DISTILLED WINE


  • SUB-TOPICS Of DISTILLED WINE
    • What is a Distilled Wine?
    • Pot Stills vs. Columbia Stills
    • Spirits of the World
    • Liqueurs of the World
    • Aperitifs vs. Digestif
    • Wine & Cocktails

STILLS WHAT Is a DISTILLED WINE?

DISTILLATION Purifying and Concentrating Alcohol Through Separating Its Organic and Its Organic Components by Boiling to Point of Vaporization (194°-210°) Then Collecting the Cooled Condensation as a Higher Alcohol Liquid.

  • Wine is Boiled as it Enters a Gas Fired Still Chamber, There it Passes Into Main Column of the Still Where it Cascades Over Hot Plates, When it Reaches the Bottom it Gradually Becomes Vapor and Rises as it Begins to Evaporate. Vapors Exit Through the Top of Column Into Condensing Coil and Becomes Liquid as it Cools and is Collected in What is Called a Cowl. Variations On This Traditional Method Exist Throughout World.
  • First Distillation- Brouillis AKA=Low Wine(Slightly Cloudy and 27-30% Abv.)
  • Second Distillation– La Bonne Chauffe/ Eau-de-Vie (72-80% Abv.), Can Take 12 Hours and Involves Separating the Very Volatile Element That First Vaporize.
  • La Coupe- Separation of “Head” From “Heart” & “Tail” (Off Odors & Flavors)
    • Head- First Fraction That’s Collected But Discarded During the Distillation Process. The Head Contains Volatile Alcohol Compounds Such as Ethanol and Alcohols Such as Methanol Which Are Toxic.
    • Heart- Second Fraction That’s Collected During the Distillation Process That Makes Up the Majority of the End Product.
    • Tail- Third Fraction That’s Collected But Discarded During the Distillation Process. The Tail Contains a Large Number of Less Volatile Compounds Many of Which Are Toxic.

HISTORY-

  • 2000 BC. @?– Rumors of Distillation Goes Back to 2000 BC. But With No Clear Evidence.
  • 500 BC. @China– Rumors of the Chinese Distilling.
  • 100 @Greece– Greek Alchemists In Alexandria Were Known For Distilling Water at This Time.
    • First Use and Reason For Existence Was For the Production of Perfumes and Scented Oils.
    • Modern Distilled Beverage Industry Can Be Traced Back to the Moorish Occupation of Spain. Spanish Brandies Are Still Produced In the Same Area of Jerez.

POT STILLS vs. COLUM STILLS

POT STILL AKA= Alembics, Charente’s

  • One Batch at a Time and is More Expensive to Operate.
  • Final Product Not as Pure But Has More Character and Flavor.
  • Used For the Best Brandies, Single Malts Scotches and Rums.
  • Final Product 65%-85%
  • SPIRITS DISTILLED FROM POT STILLS
    • Single Malt Scotch
    • Mescal
    • Navy Rum

COLUM STILLAKA= Continuous Still

  • Patented In 1822 the “Continuous Stills
  • Allows the Mash to Flow Gradually and Continuously Over the Heat Through a Maze of Partitions. This Increased the Amount of Potable Alcohol to Be Collected.
  • Cheaper, More Efficient, Can Operate Without Stopping Between Batches.
  • Makes a Cleaner Lighter Distillate.
  • Final Product Almost Pure Alcohol- 95%/ 5%.
  • METHOD OF HEATING STILLS– For Hundreds of Years Direct Heat From Fire or Been the General Method of Heating Stills. From the Modern Age of Distilling a Steam Jacket Heating System Using Heated Serpentine Coils Has Been Used With Great Success.
    • Pure Alcohol
    • Congeners
  • SPIRITS DISTILLED FROM COLUMN STILL
    • Vodka                           White Rum
    • London Dry Gin              Bourbon
    • Rye Whiskey

SPIRITS Of The WORLD

  • CONSUMPTION DISCLAIMER~ ~I Don’t Drink it So I Don’t Want to Comment On it.~
    • I Don’t Drink Any Spirits/ Hard Alcohol.  I Possess No Detailed Interlecual Insight to the Subject.  Besides the Distillates My Derived From Grapes Information Please Seek Out Other Resousees For Information On Other Hard Alcohol.

