Are Noticed Immediately.
  • Long Chain Barrel Tannins Come From Oak Barrel Aging…Are Noticed Momentarily.
  • Ripe Tannins Water Soluble, Supple, Soften With Age.
  • Tannin Ripeness is Really Important With Assessing Harvest. Un-Ripe Tannins Give Green, Stalky Taste In Poor Vintages. Wine Makers Are Careful During Fermentation to Ensure They Don’t Extract Un-Ripe Tannins, Non-Ripe Tannin Are Not Water Soluble, Remain Harsh Over Time.
  • Different Tannins Textures Hit In Different Location In Your Mouth. (Gums, Front of Mouth, Tongue, Front/ Back)
    • Grape Tannins: Generally Make Tongue and Roof of Mouth Feel Rough.
    • Oak Tannins: Generally Dry Out Gums.

With Tannic Wines You Feel the Saliva Being Pulled Out of Your Mouth, It’s the Proteins In Your Saliva Precipitation the Tannins Out of the Wine.

  • HISTORY The Word Tannin Was First Used to Refer to Wood Tannins That Were Used to Tan Animal Hides Into Leather.
    • Red= Aglianico, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan, Malbec, Grignolino, Nebbiolo, Monastrell, Montepulciano, Petite Syrah, Petite Verdot, Sagrantino, Syrah, Tannat, Tempranillo, Touriga Nacional, Zinfandel
    • White=(Which Show a Little Tannin) Friulano, Pinot Gris, Ribolla Gialla, Roussanne, Viognier
    • Red= Barbera, Gamay, Poulsard
    • White= White Grapes Are Usually Considered Low In Tannins and Also Get Pressed Off the Skins Prior to Fermentation.
      • Whether or Not Tannins Are Perceptible In White Wine Depends Entirely Upon How or What Process the Wine Was Made.

Tannin Refers to the Name of the Chemical Compound, “Tannins” Refer to the Chaining Together or Polymerization of Many Tannins.

    • Oak Barrels
    • Tannin Powder

Tannins Are a Wines’ Best Natural Preservation Method.

  • DEMYSTIFYING PROCEDURE~ ~Calibrating Your Palate to High Tannins.~
    • If You Want to Know and Understand High Tannins, Over-Steep a Cup of Black Tea and Drink.

4) ALCOHOL  Colorless, Volatile, Flammable, Liquid That’s the Intoxicating Constituent of Wine and Other Alcohol.  Alcohol Can Be Measured by Volume (ABV.)

  • Ethanol/ Ethyl Alcohol- The Main Alcohol In Wine and is the Main Intoxicating Agent In Fermented and Distilled Liquors.  Alcohol Comprises Somewhere Between 10% -15% of a Wines Volume and Leans  to a Wines Body and Mouthful and Gives Perception of Sweetness On Palate But Can Over Power Delicate Varietal Aromas if Unbalanced.  The Sensation of Alcohol Burns the Nose and Chest, Leaves Warm Aftertaste.
  • Ethanol Levels Are Typically Determined by Winemaker ThroughLevel of Sugar In Initial Grape Juice.  (Where Grapes Are Grown, Type of Grape, When Harvested.)
  • Unlike Tannins and Acid Which Diminish Over Time, ABV. Doesn’t Fall or Diminish.
  • Alcohol Can Be Expressed Technically, But Can Be Perceived Differently by Grapes, Regions, Styles, Producers, Time of Time and Food Pairing.
  • Alcohol Also Has Industrial Uses In the Form of Solvents and Fuel.
  • Methanol/ Methyl Alcohol- Secondary Alcohol Produced Via the Distillation Process. Methanol is a Hight Toxic Alcohol.
  • ABV. Can Be Misstated On Labels by 1.5% if Between 7% and 13.9% Overall, and by 1% if True ABV. is 14% or Higher.
  • WHITE= Range– 5%- 15% (Most Wines ABV. 10%- 15%)   |    RED= RangeABV. 10%- 17%
    • Wine is Generally ABV. 5%  and is No More Than ABV. 17% Unless Fortified.
    • The Difference Between ABV. 14% &  ABV. 15% is 6% Stronger Wine.

