BOYRYTIS WINE


BOTRYTIS CINEREA FUCKELIANA Naturally Occurring Fungus That Grows or is Induced to Attack and Colonize On the Grapes.

BOTRYTIZED- Wine Produced From Grapes Effected With Botrytis.

  • Botrytis Compromises the Grape, Dehydrates the Skin Leaving Shrivels Grapes With Increased Sugar and Acid Levels, Concentration of Minerals, Increasing Flavors Compounds, Increasing Glycerol. Effected Bunches Look Withered, Dark, Moldy, Fuzzy, Golden In Color. Botrytized Grapes Have Higher Esterase Activity and Possess More Unique Scents Then Healthy Grapes, This is Due to the Contribution of Enzymes of Fungal Origin.
  • CLIMATE- Likes Humid, Hot Meso-Climates. Botrytis Appears Late Summer or Early In Fall Morning, High Humidity/ Moist/ Hot Afternoon, Proximity to Water.
  • BOTRYTIS AKA=
    • Hungary– Aszusodas(Aszu)              |   French– Pourriture Noble
    • English– Noble Rot                             |   Italy– Muffa Noble
    • Germany– Edelfaule                           |   Australia– Nobly Rotten
  • VARIETALS POSITIVELY EFFECTED BY BOTRYTIS
    • White= Chenin Blanc, Devin, Furmint, Gewurztraminer, Harslevelu, Koverszolo, Muscat, Muscadelle, Optima, Ortega, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Scheurebe, Welschriesling, Zeta

VITICULTURE– Botrytis Loves; Compact Bunches, +Sugar Content, -Skin, Humid Climates.  Botrytis Effected Bunches Sometimes Need 3-6 Passes In the Vineyard to Complete Harvest.  There is an Optimal Botrytis Ripeness Level. If Botrytis Effected Grapes Stay On the Vine For Too Long They Can Become “Over Consumed” and Lose Their Optimal Flavors.

  • CHALLENGES– ”Benevolent” vs. “Malevolent” Forms of Botrytis. If Not Wanted, the Uncontrolled Spread of Botrytis Can be Challenging. Rain Late In Summer Before Harvest, and High Humidity Are Major Contributor to Unwanted Spreading of Botrytis. The Fungus Negatively Effects Red Varietals, Damages Pigments, Produces Rot and Off-Odors.
    • To Prevent Unwanted Botrytis a Viticultural Action Plan Need to Be In Place. This Can Includes Proper Canopy Management and Use of Sprays.
    • