1. What is a Blended Wine?
    2. White Blends of the World
    3. Red Blends of the World
    4. White & Red Mixed Blends of the World


BLENDING/ Assemblage (Blend of Grapes In a Wines) Combining Two or More Varietals With Different Qualities In Varying Proportions to Produce Another Wine.

  • Wine Produced From Combining Two or More Varietals or Blending Wine From Different Batches, Lots, Blocks, Barrels, Vintages, or Regions to Creates a Final Cuvee That’s Unique and Complexed. Blending Changes a Specific Feature of the Wine. Blends Are a Great Way to Produce a Good Value Driven Wine Out of Extra, Inexpensive, or Grapes Varietal That On Their Own Are Uninteresting.
  • Varietal- Refers to a Sub-Species of a Grape.
    • A Wine Produced Entirely of 1 Kind of Grape.
    • Is the Wine a Blend or a Varietal.
  • Encepagement (Blend of Grapes Growing In Vineyard) The Mix of What Grape Varietals are Grown On a Particular Estate or Vineyard.
  • Cepage Refers to the Variety/ Blend of Wine Varietals.
  • Assemblage- What the Specific Wine is Assembled From, Varieties, Clones, Vineyards, Blocks Regions, Vintages, Maturation Vessels, Etc.
  • Cuvee- Refers to an Overall Blend, and Relates Strongly to Wine Style, Consistency, Marketing.
    • Add Complexed   |   Add/ Subtract Tannin
    • Add/ Subtract Acidity   |   Texture
    • Flavor   |   Add/ Subtract Body
    • Add/ Subtract PH.
    • Increase Wine Volume With Cheaper Grapes.
    • Hide Faults

Are Blends a Way to Mask Inferior Wines?

    • Blend Grapes Together at Harvest. (Co-Macerate)
    • Blend Grapes Together Before Fermentation. (Co-Ferment)
    • Blend Grapes After Fermentation.
    • Blend Grapes After Barrel Aging.
    • If You Don’t Want to Drink the Wine, Don’t Blend the Wine.
    • Start With an End or Style In Mind.
    • Keep Tract of Proportions In Trial Blends/ Keep Detailed Notes.
    • Have Multiple Palates/ Tasters Present to Calibrate Blend.
    • Know the Differences In Varietal Structure and Flavored.
    • Don’t Blend Faulty Wine or Mediocre Wine by Adding Good Wine.
    • Have Many Clean Matching Glassware, Calibrated Beakers and Pipettes for Precise Reproduction Measurements.
    • Base the Quantities of Blending Wines On Scientific Measures, % of Sugar.
    • Blend After Each Grape Has Been Fermentation Separately.
    • Blends are Mixed or Aged In Steel Tanks or Oak Barrels Depending On Stylistic Intentions.
    • Some Winemakers Make Barrels of Specific Varietals for the Purpose of Blending Later.
    • Varietal   |   Vineyards              
    • Blocks   |   Years/ Vintages                      
    • Barrels   |   Growing Areas


  • Blending Grapes Varieties For Their Flavor and Aroma Qualities Didn’t Come Around Until the 1800’s.
  • Blends Where Done In the Vineyards as Field-Blend as an Insurance Policy For Growers Against Pest or Bad Weather.
  • Blends Where Put Together After the Grapes Where Fermented to Produce More Wine That Had a Common Taste.  These Where the First Regional Blends.


  • Blending Wine is Art Form and a Science. Some of Blending is Tasting and Crafting or Working the Blend. Some of Blending is Quantifiable and Non-Subjective (PH. Level, +ABV., Residual Sugar)
  • LOTS/ BATCHES/ VAT- Vintners Sometimes Keep Wines Separate In Lots by Varietals, Vineyard Picked, Bottled at Different Dates, or Different Vintages to Blend Together Later.
  • CUVEE- Specific Blend or Batch of Selected Vats of Wine (Usually Discerning Producers Who Market Both Regular Blends and Blends Called Cuvee are of Higher Quality Wine)
  • COUPAGE- Refers to a Blending Wine, or Cutting Wine That’s Used to Change the Taste, Color, Acidity of Another Wine.
  • BASE BLEND- When Working With 3+ Wines Base Blend Refers to First Two Wine.
  • TRIAL BLEND- Putting 2 Wines Together to Taste Outcome.
  • RESERVE BLEND- Blending 2 Varietals Together, In Which One is Limited Quantity.
  • VINTAGE WINE BLENDS Blending Wine Types of Grapes/ Wine From the Same Year.