Breath Through Your Mouth to Assess a Alcohol Level of a Wine.

    • Low Alcohol (Under ABV. 10.9%) -Usually a Vinicultural Decision
      • **Wines Such as Sweet Moscato and Sweet Riesling Can Be ABV. 6%- 8%
    • Moderate Alcohol (ABV. 11%- 12.9%) -Sign of Moderate Climates
    • Elevated Alcohol (ABV. 13%- 14.9%) -Sign of Warmer Climates
    • High Alcohol (ABV. +15%) -Usually a Vinicultural Procedure
    • Fortified Alcohol (ABV. +16%) -Achieved by Adding Grape Spirit
      • Alcohol ScaleABV.(Low)   |   ABV.(Medium)   |   +ABV.(High)
      • Alcohol Descriptors Hot, Jammy
      • +ABV. Have Viscous Texture and Contributes to Body, Fuller On Palate.

ALCOHOLIC STRENGTH- The Concentration of Intoxicant  Ethanol In a Wine. Generally Non-Fortified Wine is Between 9% – 16% ABV., With Little Exceptions.  Alcoholic Strength Can Be Quantified as a Degree or a Percentage.

  • Potential Alcohol- Measure of a Must Which Equals its Total  Alcoholic Strength if the Sugar Were to Ferment Completely Dry.
  • Hydrometer -Device That Accesses Brix Level at Harvest.

ASSESSING ALCOHOL IN WINE- The One Test That All Wineries Must Perform, Regardless of Size or Budget is Measuring  the Level of Alcohol.  A Winery Can Use Any Method as Long as it Can Show the ABV. is Within Accuracy Limits.  +/- 1.5% For Wines Under ABV. 14%, and 1% For Wines  ABV. 14% – 24%.

  • Ebulliometer- The Standard Method Used by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau TTB. For Alcohol Measurement to Determine Tax Class and the Declared Alcohol Measurement by Volume On the Label.

ALCOHOL VAPOR BLOWBACK- Alcohol Volatiles On the Palate Then Rises Up Through the Throat.

HIGH/ LOW ALCOHOL WINE  When Stylistically Producing a Lower ABV. Some Steps Can Be Taken In Order to Limit Final Alcohol Levels In a Finished Wine.

VITICULTURE- Focus of Managing Phenolics, Trying to Get the Grapes Flavored Developed Can Be Challenging Before Brix Levels Rise Too High.

  • Limit Nitrogen In Soil, Delay Irrigation Until Vines Are Stressed.
  • Wine Produced From Grapes Grown at Higher Latitudes Where Energy From Sun Is Lower Are Naturally Lower In Sugar/ Alcohol.
  • The Lower the Alcohol by Volume is the More Pronounced the Acid In the Wine.

VINICULTURE- The Use of Certain Yeast Can Promote Lower/ Higher Alcohol Levels.

    • Red= Garnacha, Petite Syrah, Shiraz(Australia), Zinfandel
    • White= 
      • **Wines High In Alcohol Because of  Style
        • Reds= Amarone, Chateauneuf du Pape, Port
    • Red= 
    • White= Gruner Veltliner, Melon de Bourgogne, Riesling
      • **Wines Low In Alcohol Because of  Style
        • White= Prosecco, Rose

DIFFERENT ALCOHOLS-  Alcohols Have Different lengths of the Carbon Chain.

