BOTRYTIS CINEREA FUCKELIANA Naturally Occurring Mold/ Fungus That Grows or is Induced to Attack and Colonize On the Grapes.

BOTRYTIZED- Wine Produced From Grapes Effected With Botrytis.

  • Botrytis Grows On the Skins of Grapes.  This Mold Shoots Roots Through the Skin and Into the Grape.  These Holes Compromises the Grape and Let Tiny Amounts of Water to Evaporate and Dehydrates the Grape and  Skins Leaving Shrivels Grapes With Increased Sugar, Acid and Concentration of Minerals, Increasing Flavors Compounds, Increasing Glycerol. Effected Bunches Look Withered, Dark, Moldy, Fuzzy, Golden In Color. Botrytized Grapes Have Higher Esterase Activity and Possess More Unique Scents Then Healthy Grapes, This is Due to the Contribution of Enzymes of Fungal Origin.
  • CLIMATE- Likes Humid, Hot Meso-Climates. Botrytis Appears Late Summer or Early In Fall Morning, High Humidity/ Moist/ Hot Afternoon, Proximity to Water.
    • Hungary- Aszusodas(Aszu)  |   French- Pourriture Noble
    • English- Noble Rot   |   Italy- Muffa Noble
    • Germany- Edelfaule    |   Australia- Nobly Rotten
    • White= Chenin Blanc, Devin, Furmint, Gewurztraminer, Harslevelu, Koverszolo, Muller Thurgua, Muscat, Muscadelle, Optima, Ortega, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Scheurebe, Welschriesling, Zeta

VITICULTURE- Botrytis Loves; Compact Bunches, +Sugar Content, Thin Skin, Humid Climates.  Botrytis Effected Bunches Sometimes Need 3- 6 Passes/ Tries Through the Vineyard to Complete Harvest.  There is an Optimal Botrytis Ripeness Level. If Botrytis Effected Grapes Stay On the Vine For Too Long They Can Become Over Consumed and Lose Their Optimal Flavors.

  • CHALLENGESBenevolent vs. Malevolent Forms of Botrytis. If Not Wanted, the Uncontrolled Spread of Botrytis is Called Grey Rot and Can Be Challenging. Rain Late In Summer Before Harvest, and High Humidity Are Major Contributor to Unwanted Spreading of Botrytis. The Fungus Negatively Effects Red Varietals, Damages Pigments, Produces Rot and Off-Odors.
    • To Prevent Unwanted Botrytis a Viticultural Action Plan Need to Be In Place. This Can Includes Proper Canopy Management and Use of Sprays.
    • Some Varietals Produce Phytoalexins Which Inhibits Fungus or Have Looser Bunches.

VINICULTURE- Fermented for 2 to 3 Weeks, Then +AGED/ Sur Lees/ 16- 18 Months.

    • Sight: Clear/ Golden
    • Aroma: Saffron, Ginger, Honey, Roses, Boiled Cabbage
    • Palate: Sweet/ +BODY, Apricot, Beeswax, Vanilla, Carmel
    • Structure: Medi Tannins., +ABV., Medi+Acid
      • PAIRING… Foie Gras, Roasted Duck, Cheese Cake
      • CHEESE… Blue, Parmigiano, Soft Cheese
      • SERVING… Serve Chilled

Botrytized Regions & Wines of the World

**Refer to OLD WORLD/ NEW WORLD/ Locations For Detailed Information On These.

COTEAUX DE L’AUBANCE AOC.     @Brissac-Quince

  • BLANC= Pineau de la Loire AKA=Chenin Blanc   |    ROUGE= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, Loire Valley(West-Central), Anjou-Saumur(North-Central)
    • South of Angers-City(1 km.), (Laps)Anjou Villages AOC., COMMUNES-(10)-
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly, On~Aubance~River~Tributary~Layon~River~
    • Number of Small Slopes, Facing Different Directions.
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Gravel
  • VITICULTURE- 220 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE- Botrytis (Selection de Grains Nobles)
    • Estate/ Producers- Avrille, Bablut, Haute Perche, Montigilet, Prince


  • BLANC= Pineau de la Loire AKA=Chenin Blanc
  • GEOGRAPHY- Loire Valley, Anjou-Saumur, In Coteaux du Layon AOC.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Flat/ Rolling, On~Loire~River~(South)
  • VITICULTURE- 40 ha.   |  VINICULTURE- Botrytis
    • Estate/ Producers- Baumard, Forges, L’Echarderie, La Roche Moreau