SPIRITS Result of Distillation of a Fermented Beverage In Which Flavor is Derived According to How Base Distillate is Age, Type of Barrel Used, and Level and Duration of Oxidation.

  • Aristotle Was the First to Give the Name Spirit to a Ultra Potent Alcohol.

6 STEPS FOR PRODUCING A SPIRIT

  • Material Selection-
  • Malting- Grain is Soaked In Pure Water to Cause Germination
  • Milling- Malted Grain is Ground Into Coarse Oatmeal Called Grist
  • Mashing- Grist is Stirred With Hot Water In a Large Vat to Develop Sugars.
  • Fermentation
  • Distilling
  • Aging

Distillates Derived From Grapes

BRANDY

  • OLD WORLD- USA./ Carneros Alambic, Peru-Chile/ Pisco
  • NEW WORLD- Spain(Brandy de Jerez), Greece(Metaxa), Germany(Uralt)
    • France(Cognac/ Armagnac)
  • VINICULTURE+DISTILLED/ The Term Brandy is Generic Term For Any Grape-Based Spirit Distilled From Wine.
    • **Refer to “LOCATIONS/ France” For Detailed Information
  • HISTORY
    • ~Etymology~ Name Brandy Derived From Dutch…Brandewijn, German…Gebranntwein Both Referring to Burnt Wine.
  • BRANDY EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear/
    • Aroma:
    • Palate:
    • Structure:
      • PAIRING
      • CHEESE
      • SERVING… Served In Ballon Glass to Leave Room for Swirling. Oldest and Finest Brandies Shouldn’t by Mixed, Young Brandy Can Mixed With Tonic.
        -Drinks/ Cocktails-
  • IMPORTANT GINS Of The WORLD
    • Producers/ Distillers- Beefeater, Plymouth, Booths Finest

CHILEAN PISCO 

  • NEW WORLD- Elqui Valley 2013 100 Million Liters Produced.
  • VINICULTURE
    • WHITE= Muscatel AKA=Muscat Alexandria, Moscatel Rosado, Mosacatel Austria AKA=Torrontes Sanjuanino, Pedro Jimenez, Torontel AKA=Moscatel Amarillo.
    • +DISTILLED/ Copper Stills, Never Diluted, Bottled Immediately.
      • Corriente o Tradicional – 30%-35% Abv.
      • Especial– 35%-40% Abv.
      • Reservado– 40%-43% Abv. -Grand- 43% Abv.
  • CULTURE–  400 Year Battle Over who Originated Pisco…Chile vs. Peru.
  • CONTENTIOUS WINE DISPUTES! “Who Gets Credit For Originally Producing Pisco?
    • Peru and Chile Have Had a Long Dispute to Who Originally Started Producing Pisco First.

EAU DE VIE

  • OLD WORLD
  • OLD WORLD– France
  • VINICULTURE– Term Refers to All Spirits Distilled From Fermented Fruits.
    • (Generally Other Than Grapes… Pear, Apple, Cherry, Current, Plum)
    • AKA= Schnapps, White Spirits
    • -2 Styles…Herbal/ Root or Fruit Based
    • Producers/ Distillers– Poire-Williams, Fraise, Pascall, Kirsch
  • HISTORY– Bavarian Monks Distilled Fruits 500 Years Ago.
  • CULTURE– Almost Every Country Has a Cultural Version Eau De Vie.
  • EAU DE VIE EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear/ Colorless
    • Aroma:
    • Palate:
    • Structure: +Abv. 45%
      • PAIRING
      • CHEESE
      • SERVING… Extremely Chilled, Neat
      • Drinks/ Cocktails
  • IMPORTANT EAU DE VIE OF THE WORLD
    • Schnapps  @Germany
    • Rakia    @Balkan
    • Tuica    @Romania
    • Palenka     @Czech Republic
    • Palinka    @Hungary
    • **Refer to These Countries For Detailed Information.