  • Blending Wine Takes Time and Patience.  This Usually Takes Place During a Session or a Series of Wine Blending Sessions When the Wine Maker and Their  Team Works Together to Come Up With the Final Blend That Will Be Placed Into the Bottle.
  • The Wine Blending Session is Usually Done Blind to Avoid Preconceptions, If You Know What Wines Are In Front of You May Make Decisions Based On How You Look at Certain Wine.
  • The Wines to Be Blended Are Often Separated by Variety, Different Vineyards or Blocks of Vineyards. (The Top or the Bottom of the Vineyard or the Morning Sun and the Afternoon Sun.) This Blending Session is a Done by Tasting Each One of the Samples On Their Own and Then Putting Combinations Together In Different Percentages In a Effort to Find a Wine Blend That Possesses Greater Harmony.

NON-VINTAGE BLENDS Wines Produced From Blending Different Years, NV.

    • Compensation For Vintage Variation.
    • Wines Fermented and Aged Separately In Order to Have Blending Options Across Varietal and Vintage.
    • Champagne   |   Tawny Ports
    • Sherry   |   Opus One’s Overture              
    • Penfolds(Grange(G3)

FIELD BLEND Growing Multiple Varietals Together In Same Vineyard and Harvesting, Crushing, Pressing, Co-Fermenting and Bottling Them All Together.

  • Sometime There’s a Need For Multiple Passes Through Vineyard, But Traditionally All Harvested and Fermented Together.
  • Mixed Black Vineyard Older Term Used For Old Vine Vineyards Mixed With Mostly Unknown Grape Varieties.

HISTORY- ~Back-Story of Field Blends~

  • Field Blends Dates Back to European Immigrate Who Came to California From Old World Countries. Accompanied With Their Determination to Strike it Rich For Gold Were Bunches of Vine Cutting to Start Vineyards In the New World. Not Knowing They Planted All Their Cutting Together In Fields and Hoped For the Best. It Wasn’t Until the Last Decades That the Wine Industry Has Done DNA. Profiling to Figure Out Exactly What Varietals Make Up These Field Blends.
  • VITICULTURE These Mixed Black or Field Blend Vineyards Where Planted For a Reason and Not by Chance. During the Late 1800’s When the Majority of These Historical Vineyards Where Planted There Where 4 Major Red Grape Varieties That Made Up the Majority of the Vineyards.
    • Zinfandel- Brings Fruitiness and Ripeness
    • Petit Sirah- Brings Tannins and Color
    • Alicante Bouschet- Bings Color
    • Carignan- Brings Acidity, and Lower PH.
  • Unfortunately Grape Growers In the 1800’s Didn’t Write Down Or State the Rational Behind Planting Field Blends and For the Most Part Today We Speculate the Reason Why They Where Planted as So.

Old Italians Didn’t Plant Vineyards They Planted a Wine.

    • Ridge, Lytton Springs     @Dry Creek
    • Gemischter Satz     @Vienna
    • Rossi Vineyard     @St. Helena
    • Stags Leap Winery     @Stags Leap
    • Alegria Vineyard     @Russian River Valley
    • Crete         @Greece
    • Biezo DO.     @Spain
  • CLARETE- Traditional Light/ Fresh Wine.
    • +BLEND/+25% Red Grapes Fermented With Wine Grapes. Often Field Blends Picked Early to Retain Acidity.
    • Pale to Darker Depending On Maceration Time. Sometimes Aged On Lees In Barrels.

APPELLATION BLEND/ Cuvee- A Blend of Wines That Are Sourced From Various Vineyards Across and Single Appellation.


  • In USA. Varietal Needs to Be 75% of One Type of Grape, Europe 80%, Argentina 85%.

SOLERA BLENDING SYSTEM Fractional Blending System

  • Beneficial to Maintaining Consistency of Wine by Blending Between Multiple Vintages Over Time. Solera Blending Makes Wines Homogeneous and Produces a Wine That Lack Vintage Variation.
    • Criadera- Levels of Solera System Stacked On Top of Each Other.
  • HISTORY Originated In Jerez, Spain, Solera Blending Using Racking or Gravity to Blend Multiple Years Barrels Seamlessly Over Time. First Barrel is Filled With Wine of the Current Vintage, Subsequent Years/ Tiers/ Criadera Barrels Placed Above the First Barrel, When Wine is Drawn From Bottom Barrel It’s Refreshes With Younger Wine From Next Barrel Above.
    • Brandy de Jerez
    • Sherry
    • Madeira
    • Fortified Wines/ Malaga, Montilla
    • Liqueur Muscat & Liqueur Tokay of Australia
    • Fondillon, Spain/ Valencia, Alicante
    • Vernaccia di Oristano DOC., Sardinia, Italy
  • **Refer to WINE STYLES/ Aging Wine For Detailed Information.

I Like Blends Because They Add to the Overall Complexity of a Wine.

I Don’t Like Blends Because They Hide the Varietal Typicity That I’m Looking For In a Wine/ Grape.


BORDEAUX      @FranceEntre-Deux-Mers

  • WHITE= Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Muscadelle
  • GEOGRAPHYCOUNTRY-France, REGION-South-West France, REGION-Bordeaux
    • LATITUDE: 44.8° N
  • *Refer to FRANCE/ Bordeaux For Additional Information On White Bordeaux Blends.

CAVA DO.     @SpainSant Sadurni d’Anoia

  • BLANCO= Macabeo, Parellada, Xarello, Chardonnay, Subirat
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNRY-Spain, REGION-Catalunya, LATITUDE: 41.3° N
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous
  • VITICULTURE- 33,000haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Agusti Torello Mata, Cava Guilera, Codorniu, Frexinet, Gramona, Juve & Camps, Pere Ventura, Raventos, Recaredo, Segura Viudas, Serra Cristalino, Sumarroca, Vin el Cep
  • VINICULTURE- Cava- All, SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional,  -Espumante Isn’t Cava, the Name is Used For Any Sparking Wine Produced Outside of One of the Spains Cava Producing Area
    • Traditional Cava- (+AGED/ 9 mo.)
    • Cava Reserva- (+AGED/ 15 mo.)
    • Cava Grand Reserva- (+AGED/ +30 mo.)
    • Brut Nature- 0-3 G./ L., Extra Brut 0-6 G./ L., Brut 0-12 G./ L.
  • **Refer to SPAIN/ Catalunya For Additional Information On Cava.


  • BIANCO= Bosca(60%) +Vermentino, Albarola
  • GEOGRAFIA- COUNTRY-Italia, REGION-Liguria(South-East)
    • PROVINCIA-La Spezia, Southern Coast of Liguria
    • Sub-Zones- Costa da Posa Costa de Campu Costa de Sera
    • VILLAGES-Monterosso al Mare, Vernazza, Coniglia, Manarola, Riomaggiore
  • TOPOGRAFIA- Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraces, SLOPES/ Tuscan Apennines Mountains
    • On~Molinello~River~On~Coast/ Gulfo~Genoa/ Mare~Ligure~
  • VINICULTURE- Late Harvest,  Passito, +AGED/ 3 Years
    • Estate/ Produttore- Cantina Cinque Terre, La Ploenza, Sassarini,Terenzuola
    • UNESCO. WORLD HERITAGE SIGHT~ ~Cinque Terre(Cultural, Landscape, Vineyards)
  • *Refer to ITALY/ Liguria For Additional Information On Sciacchetra.


  • WHITE= Riesling, Gewurztraminor, Muscat, Pinot Gri
  • GEOGRAPHY- France(North-East), REGION-Alsace,  LATITUDE: 47.5°- 49° N
    • BORDERS-Germany(East)
  • VINICULTURE- General Blend of 2+ Noble Varietals
    • Varieties Can Be Vinified Together or Separately
    • Vintage Year Stated On Label is Not Mandatory
  • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ Edel…Meaning Noble & Zwicker…Meaning Blend
  • *Refer to FRANCE/ Alsace For Additional Information On Edelzwicker.

GENTIL D’ALSACE        @France, Alsace

  • WHITE= +50% Gewurztraminer/ Muscat/ Riesling
    • Remaining Blend Can Be of Pinot Blanc, Chasselas, or Sylvaner
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-France(North-East), REGION-Alsace
  • VINICULTURE- Blend of +50% Noble Varietals
  • CULTURE- Gentil is a Trademark of Hugel.
  • *Refer to FRANCE/ Alsace For Additional Information On Gentile.