      • Methanol
      • 1-Propanol
      • 1-Butanol
      • 2-Methyl-a-Propanol (Isobutyl Alcohol)
      • 2-Methyl-1-Butanol
      • 3-Methyl-1-Butanol (Isoamyl Alcohol)
      • 1-Hexanol
      • 2-Phenyl Ethanol
      • 2,3-Butanediol (Levo)
      • 2,3-Butanediol (Meso)
      • 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexanehexol (D-Sorbitol)
      • 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexanehexol (D-Mannitol)
      • 1,2,3,4,5,6-Cyclohexanehexol (Mesoinositol)
  • Glycerol/ Glycerine- Major By-Product of Fermentation and is Frequently the Next Most Abundant Component In Wine After Water and Alcohol.
    • The Higher the Sugar Content of the Must, the Higher the Concentration of Glycerol. (Wine From Hotter Regions Generally Have Higher Concentrations Than Wine From Cool Climates.)
  • DEMYSTIFYING PROCEDURE~ ~Assessing Alcohol In Your Glass of Wine.~
    • When Assessing ABV. In a Wine You Are Drinking Without Looking On the Label.   After Your Initial Swallow a Sip of Wine  Take In a Prolonged/ Shallow Breathe In. The Fumes From Higher Alcohol Wines Should Give a Warming Sensation to Your Chest.

5) ACID Group of Compounds Which Are Responsible For the Fresh, Sharp or Sour Attributes In a Wine and Helps Balance Sweetness and Bitterness.

ACIDITY- Level of Acid Present In the Wine (Austere, Sharp, Racy)

Acidity Makes You Salivate, Tannins Dehydrate Your Palate, Making You Pucker.

  • Acidity Scale Low   |   Medi-   |   Medium   |   Medi+   |   High
  • Acidity Descriptors Astringent, Austere, Bright, Crisp, Flabby, Flab, Lively, Nerve, Racy, Sour, Soft, Tart, Zippy
  • Poorly Acidulated- Lacking Acid Either From Over Ripening of Sugars During Later Stages of Grape Development or Out of Balance From Too Much Tannin.
  • To Understand Acidity In Wine Think About How it Feels On Your Palate to Taste a Lemon. It’s a Extremely Sour/ Tart Taste That Adds Brightness and Liveliness In the Wine and Gives it a Refreshing Brightness. Grapes Are Generally High In Acidity, Until They Ripen, Accumulate Sugar and Becoming Balanced.
  • Too Much Unbalanced Acid Can Leave a Wine Sour or Tart. Too Little Acid Can Leave a Wine Flat, Lacking Freshness, and Don’t Age Well.
  • Is the Acidity In the Wine Constant or Does it Crescendo?
  • Acidity In Wines Brings Freshness, Energy and Life.
  • Acid In Wine Diminishes Over Time.
  • Acid Balances Sugar In the Wine.
  • Acid and Sweetness In a Wine Are Interrelated, As a Grape Ripens it Loses Its Acid and Becomes Sweeter.
  • Acid Protects Fruit and Preserves a Wine Over Time.
  • Acids Inhibits Harmful Bacteria.
  • Acids In Wine Are Highest Before the Start of Verason.
  • High Acid Gives Red Wine Astringent Taste and White Crispness.
  • High Acid, Makes Mouth Salivation.
  • Acidity In White Wine Helps it Age.
  • High Acid is a Major Tell to Cool Climate Region or Appellation.
  • Acids Are Important For the Growth and Vitality of Yeast During Fermentation.
  • Sulphur Shows In Low PH./ +Acid Wines.
  • 2 G./ L. is Low, 10 G./ L. is High, Usually Between 4- 8 G./ L.
    • White= Albariño, Aligote, Assyritko, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Colombard, Grüner Veltliner, Hondarrabi Zuri, Muscadet, Piquepoul Blanc, Pinot Blanc, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Vermentino 
    • Red= Aglianico, Barbara, Carignan, Hondarrabi Zuri, Nebbiolo, Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Syrah, Tempranillo, Zinfandel, Xinomavro
    • White= Gewürtztraminer, Müller Thurgau, Marsanne, Pinot Gri, Semillon, Viognier
    • Red= Garnacha

VITICULTURAL DISCLAIMER~Acidity In Wine Can Be Manipulated to Be Higher or Lower by the Amount of Time Left On Vine.  Pick a Week Early and You Capture More Acidity, Wait an Extra Week and Some Acidity Will Subside.