Distillates Derived From Grapes Pumice

GRAPPA

  • WHITE= Moscato, Muller Thurgau, Gewurztraminer, Picolit
  • RED= Nebbiolo, Barbara, Pinot Noir
  • OLD WORLDCOUNTRY-Italy, REGION-Piemonte
  • OLD WORLD– Oregon, Australia, South Africa
  • VITICULTURE+DISTILLED/ (Sometimes Twice) Pomace, No Water Added, No Grape Juice Added
    • Pomice– Mash of Pulp, Seeds, Stems, Stalks and Lees Remaining After Pressing WinePost-Distillation
    • Grappa Bottled Immediately to Preserve Freshness and Aroma
    • Sometimes Steeped With Herbs or Syrup For Slight Sweetening
    • +AGED/ 6 Months, Traditional Aged In Acacia, Ash, Oak or Cherry Wood
    • AKA= Marc, Bagaceira/ Portugal, Aguardiente/ Spain
  • VITICULTURECHALLENGES– By Product of Grappa Distillation is it Produces Small Amounts of Methanol, and Must be Carefully Monitored and Removed.
  • VINICULTUREREQUIREMENT– Only Allowed to be Produced Italy, With the Majority of Grappa Produced In Trentino, Friuli, Veneto and Piemonte by but About 10 Distilleries. Also Ticino and San Marino.
    • Producers/ Distillers– Beccaris(Peimonte), Berta(Peimonte), Dellavalle(Peimonte), Di Lorenzo(Umbria), Marzadro(Trentino), Nonino, Nardini, Santa Teresa Fratelli Morolo, Gualco(Piemonte), Luigi Francoli(Peimonte), Poggio Basso, Michele Chiarlo, Banfi
  • HISTORY– 1,300-
    • PIONEERS~ ~Giannola Nonino~ Piemonte“, Championed Single Varietal Grappa of Extreme Quality.
  • CULTURE– The Poor Peasants Gather the Villages Discarded Pomace and Making With it What They Could. For Centuries Grappa Was an Afterthought, People Were Making Due With a “Throw-Away” Product. Entire Wine Village Would all Discard There Pomace and Blended From an Array of Dozens of Different Varietal of Grapes. It Wasn’t Until the Early 1970’s When Some Producers Starting Making Grappa from Single Varietals Quality Grapes and Not from Left Overs.
    • Most Pomice Left Over From Wine Making is Sold to Dedicated Grappa Producers.
    • Lightly Pressed Grapes Produce the Best Grappa.
    • +DISTILLED/ by Bain-Marie/ Steam Distillation, Not Open Flame. Heat Pomice Gently Allowing For Much of the Mixture to Evaporate Leaving a Potent Concentration of 40-45%Abv./ 80-90 Proof
  • GRAPPA EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear
    • Aroma:
    • Palate:
    • Structure:
      • PAIRING…Oysters, Chestnuts & Honey
      • CHEESE
      • SERVING…Generally Served Over Ice. When it Interacts With Water the Oils From the Drink Derived From the Anise Become Cloudy and Make For a Distinctive Milkiness.
        • Drinks/ Cocktails
    • Digestivo” After Dinner Digestive Aid, Serve at Room Temperature or Chilled
    • Cafe Correcto”…Added to Expresso
    • Ammazza Cafe” After Expresso is Drunk, Ounce of Grappa is Added, Swirled and Consumed Served In Grappa Glass/ Snifter

Grappa is Like Breasts, 1 Isn’t Enough and 3 is Too Many.…Dan

RAKI

  • WHITE=
  • RED=
  • OLD WORLD– Turkey
  • VITICULTURE+DISTILLED/ By-Product of Grape Pomace Distillation AKA=Tsikoudia, Tsipouro
    • Sweetened/ Often With Anise Flavoring
    • Tsipouro, Raki(After Pressing, Pumace Covered With Sea-Weed to Secure Humidity, and Left to 2 Months, Then Boiled and Double Distilled)
    • DISTILLATE– Pumice is Distilled In Special Stills to Produce Tsikoudia AKA=Raki. Originally Used to Medicinal Purposes Such as Rubs For Cold.
    • ~Etymology~ From the Arabic Word Arak Meaning Distilled, Referring to the Way its Produced
    • Producers– Anadolu Raki, Ata Raki, Efe Raki, Cilingir Raki, Mercan Raki, Fasil Raki, Burgaz Raki,