GEMSCHTE SATZ  DAC.    @AustriaWien

  • WEIS= Gruner Veltliner, Neuburger, Rotgipfler, Sylvaner, Welschriesling, Zierfandler
    • International Chardonnay, Grauburgunder, Pinot Blanc, Riesling, Traminer, Weissburgunder
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Austria, REGION-Vienna(Greater)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly
    • Estate/ Producer- Edelmoser, Franz, Fritz Wieninger, Groiss, Hajszanneumann, Jutta Ambrsitsch, Mayer, R & A Pfaffl, Rotes Haus, Wien Cobenzi
    • Vineyards- Bisamberg, Nussberg, Rosengart
  • VINICULTURE- Field Blend, Grown In Various Villages Within the City Boundaries.  The Blends Are Made Up of At least 3 Different Grapes Planted, Harvested, Fermented Together.
    • Main Grape In Blend Can’t Exceed 50%, Third Highest Grape at Least 10%
    • ABV. +12.5%
  • HISTORY- The Different Grape Varieties Were Grown Together as a Form of Frost and Disease Insurance. Over Time the  Particular Mix Became a Hallmark of Each Producers.
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Wien Wien~ Members Committed to the Production of Gemischter Satz
  • *Refer to AUSTRIA/ Vienna For Additional Information On Gemschte Satz.

GUMPOLDSUIRCHEN DAC.     @Austria/Thermenregion

  • WEIS= Neuburger, Rotgipfler, Zierfandler
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Austria, REGION-Niederosterrich(South)
    • South-East of Vienna-City(15km.), @Hw.#E59
    • Sub-Zones- Gumpoldskirchen, Traiskirchen, Soob Bad, Voslau, Tattendorf, Leoberdorf
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling, SLOPES/ Anninger/ Eachkogel Mountains, +Alt. ?
  • VIITICULTURE- 2,500ha.
    • Estate/ Producer- Auer, Niegler, Fischer, Reinisch, Stadlmann
  • *Refer to AUSTRIA/ Thermenregion For Additional Information On Gumpoldsuirchen.

HERMITAGE      @FranceHermitage

  • WHITE= Marsanne, Rousanne, Viognier
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-France, REGION-Northern Rhone Valley(South-East)
  • *Refer to FRANCE/ Northern Rhone For Additional Information On Hermitage.

LEONE     @ItalySicilia Island

  • WHITE= Catarratto, Pinot Banco, Sauvignon Blanc
  • GEOGRAFIA COUNTRY-Italia(South-West), REGION-Sicily,  LATITUDE: 38.6° N
  • *Refer to ITALY/ Sicily For Additional Information On Leone.

MADEIRA     @Madeira Island

  • WHITE= Sercial, Bual, Malmsey, Verdelho
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Portugal, REGION-Islands of Madeira
  • *Refer to PORTUGAL/ Portugal Islands For Additional Information On Madeira Wine.

ORVIETO DOC.     @ItalyOrvieto

  • BIANCO= Procanico AKA=Trebbiano Toscano,  Malvasia, Canaiolo Bianco, Drupeggio, Grechetto, Verdello
  • GEOGRAFIA- COUNTRY-Italia, REGION-Lazio(North-East), (Laps)Umbria
  • TOPOGRAFIA- Rolling/ Hilly, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt. 100mt.- 500mt.
  • TERRE- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Tuffeau, Bedrock
  • VITICULTURA-  ? haPlanted
    • Estate/ Produttore- Barberani, Bigi, Decugnano die Barbi, Ruffino, Santa Cristina
  • VINICULTURA- Tranquillo(Dry, Semi-Sweet, Sweet),  Classico(+ABV., -Yeild)
      • Muffato,  Vendemmia Tardiva
  • *Refer to ITALY/ Lazio For Additional Information On Orvieto Wine.