  • Bitter Is One of the 5 Taste Sensations
  • Sour Is Indicative of Acidity


  • Range- Whites- 6.0 to 9.0 G./ L.   |   Reds- 6.0 to 7.0 G./ L.

FIXED ACIDITY- Total Acidity Minus Volatile Acid Minus Tartaric & Malic Acids.

“Astringency vs. Bitterness

Astringency is a Wine Comes From Acid, Bitterness In a Wine Comes From Tannins.


ACETIC ACID- Vinegar, Produced In Small Amounts During Fermentation Acetobacter Bacteria Converts Ethanol to Acetic Acid In Presence of Oxygen.

AMINO ACID- (Not a Traditional Acid) Organic Compounds That Are the Building Blocks of Proteins. Red Wine Contains 300- 1.300 Mg./ L. of Amino Acids of Which Proline Accounts For Up to 85%.

BUTYRIC ACID- Produced by Bacteria, Rancid Butter Aroma

CARONIC ACID- Can Affect PH. And TA. Measurements


CITRIC ACID- Added to Wine Usually After Fermentation to Boost a Wines Total Acidity.



LACTIC ACID- Created From Malic Acid During Malolactic Fermentation, Rich and Buttery

MALIC ACID- Vegetable, Unripe Green In Wine (Like Bitting a Unripe Green Apple.)

  • Accumulates Early In Berry Development and Declines During g the Ripening Process Due to Dilution and Respiration.
  • Converts to Lactic Acid During Malolactic Fermentation.

SUCCINIC ACID- Common In Red wines, Produced During Fermentation With Yeast by Nitrogen Metabolism. Leads to Fruity Esters.

TARTARIC ACID- Ripe Acid In Grapes, Makes You Salivate, Crystal Deposits In White.

  • Tartaric Acid Only Appears Naturally In Grapes and Hawthorn Fruit.
  • One of Strongest Acid In Wine and Possesses the Ability to Resist the Impact of Other Acids.
  • Tartaric Acid Decreases as the Grape Bunches Hang and Ripens.
  • TA. Ranges In Wine-  White: ?  to ?  |   Reds: ?  to ?

AMINO ACID- Red Wine Contains 300- 1,300 Mg./ L. of Proline Which is the Most Abundant Amino Acid, Followed by Alanine, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Arginine and V-Aminobutyric Acid.

POTENTIAL HYDROGEN PH. Measure of Free Hydrogen Ion Activity In a Solution. (How Fast Are the Hydrogen Ion Moving Around In a Solution) PH. Corresponds to the Chemical Definition of Acidity and is Used to Gauge a Wines Acidity.

  • Potential Hydrogen PH. In Wine is Intensity of Acid.
  • Tararic Acid TA. In Wine is Quantity of Acid.
  • PH. Ranges In Wine-  WHITE= 3.0 to 3.5  |   RED= 3.4 to 3.7
  • Litmus Paper or PH. Paper is Used to Find PH. In Things.
  • PH. In a Wine Can Contribute to Its Freshness, and Act as a Microbial Stability and Preserving Agent.
  • Some Wine Maker Prefer to Measure and Talk About Their Wine TA. While Others Prefer to Measure and Talk About the Wines PH.

A Wines PH. Can Be Used as an Indication of a Wines Character.