OUZO

  • WHITE=
  • RED=
  • OLD WORLD– Greece
  • VITICULTURE+DISTILLED/
    • Served On the Rocks

SAMBUCA

  • WHITE=
  • RED=
  • OLD WORLD– Sicily, Italy
  • VITICULTURE+DISTILLED/

ARAK

  • WHITE=
  • RED=
  • OLD WORLD– Turkey
  • VITICULTURE+DISTILLED/
  • OTHER DISTILLED POMICES OF THE WORLD
    • Oruja (Spain)
    • Chacha (Georgia)
    • Marc (France)

Distillates Derived From Other Than Grapes

GIN

  • OLD WORLDUSA.   |   OLD WORLD– England
  • VINICULTURE+DISTILLED/ Potato, Barley, Wheat, Rye
    • Botanical Mix is Put In a Still to Macerate With the Neutral Spirit, Them Boiled. As the Steam is Condensed it is Collected to Form an Extra Strength Spirit, Then Diluted With Water.
    • Steeped/ Flavored With Juniper, Anise, Angelica Root, Dill, Cinnamon ect.
      (Gin Producers Have “Secret” Combination of Botanicals, Usually 4-15)

      • Dutch Style– Distilled Multiple Times (Light)
      • London Dry Style– Distilled Once (Bold)
    • ~Etymology~ Gin/ Juniper, Named After the Berry That Flavored Gin. Genever Became “Gen” Then “Gin”.
  • HISTORY– 1500’s Holland as Medicine
  • GIN EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear
    • Aroma:
    • Palate:
    • Structure:
      • PAIRING
      • CHEESE
      • SERVING … Tonic, Orange Juice, Bitter Lemon, Ginger Beer
        • Drinks/ Cocktails– Gin & Tonic, White Lady, Gin Rickey
  • IMPORTANT GINS Of The WORLD
    • Producers/ Distillers- Ableforth’s, Beefeater, Booths Finest, Hendrick’s, Plymouth, Tanqueray

RUM

  •  NEW WORLD– Caribbean Region, Puerto Rico, Virgin Island, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Cuba, Jamaica, Central America, Northern South America
  • VINICULTURE+DISTILLED/ Fermented Sugar Cane Juice, Molasses or Sugarcane
    • Sugarcane is Harvested and Crushed and Juice is Collecting
    • Distilled to 95%Abv. Then Diluted With Water and/ or Corn Syrup or Caramel
    • Styles of Rum
      • White,  Gold,  Black,  Spice
  • HISTORY– Columbus is Said to Brought Sugarcane from the Canary Islands to the West Indies On One of His First Voyages.
  • RUM EVALUATION
    • Sight:
    • Aroma:
    • Palate:
    • Structure:
      • PAIRING…Pear Cake
      • CHEESE…Mascarpone
      • SERVING
        • -Drinks/ Cocktails- Cuba Libre
  • IMPORTANT RUMS Of The WORLD
    • Producers/ Distillers Zaya

TEQUILA

  • NEW WORLD– Mexico
  • VINICULTURE+DISTILLED/ Fermented Juice of Blue Agave Plant
    • Steaming Pina In Hornos/ Oven, -Mezcal is Then Smoked
    • Styles of Tequila
      • Blanco/ White/ Plata Un-Aged-
      • Resposado– Less than 1 Year
      • Anejo– From 1 to 3 Years
      • Extra Anejo– More than 3 Years
      • Mescal– Mescal
  • HISTORY
  • TEQUILA EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear-Brown
    • Aroma:
    • Palate:
    • Structure:
      • PAIRING…Chicken in Red Chile Sauce
      • CHEESE
      • SERVING…”Shot Glass”, Cold, Straight, Salt, Citrus
        • Drinks & Cocktails– Sunrise, Margarita
  • IMPORTANT TEQUILA Of The WORLD
    • Producers/ Distillers– Jose Cuervo

VODKA

  • OLD WORLD– Russia, Poland
  • NEW WORLD– Austin
  • VINICULTURE+DISTILLED/ Potato, Barley, Wheat, Rye
    • Continuous Still, Distilled to 90%-95% Abv., Then Diluted With Water
    • Charcoal is Used to Filter Out the Flavor and Congeners
  • HISTORY– 1300
  • VODKA EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear/
    • Aroma:
    • Palate:
    • Structure:
      • PAIRING…Caviar, Prosciutto Wrapped Scallops
      • CHEESE
      • SERVING … Extremely Cold
        • Drinks/ Cocktails
  • IMPORTANT VODKA Of The WORLD
    • Producers/ Distillers Belvedere, Chopin, Stolichnaya