RIOJA     @SpainRioja

  • BLANCO– Garnacha Blanca, Malvasia, Maturana Blanca, Tempranillo Blanco, Viura
    • International Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc (Can’t Exceed +49% of Blend)
  • GEOGRAPHY COUNTRY-Spain(North-Central), REGION-Rioja, Ebro River Valley
    • PROVINCES-Logrono, Haro, BORDERS-Navarra(North-East), LATITUDE: 42.3° N
  • RIOJA BLANCO BLEND AGING REQUIREMENTS- Traditionally American Oak is Used.
    • Crianza- +Aged/ Min. 6 Months In Barrel
    • Reserva- +Aged/ Min. 2 Years, Min. 6 Months In Barrel
    • Gran Reserva- +Aged/ Min.. 4 Years, Min. 1 Year In Barrel
  • **Refer to SPAIN/ Rioja For Detailed Information On Red Rioja Blends.

SOAVE      @Soave

  • WHITE= Garganega, Trebbiano, Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc
    • PROVINCIA-Verona, East of Verona-City(     km.)
  • *Refer to ITALY/ Veneto For Additional Information On Soave.

SHERRY      @Jerez

  • WHITE= Palomino, Muscatel, Pedro Ximenez
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Spain, REGION-Andalusia(South-West), On~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~
  • *Refer to SPAIN/ Andalusia For Additional Information On Sherry.


  • WHITE=   |
    • Gelati- +BLEND/ Tsolikauri, Tsitska, Krakhuna      @Samegrel
    • Pirosmani- +BLEND/ Tsolikauri(40%), Tsolikauri(60%)
    • Khvanchkara- +BLEND/ Alexandria & Mudzhuretuli   @Racha
    • Dimi- +BLEND/ Tsolikauri, Krakhuna     @Imereti
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Georgia(West), BORDERS-Abkhazia(North), Guria(South)
  • *Refer to GEORGIA For Additional Information On Georgia Blends.


AMARONE     @ItalyValpolicella

  • RED= Corvina, Molinara, Rondinella, Negrara
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Italy, REGION-Veneto, PROVINCIA-Verona(North-West)
    • VILLAGES-Fumane, Marano, Negrar, Pescantina, St. Ambrogio, San Pietro
  • **Refer to ITALY/ Veneto For Detailed Information On Amarone Blends.

BORDEAUX      @FranceMedoc

  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Malbec
  • GEOGRAPHY COUNTRY-France, REGION-South-West France, Bordeaux,  LATITUDE: 44.8° N
  • VINICULTURE- AKA= Claret In England, Meritage In California.
    • Attributes of the Bordeaux Blend
      • Cabernet Sauvignon- Brings– Pigmented, Tannin, Acidity, Structure, Aging
      • Merlot- Brings– Fleshy, Fruity, Texture, Fullness
      • Cabernet Franc- Brings– Spice, Red Fruit Aromas, Character, Aging
      • Petite Verdot- Brings– Color, Depth, Aromas, Complexity
      • Carmenere & Malbec- …Didn’t Take Well to Root-Stock, Led to Decline.
  • **Refer to FRANCE/ Bordeaux For Detailed Information On Red Bordeaux Blends.

BULLS BLOOD      @Hungary

  • RED= Kadarka, Kekfrondos, Kekoporto, Blauburger
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Hungary, REGION-Upper-Hungary, North-East of Budapest-City(100km.)
  • VINICULTURE- Egri Bikaver AKA=Bulls Blood
    • Usually a Blend of All Eger Grapes But None More Than 50%, Usually 3.
  • **Refer to HUNGARY For Detailed Information On Bulls Blood.

CAPE BLEND     @South AfricaWestern Cape

  • RED= Pinotage, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-South Africa, Western Cape, In Coastal Region
  • **Refer to SOUTH AFRICA/ Cape Town For Detailed Information On Cape Blends.

CHIANTI DOCG.    @ItalyFlorence

  • ROSSO= Sangiovese Grosso Clone” 75%- 100% +Canaiolo 10%, and Up to 20%, Abrusco, Ciliegiolo
    • InternationaleCabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah
  • GEOGRAFIA- COUNTY-Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior)
    • PROVINCIA-Arezzo/ Florence/ Pisa/ Pistoia, Prato/ Siena
    • COMMUNES-Arezzo 19, Firenze 32, Prato 3, Pisa 16, Pistoia 7, Siena 24
  • TOPOGRAFIA- Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous
  • VITICULTURA- 4,100 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURA- Chianti(Not Released Untill March 1st.)
    • Reserva(+AGED/ 2 Years),  Superiore(+12% ABV.)
    • Includes 8 Sub-Zones That Are Permitted to Attach Their Name On Label.
  • STORIA- Baron Risasoli Gets Credit for Original Chianti Blend.
    • 1716 @Chianti Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany Officially Delimited the Chianti Production Zone Defining the Boundaries Pertaining to the Original Chianti Zone.
    • 1850’s @Chianti Sangiovese & Trebbiano 75%- 90% +Malvasia/ Canaiolo to 15%, Passito Added to Secondary Fermentation.
    • 1967 @Original DOC. (Sangiovese +Malvasia, Trebbiano 10%- 30%)
  • STORIA/ Back-Story
    • The 200 Years After the 1716 Creation of Chianti Everyone In Tuscany Started to Call Their Wine Chianti. After a Century of Producers Making Watered Down, Massed Produced Chianti Wine” (Usually +Yield Wines In Fiasco Bottles) Lead to the Creation of the Cortorium of Chianti Producers. This Group Came Together to Do Something About it. This Mass Produced Wine Didn’t Come From the Original Hills of Tuscany With the Coveted Soils at Higher Evaluation. So Become the Chianti Classico Zone, and With it the Nero Gallo(Black Roster)- Representing the Older Genuine, Original Chianti Classico Area Centered Around the Hills of Castelina, Greve, Gaiole, and Radda
    • Nero Gallo Was a Symbol of the Ancient Military League That Protected Florence/ Chianti In Med-Evil Times.
    • The Bando(Proclamation) by Cosimo lll de’Medici Defined the Boundaries of Production for the Chianti Region. This Represented the the First Formal Piece of Legislation In the History of Wine That an Area Formally Set Its Geographic Boundaries.
    • BOTTLE SHAPES– ~Fiasco~ Round/ Straw-Wrapped Bottle with History Dating Back to 1500’s.Sala-Italian Swamp Weed Used to Protect Handblown Bottle During Transportation.
  • **Refer to ITALY/ Tuscany For Detailed Information On Chianti Wine.

COTES Du RHONE/ GSM.       @FranceSouthern Rhone

  • RED= Grenache, Syrah, Mourvedre
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-France, REGION-Southern Rhone Valley,
    • Plus a Couple Satellite/ Non-ContiguousAreas South of St.Peray, Multi-Appellation
    • Attributes of the GSM. Blend
      • Grenache- Brings– Fruit, Juiciness, Acidity, Higher In ABV., Pale In Color
      • Syrah- Brings– Color/Darkness, Tannin, Spice, Minerality, Lower In Acidity
      • Mourvedre- Brings– Tannin, Structure, Earthiness, Ageworthiness
  • **Refer to FRANCE/ Southern Rhone For Detailed Information On Rhone Blends.

DOLE/ GORDON      @SwitzerlandValais

  • RED= Pinot Noir, Gamay
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Switzerland, REGION-Suisse Romande
    • CANTON-Valais, +Satellite Appelation, North of Italy
    • Sub-Zones- Bas-Valais, Haut-Valais, Right Bank, Valais Central
    • COMMUNES-(65)-Ardon, Balavaud, Bernune, Beudod, Chamoson, Conthey, Corbassiere, Flanthey, Fully, Leuk-Loeche, Leytron, Martigny, Saint-Leonard, Salgesh, Sierre, Sion,  Uvrier, Vetroz, Visp/ Viege Vispertermine
  • **Refer to SWITZERLAND/ Suisse Romande For Detailed Information On Dole/ Gordon Blends.

RIOJA     @SpainRioja

  • RED= Tempranillo, Garnacha, Graciano
  • GEOGRAPHY COUNTRY-Spain(North-Central), REGION-Rioja, Ebro River Valley
    • LATITUDE: 42.3° N
    • PROVINCES-Logrono, Haro, BORDERS-Navarra(North-East)
  • **Refer to SPAIN/ Rioja For Detailed Information On Red Rioja Blends.

PORT     @PortugalDuoro Valley

  • RED= Tinta Barroca, Coa, Roriz, Touriga Franco, Nacional
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Portugal(North), REGION-Duriense IG., In Douro River Valley(East)
    • LATITUDE: Porto: 41.1° N  |    Douro River Valley: 41.2° N
  • **Refer to PORTUGAL/ Duriense For Detailed Information On Port Wine.

PRIORAT     @SpainPriorat

  • RED= Garnacha, Mazuelo, Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Spain, REGION-Catalunya(South-West), In Montsant DO.
    • Sub-Zones- Bellmunt del Priorat, Escaladei,  Gratallops, La Morera de Montsant, La Vilella Baixa, El Lloar, Poboleda,  Porrera, Solanes del Molar, Torroja del Proirat, Masos de Falset, La Vilella Alta
  • **Refer to SPAIN/ Catalunya For Detailed Information On Priorat Blends.

SUPER TUSCAN     @ItlayMeremma

  • RED= Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah
  • HISTORY- Blends Original Were Wines With Minority of Bordeaux Varietals (Cabernet Franc/ Cabernet Sauvignon/ Merlot) Grown On Tuscan Coast Blended With Majority of Sangiovese. Originally the Term Super Tuscan Was Rarly Used In Italy, But Widely Used In International Markets.
  • **Refer to ITALY/ Tuscany For Detailed Information On Super Tuscan Blends.


CHATEANEUF-Du-PAPE    @FranceChateaneuf-Du Pape

  • BLANC= Boubelenc, Clairette, Picpoul, Picardin, Rousanne
  • ROUGE= Grenache, Syrah, Mourvedre, Cinsaut, Counoise, Muscardin, Terret Noir, Vaccarese
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-France, REGION-Southern Rhone Valley, North of Avignon-City(15km.)
    • COMMUNES-Bedarrides, Chateaneuf du-Pape, Couthezon, Orange, Sorgues
  • **Refer to FRANCE/ Southern Rhone For Detailed Information On Chateaneuf-du Pape Blends.

COTE ROTIE     @FranceCote Rotie

  • WHITE= Viognier    |   RED= Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-France, REGION-Northern Rhone Valley(North)
    • BORDERS-Condrieu AOC.(South-East), CITIES-Ampuis, Verenay
  • **Refer to FRANCE/ Northern Rhone For Detailed Information On Cote Rotie Blends.

UHOUDLER     @AutriaSudburgenland

  • WHITE= Concord, Isabella, Elvira, Clinton, Ripadella, Noah
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Austria(East), REGION-Burgenland(South)
  • VINICULTURE- Uhoudler- Bitter Rose Wine Produced From Hybrid Grapes…
    • ROT= Concord, Isabella, Elvira, Clinton, Ripadella, Noah
    • Estate/ Producer- Krutzer, Uwe Schiefer, Wachter-Wiesler
  • **Refer to AUSTRIA/ Sudburgenland For Detailed Information On Uhoudler Blends.

CHAMPAGNE     @FranceChampagne

  • WHITE= Chardonnay   |   RED= Pinot Noir, Pinot Munieur
    • Attributes of the Champagne Blend
      • Chardonnay- Brings– Pomaceous Fruit, Finesse, Floral, Minerality
      • Pinot Noir- Brings– Red Fruits, Structure
      • Pinot Meunier- Brings– Body, Fruit
  • **Refer to FRANCE/ Champagne Wine For Detailed Information On Champagne Blends.

CHIANTIHistorical    @ItalyFlorence

  • GEOGRAFIACOUNTRY– Italia, REGION-Toscana(Interior)
    • PROVINCIA-Arezzo/ Florence/ Pisa/ Pistoia, Prato/ Siena
    • 1850’s @Chianti Sangiovese & Trebbiano 75%- 90% +Malvasia/ Canaiolo to 15%, Passito Added to Secondary Fermentation
    • 1967 @Chianti Original DOC. (Sangiovese +Malvasia, Trebbiano 10%- 30%)
  • **Refer to ITALY/ Tuscany For Detailed Information On Historical Chianti Blends.

CLARETE     @Spain

  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Spain, REGION-Rioja, Castile & Leon
  • VINICULTURE- Traditional Light/ Fresh Wine.  +BLEND/+25% Red Grapes Fermented With Wine Grapes.
    • Often Field Blends Picked Early to Retain Acidity.
    • Pale to Darker Depending On Maceration Time. Sometimes Aged On Lees In Barrels.
  • **Refer to WINE SPAIN/ Rioja, Castile & Leon For Detailed Information On Clarete Blends.

**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Detailed On Scholarly Works Referenced.