  • PH. (PH. 0.00) Measure of Acid to Alkaline Balance and Strength In a Solution.
  • Based On a Scale of 1-14 (1 Being Acid, 14 Being Alkaline, 7 Being Neutral)
  • For Each Full Point Increase In PH. the Acidity Level is 10 Times More Acidic.
  • Low PH.= High Concentration of Acidity -Cool Climate= +Acid, -Body
  • High PH.= Lower Concentration of Acidity -Warm Climate= -Acid, +BODY
  • PH. In Grapes Vary by Temperature, Rainfall, Soil, Viticulture Practice, Varietal.
  • Important Statistic For Vine Growth, Ripeness, Taste, Look, Overall Health and Commencement of Harvest.
  • Negative Logarithm of Hydrogen Ion Activity or Concentration.
  • Growing Cover Crops Between Vine-Rows Lowers PH. Levels and Slows Vigor.
  • PH. Drives Positive Micro Biological and Chemical Reactions.  This Allows More Natural So2 to Inhibit Oxygen.
    • Battery Acid- 0 PH
    • Stomach Acid-PH
    • Lemon Juice- 1.8 PH. to 2.3 PH.
    • Distilled Vinegar- 2.4 PH. to 3.0 PH.
    • Coca Cola- 2.8 PH. to 3.2 PH.
    • Wine- 3.0 PH. to 3.5 PH.
    • Tomato Juice- 4.1 PH. to 4.6 PH.
    • Coffee- 5.5 PH.
    • Milk- 6.8 PH.
    • Neutral Water- 7.0 PH.
  • DEMYSTIFYING PROCEDURE~ ~Calibrating Your Palate to High Acid.~
    • If You Want to Know and Understand High Acid, Cut and Squeeze a Fresh Lemon Into a Glass and Drink.
  • DEMYSTIFYING PROCEDURE~ ~Is the Wine Low or High Acid.~
    • Place the Tip of Your Tongue Against the Roof of Your Mouth, and See How Much You Salivate.  Tip Your Head Forward So Your Eyes Are Facing the Floor, Open Your Mouth and See if You Drool….A Little or a Lot.


MALOLACTIC CONVERSION ML. Lactic Acid Bacteria Converts “Hard” Malic Acid Into 2- Parts “Soft” Lactic Acid, and 1-Part Carbonic Dioxide Gas.

    • Sight:
    • Aroma: Butter, Yogurt Sour Cream
    • Palate: +BODY, Creaminess
    • Structure: Lower Acid
  • **Refer to VITICULTURE/ Malolactic Conversion For Detailed Information.

SALINITY Amount of Absorbed Salt Present In the Soil of Grape Vines.

  • Salinity In Soil Can Occur by Proximity to a Sea or Ocean, Atmosphere or Irrigation Water.  Or Potentially Anytime It Doesn’t Rain Enough to Disperse the Surface Salt Deep Into the Soil Profile.
  • Vitis Vinifera is Susceptible to Salt Exposure Which Can Effects the Root’s Ability to Absorb Water. Irrigation Water High In Salinity Applied by Sprinklers Can Leave Vine Burned and Lead to Foliage Deterioration.  Small, “Perceivable” Amounts of Salinity In Wine Add Complexity or Nuance by Helping Balance a Wine by Tempering Fruit, Balancing Residual Sugar.
  • Salinity is Sometimes Seen as Minerality, or How We Perceive PH. In a Wine.
    • Riax Baixas DO., Spain   |   Canary Islands, Spain
    • Calares DO., Portugal   |   Vinho Verde, Portugal
    • Mt. Edna DOC., Italy   |   Sardegna, Italy
    • Coteaux Du Languedoc, France   |   Pays Nantais  AOC., France
    • Mailbu Coast AVA., California   |   Valley De Guadalupe, Mexico
    • Margaret River GI., Australia   |   Casablanca Valley, Chile
    • Santorini, Greece   |   Jerez-Xeres-Sherry, Spain
    • Picpoul de Pinet, Languedoc

TEXTURE Describes the Mouthfeel or the Tactile Sensation On the Palate, Texture is a Physical Sensation That Adds Another Dimension to a Wines Descriptors.

    • Creamy   |   Fat   |    Lean          
    • Smooth   |   Oily   |    Opulent          
    • Rich   |    Silky   |   Supple        
    • Velvety   |   Crunchy   |   Chewy
    • Alcohol   |   Acid   |   Glycerol                  
    • Sugar   |   Tannin

The More I Get Into Wine the More Weight and Texture Fascinates Me.

LANOLIN Fatty Substance Found Naturally On Sheeps Wool.  Viscous Mixture of Esters and Often Used to Describe a Wines Texture.

    • Grüner Veltliner   |    Chenin Blanc
    • Semillon

**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.