WHISKEY-AMERICAN

  • OLD WORLD/ New World
  • VINICULTURE+DISTILLED/ Column Still, Fermented Corn+51%,
    • +AGED/ New White Oak Barrel/ Chard
  • IMPORTANT AMERICAN-WHISKEY Of The WORLD
    • Producers/ Distillers

WHISKEY-BURBON

  • NEW WORLD
  • VINICULTURE+DISTILLED/ Column Still, Fermented Corn
    • AKA= Moonshine, Hooch, White Lighting, Ever Clear Not Aged In Barrels
  • HISTORY– Prohibition-Appalachia-Nascar
    • Moonshine Because it Was Done In the Moonlight.
  • IMPORTANT BURBON-WHISKEY Of The WORLD
    • Producers/ Distillers

WHISKEY-CANADIAN

  • NEW WORLD– Canada
  • VINICULTURE+DISTILLED/ Fermented Corn
  • IMPORTANT CANADIAN-WHISKEY Of The WORLD
    • Producers/ Distillers

WHISKEY-IRISH

  • OLD WORLD– Ireland
  • VINICULTURE+DISTILLED/ Continuous Still, Fermented For Grains (Barley)
    • Almost All Irish Whiskey Are Blend of Malted, Un-Malted and Grain
  • IMPORTANT IRISH-WHISKEY Of The WORLD
    • Producers/ Distillers

WHISKEY-SCOTCH

  • OLD WORLD– Scotland , Sub-Zones
    • Highland
    • Speyside
    • Lowlands
    • Campletown
    • Islay
  • VINICULTURE+DISTILLED/ Fermented Grains(Barley, Rye, Wheat, Corn)
    • Single Malts- Double Distilled In Pot Still, From Barley
    • Blends- Both Malted and Un-malted Grain, Anywhere In Scotland.
    • Usually Matured In Oak Casks For 3 Years or More.
  • HISTORY
  • SCOTCH WHISKEY EVALUATION
    • PAIRING…Smoked Salmon, Apricots, Vanilla Ice Cream
    • CHEESE
    • SERVING
      • “Drinks/ Cocktails”
  • IMPORTANT SCOTCH-WHISKEY Of The WORLD
    • Producers/ Distillers

LIQUEURS Of The WORLD

LIQUEURS/ Cordial= Result of Distillation of a Fermented Beverage In Which Flavor is Derived According to how Base Distillate is Macerated/ Steeped/ Mix

Important Liqueurs of the World

VERMOUTH– Wine Fortified and Macerated

  • OLD WORLD
  • OLD WORLD– Piemonte
  • VINICLUTRE
    • Producers/ Distillers– Martini, Campari, Cinzano, Dolin, Noilly Prat
  • VERMOUTH EVALUATION
    • Sight:
    • Aroma: Herbaceous
    • Palate: Dry-Sweet
    • Structure:
      • PAIRING…      CHEESE
    • STORAGE– Refrigerator For Up to a Month +Abv. 16-22%
    • *Drinks/ Cocktails- Manhattan, Martini

HERBAL LIQUEURS

  • OLD WORLD-
  • OLD WORLD- Versions Exist in Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, France
  • VITICULTURE+DISTILLED/ Neutral Spirit/ Not Wine Infused with
    • Artemisia– Bitter Plant or Root
    • Bitters– Cinchona Bark AKA= Quinine, Licorice, Oris Root, Wormwood, Rhubarb
    • Citrus– Citrus Peel, Orange Peel, Lemon Balm, Pomelo Peel
    • Herbs– Juniper, Oregano, Lavender, Chamomile, Marjoram, Ginger, Coriander, St John’s Wort, Honeysuckle, Sage, Bay Leaf, Thyme, Mint, Menthol
    • Spices– Clove, Star Anise, Cinnamon, Cardamon, Tonka Bean, Vanilla, Allspice, Nutmeg, Mace
    • Flowers– Elderflower, Saffron
  • HISTORY
    • Some Herbal Liqueurs Recipes Have Been Around For Hundreds of Years and have Beem Strictly Guarded For Just as Long. All Recipes Are Different But Contain Various Proportions of the Following Ingredients.
  • VINICULTURE+AGED/ Barrels, Cast, Bottles, -Examples- Amaro/ Bitters@,  Absinthe@