SAUTERNES AOC.     @Sauternes

  • BLANC= Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle, Sauvignon Gris
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, South-West, REGION-Bordeaux, DEPARTMENT-Gironde
    • In Grave(South), BORDERS-Cerons AOC.
    • COMMUNES-Barsac, Bommes, Fargues, Preignac, Sauternes
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling, On~Ciron/ Garonne~Rivers~(Confluence)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Gravel/ Pebbles On Limestone With Clay Veins
  • CLIMATE- Maritime/ Atlantic
    • Misty, Humid Mornings, Hot Afternoons.  Humid, Hot Meso-Climates.
    • Botrytis Appears Late Summer or Early In Fall Morning, High Humidity/ Moist/ Hot Afternoon, Proximity to Water.
  • VITICULTURE- 2,000ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURE- Dry to Botrytis, +13% ABV., Dry Sauternes is Sold as Bordeaux Blanc
    • Estate/ Producers- 1st.Chateau d’ Yquem, De l’Alliance, La Clotte-Cazalis, De Fargues, Filhot, Guiraud, Haut-Peyraguey, Lafaurie-Peyraguey, Rayne-Vigneau, Rabaud-Promis, Rieussec, Sigalas-Rabaud, Suduiraut, La Tour Blanche
    • **Refer to MAKING WINE SWEET/ Botrytis For Detailed Information.

MONBAZILLAC AOC.      @Monbazillac

  • BLANC= Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle
  • GEOGRAPHY- South-West France, In Cotes de Bergerac AOC.(Central-Interior)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Confluence~of~Dordogne/ Gardonette~River~(Left Bank)
  • SOILS- MetamorphicSedimentary, Limestone, Clay, Molasse Clay
  • CLIMATE- Maritime
  • VITICULTURE- 2,000 ha.,  CHALLENGES– Late Summer/ Fall Humidity
    • All Hand Harvested/ Multiple Tries Required
  • VINICULTURE- Botrytis(Labeled Under Monbazillac AOC.), Dry Wine Labeled Under Bergerac AOC.
    • Estate/ Producers- Ancienne Cure L’Abbaye, Barouillet, Belingard, Le Fage, Grande Maison, Septy,  Tirecul-la-Graviere

TROCKENBEERENAUSLESE TBA. (Dried Selected Harvest of Berries) 150°- 154°
Grapes Individually Selected, Fully Affected and Shriveled by Botrytis

  • WEIS= Riesling, Scheurebe, Ortega, Welschriesling, Gewurztraminer
  • GEOGRAPHY-  Germany, Mosel/ Johannisberg
  • TOPOGRAPHY- HillyOn~Mosel~River~
  • VINICULTURE After Fermentation, TBA.’s Rarely Have More Than 8% ABV.
    • Will Always Contain Some Residual Sugar, For Its Unable to Ferment Completely Dry.
    • Edelfaule- German Term of Botrytis.


  • BLANC= Riesling, Gewurztraminor, Pinot Gri
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, Alsace
  • TOPOGRAPHY Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly, On~Rhine~River~
    • Estate/ Producers-


  • WEIS= Bouvier, Muscat Ottonel, Welschriesling
  • GEOGRAPHY- Austria(Balaton), Rust
  • TOPOGRAPHY Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly, On~Neusiedlesee~Lake~
    • Estate/ Producers-

TOKAJ-HEGYALJA DHC.     @Sarospatak

  • WHITE= Furmint 65%, Harslevelu 30%, Kabar, Koverszolo, Sargamuskotaly AKA=Muscat Blanc Petite Grains, Zeta AKA=Oremus
  • RED= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY- Hungary(North-East), Upper-Hungary(North-East)
    • North-East of Budapest-City(     km.), @Hw.#37/ 39
    • VILLAGES-(27)- Bodrogkeresztur, Bodrogkisfalud, Szegi, Tarcal, Tokaj
    • Tokaj Hill-
      • Vineyards– Bajusz, Barat, Bartus, Deak, dobo, Elohegy, Farkas, Gatya, Het-Szolo, Kassal, Kis-Garai, Hitvany, Izdenczi, Lencses, Lestar, Lonyal, Mandulas, Marias, Mezes-Maly, Mogyoros, Nagys-Szolo, Ovia, Szarvas, Pecsi, Perocz, Peter Deak, Serfozo, Sohajo, Szarvas, Szentkereszt, Szil-Volga, Teiekl, Terezia, Thurzo,  Zafir
    • Mad Basin-
      • Vineyards– Betsek, Birsalmas, Bojtak, Dorgo, Galambos, Harcsa, Herceg, Hintos, His-Hegyak, Hegymegi, Hosszu-kotelrk, Jonap, Juharos, Kapi, Kerek-Tolgyes, Kis-Hegyak, Koldu, Koves-Hegy, Kovesd, Nagy, Nyulaszo, Makkos, Nyergesek, Nyulaszo, Okortanc, Padi-Hegy, Percza, Pipiske, Repas, Sajgo, Sarkad, Suba, Szent-Tamas, Uragya, Varoldal, Vimany, Zomborka
    • Sator Hill-                                Szava Hill-
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly
    • SLOPES/ Sheltered by Carpathian Mountians, +Alt. 150mt.- 400mt.
    • SLOPES/ Zemplen Hills, Highly Volcanic Range In the Carpathian Mountains
    • On~Tisza/ Bodrog~Rivers~Tributary~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic
    • Sedimentary, Influence by Ancient Dried Up Pannon Sea.
    • Volcanic(Rhyolite, Rhyodacite, Dacite, Andesite), From Upper Miocene Period, Loess
      • Nyirok(Detrital Andesite & Rhyolite Tuff/ Clay Mixed With Broken-Down Rock)
      • Yellow Earth(Formed by Loess)
      • Rock Flour(Silicified Rocks and Pumice)
      • Hot Water Springs, Deposited Alkalis(Potassium, Sodium), and Trace Elements On the Surface, Enriching Pulverized Volcanic Rock
  • VITICULTURE- 5,600 haPlanted
    • 487 Named Crus/ 52 Considered Grand Cru, First Classified In 1937, Consisting of 1st. Growth, 2nd. Growth, & 3rd. Growth
      • 1/3 is Dry Wine, 2/3 is Sweet Wine.  Of the 2/3 Sweet Wine, 1/2 is That is Botrytis Effected and 1/2 of That is Late Harvest
    • CHALLENGES– Cool Bodrog River and Warmer Tisza Rivers Converge at the Town of Tokaj.  The Morning Fog, Mist and Wetness Combined With the Hot Afternoon Moisture Lead to High Humidity and Botrytis.  Botrytis is Potentially Benevolent and Unwanted In Certain Regions of the World But Encouraged In Tokaj and Great For Producing Tokaj Aszu.
    • Strict Pruning Leads to Limited Yields and Maximization of the Spread of Botrytis
    • Harvest On Many Tries Into November, Aszu Berries Dried and Held In Container Until Commencement of Vinification Process.
    • Botrytis Berry Lose Up to 80% of Their Size
    • Some Years Botrytis Outbreak is Minimal and Not Wide Spread. These Years There’s Not Quality/ Quantity Enough to Make Vintage.
  • VINICULTURE- The Region of Tokaj Produces Dry & Sweet Wines.
    • TOKAJ ASZU– Botrytis Grapes Made Into Paste, Added to Must, Resulting Juice is Slow Fermented, +AGED/ -Only 5% of Country Production
    • PROCESS– Aszu Berries Mixed With Pre-Made Still Wine or Fermenting Grape Must, to Extract Essence Through Skin Contact. Proportion of Still Wine to Aszu Berries is Important.
    • Puttonyos– (Baskets) Traditionally Indicates the Number of Puttonyos (Baskets) of Sweet Aszu Berries That Were Added to the Base Wine.
    • Now It’s Measured In Grams of Residual Sugar.Unit Given to State the Measure of Sweetness or Sugar Level of Hungarian Botryis Wine. (From 1-6)
    • BARRELS– Gonci(136 Liters), Szerednyei(220 Liters)
    • FLOR– Szamorodni Szaraz, Name For Flor is Hartya AKA=Film
      • Matures In Barrels Under Flor Layer For 3-5 Years In Humid Cellars of Over 85% Humidity Before Bottling, Dry Flor Wine Produced From Botrytis Grapes
      • Estate/ Producers- Samuel Tinon
  • Estates/ Producers- Barta(10ha.), Basilicus(7ha.), Beres(45ha.), Dereszla, Disznoko,
    • Erzsebet(9ha.), Grand Tokaj, Grof Degenfeld(34ha.), Holdvolgy(26ha.), Kiralyudvar(8ha.), Kvaszinger, Mad Wines, Majoros, Olaszliszka, Patricius, Royal Tokaji Wine Company(100ha.), Somloi Vandor, Szent Tamas

TOKAJ     @Slovakia

  • WHITE= Furmit, Koverszolo, Lipovina AKA=Harslevelu, Zeta
    • International Muskat Zity AKA=Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
  • GEOGRAPHY- Slovakia(SouthEast), @Hw.#75
    • VILLAGES-(3)- Bara, Mala Trna, Slovenske Nove Mesto, Vinicky
    • BORDERS-Hungary(South-West), Vychodoslovenska(East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling, On~Tisza/ Bodrog~Rivers~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Clay, Loess
  • VITICULTURE- 565 ha. Planted,   Botrytis
    • Estate/ Producers- Macik, Tokay & Co, In Vino Tokay, Zlaty Strapec
  • CULTURE-  ~Treaty of Trianon~ 1920
    • Czecchoslovakia(Now Slovakia) Split From Hungary and the Vineyards of Tokaji Were at the Middle of it All.


  • BIANCO= Malvasia Bianco di Candia or Malvasia del Lazio AKA=Malvasia puntinata(+70%), Bellone, Bombino Bianco, Trebbiano
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Lazio(Interior), PROVINCIA-Roma, South-East of Roma-City(    km.)
  • TOPOGRAFIA- Flat/ Rolling/ Plain, SLOPES/ Colli Albani
    • BORDERS-Marino DOC.(West)
  • VINICULTURE- Botrytis (Muffa Nobile), RS. +35 G./ L.
    • Late Harvest(Harvest Usually Takes 2 Tries, the 1 st./ Capata, the Grapes Around the Spur Cane, and the 2nd., the Remaining Clusters. The 2nd. Harvest Allows For the Remain Grapes to Fully Over-Ripen. The 3rd. Harvest Allows For Grape That Have Hopefully Effected by Botrytis.
    • Estate/ Produttore- Costantini Villa Simone, Fontana Candida, Poggio le Volpi, Scanctis Diciassette


  • BIANCO= Moscato(100%)
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Piemonte, PROVINCIA-Asti
  • TOPOGRAFIA- Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous, On~Bormida~River~
  • VITICULTURA- ? ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURA- Botrytis,  Late Harvest(Harvest After September 20th.),  Passito
    • Estate/ Produttore- Borgo Maragliano, Forteto della Luja Piasa, Isolabella della Croce

COTNARI DOC.     @Romania

  • WHITE= Grasa, Feteasca Alb, Fincus, Tamaioasa Romanesca, Feteasca, Francusa
  • GEOGRAPHY- Romania, In Moldavia DOC.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- RollingOn~Cotnari~River~Tributary~Rascana River~
  • VINICULTURE- Sparkling,  Botrytis
    • Estates/ Producers– Cotnari, Cucuteni, Grumusica

CURICO VALLEY DO.      @Curico

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Sauvignon Blanc, Sauvignon Vert AKA=Friulano, Semillon
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Carignan, Carmenere, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Petite Syrah, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY- Chile, REGION-Central Valley(Central), LATITUDE: 35°S
    • In Rapel Valley DO.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Curico)
    • On~Mataquito/ Teno/ Lontue/ Claro~Rio~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Alluvial, Clay, Sand, Granite
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean, RAIN SHADOW EFFECT/ Coastal Range
  • VITICULTURE- 1,484 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE- Botrytis…Gewurztraminor, Riesling, Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc
    • Estate/ Producers- Altacima, Aresti, (350ha.), Torres(Multi-National), Montes, San Pedro, Vina Requingua
    • Vineyards- Micaela, Penaflor, La Reserva
    • PIONEERS~ ~Miguel Torres~ Founder of Torres Winery In Penedes and Chile.
    • VALLE Del LONTUEDistrict– (Molina, Sagrada Familia)
      • Geography- Curico Valley
    • VALLE Del TENODistrict– (Rauco, Romeral, Vichuquen)
      • Geography- Curico Valley

STELLENBOSCHDistrict    @Stellenbosch

  • WHITE= Steen AKA=Chenin Blanc 17%, Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon
  • GEOGRAPHY- South Africa, “Western Cape”, Coastal Region(South),  LATITUDE: 33.9°S
    • East of Cape Town-City(45 km.), BORDERS-Cape Town District(West)
    • Sub-Zones- Jonkershoek Valley, Helderberg Basin
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous, +Alt. 200mt.- 400mt.
    • SLOPES/ Simonsberg Mountains(North), Hottentot Hollands Mountains(East)
      • Stellenbosch Mountain Peak(South), Helderberg Peak(South)
      • Hottentots Holland Mts., Jonkershoek Mts., Stellenboschberg Mts.
      • On~False Bay~(Near/ 5km.)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Decomposed Granite, Table Rock Sandstone
    • Sedimentary, Loam, Shale
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean With Maritime Micro-Climates
  • VITICULTURE- 15,252ha. Planted (35% White/ 65% Red)
    • CHALLENGES– Leaf Roll Virus
  • VINICULTURE- Botrytis/ Edelkeur, Noble Late Harvest
    • Estates/ Producers- Alto, Annandale, Bilton, Bredell’s, Ernie Els, Foothills, Glenelly, Kanonkop, Keermont, Ken Forrester, Meerlust, Morgenster, Peter Falke, Rudera, Rust en Vrede, Spotswood, Stellenrust, Thelema Mountain, Trafford, Vergelegen

CANADA / Botrytis

  • WHITE= Optima, Riesling
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, British Columbia, REGION– OkanaganValley
  • TOPOGRAPHY Rolling/ Hilly,  On~Okanagan~River~
    • Estate/ Producers

RIVERINA GI.      @Griffith

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Moscato, Riesling, Semillon, Vermentino
  • GEOGRAPHY- New South WalesState(South-Central), Big RiversZone
  • TOPOGRAPHY Flat/ Rolling, On~Lachlan/ Murrumbidgee~Rivers~
  • CLIMATE- Continental,  *Summers– Hot
  • VITICULTURE-   ? haPlanted
  • VITICULTURE- Late Harvest,  Botrytis
    • Estates/ Producers- Berton, Calabria Family, Casella, De Bortoli, Lillypilly, McWilliam’s, Nugan, Spotlight, Wagga Wagga, Warburn, Westend


  • WHITE= Pinot Gris 15%, Aligote, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Marsanne, Picpoul, Riesling, Roussane, Sauvigon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
  • GEOGRAPHY- Washington, In Columbia Valley AVA., @Hw.#82
    • (80 Miles Long & 20 Miles Wide), Multi-Appellation
    • Sub-Zones- Rattlesnake Hills AVA., Snipes Mountain AVA., Red Mountian AVA.
    • CITIES-Wapato, Zillah, Sunnyside, Proser
    • BORDERS-Ahtanum Ridge(North), Horse Heaven Hills AVA.(South)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Yakima), SLOPES/ ?, +Alt. 900ft.- 1,300ft., Anticline Range
    • On~Yakima/ Snake~Rivers~Tributary~Columbia~River~
    • GAP/ Selah(North), Union Gap(South)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Volcanic, Sedimentary, Alluvial, Wind-Loess
    • Silt, Loam Top Soil Over Stone
  • CLIMATE- Continental With Desert Influence
    • RAIN SHADOW EFFECT/ Snipes Mountain Range
  • VITICULTURE- 18,000 ac. Planted,  Botrytis(Influenced by Yakima River)
    • Estate/ Producers- Agate Field, Airfield, Beeman’s Backacres, Barnard Griffin, Black Wood, Bonair, Boshey, Cote Bonneville, Desert Hill, Gilbert Cellars, James Rain, Lip Stinger, Olsen, Oasis, Owen Roe
    • Vineyards- Boushey, Brother Copeland, Den Hoed, DuBrual, French Creek, Good Earth, Kestrel, Merchant, Otis(75ac.), Olsen, Phil Church, Red Willow, Rothrock, Two Blonds, Willard Farms(250ac.)


  • WHITE= Chardonnay
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, Napa/
  • TOPOGRAPHY- RollingOn~Napa~River~
    • Estate/ Producers– Rombauer

**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.