NUT FLAVOR LIQUEURS

FRUIT FLAVOR LIQUEURS

HERBAL FLAVOR LIQUEURS

CREAM LIQUEURS

RECTIFICATION- Highly Concentrated Ethanol Which has Been Purified by Repeated Distillation.

  • ~Examples~ Include-Rectified Spirit, Neutral Spirits, Ethyl Alcohol +Abv.95%

APERITIFS vs. DIGESTIF

APERITIFS Wine or Alcoholic Beverage Served Before Meal That’s Meant to Stimulate Appetite and Stomach For Meal Ahead by Activating Saliva Glands

  • Should Be Dry/ Low In Sugar (Sugar Suppress Appetite)
  • Should Be Low In Alcohol (Alcohol Dulls Taste Buds, and You Don’t Want to Be Overly Drunk Before Meal
  • Should Be Served Cold But Without Ice, Chill Aperitif as Well as Glass.)
  • HISTORY– ~Etymology~ From the Latin World “Aperire” to Open.
  • IMPORTANT DIGESTIFS Of The WORLD
    • Champagne– Fermented From Grapes
    • Fortified– Distilled From Wine

Biggest Difference Between Aperitifs and Digestif is Sweetness Level and Alcohol Level.

DIGESTIF Alcoholic Beverage Served After a Meal to Aid Digestion of Meal

  • Should Be Higher in Alcohol. (A Little Jump Start For a Sluggish Full Stomach)
  • Should Contain Herbs and Spices. (These Botanical Aide in Digestion)
  • HISTORY– Ancient Egyptians 1st. to Drink Alcohol Before Meal
    • 1800’s the Promotion and Use of the Word Became Popular.
    • Pharmacist Would Steep/ Brew, Flavor, Drinks to Cure Common Elements Such as Fever, Anxiety, Colds, Stomach Ailments.
  • IMPORTANT DIGESTIFS OF THE WORLD
    • BRANDY
    • GRAPPA, Sambucca, , Brambuie, Chartreuse
    • Grand Marnier, Kahlua, Limoncello
    • Fruit Brandy-
    • Fortified- Sherry(Cream), Port, Madeira
    • BITTERS– Cynar, Averna, Unicum, Campari, Fernet-Branca

Over Past Centuries Aperitifs and Digestifs Have a Legacy and Nostalgia or Era’s Gone by Drink From Sophisticated Men.


WINE & COCKTAILS

Mixed Drink, Produced Predominantly With Wine, Into Which a Spirit/ Liqueur/ Drink Mixer is Combined

SPARKLING WINE COCKTAILS

  • Bellini– Prosecco/ Peach Puree
  • French 75– Sparkling Wine/ Lemon Juice, Simple Syrup, Vodka
  • Mimosa– Sparkling Wine/ Orange Juice
  • Kit Royal– Sparkling/ Creme de Cassis
  • Ruby Dutchess– Sparkling/ Angostura Bitters/ Sugar Cube
  • Summer Cup– Sparkling Wine/ Ginger Liqueur/ Cranberry Juice, Lemonade

WHITE WINE COCKTAILS

  • Kir– White Wine/ Creme de Cassis
  • Princess of the Hive– Moscato, Lemon Juice/ Peach Schnapps
  • Star Gazer– Chardonnay/ Dark Rum/ Vanilla Syrup/ Pineapple Juice/ Lime Wedge

RED WINE COCKTAILS

  • Kalimotxo– Red Wine/ Cola
  • Red Hot Summer– Red Wine/ Lemon-Lime Soda, Lime Wedge
  • Zurracapote– Red Wine/ Peaches/ Lemons/ Sugar/ Cinnamon

PORT COCKTAILS

  • Apple & Pink Julep– Port/ Apple Juice/ Mint Sprig


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced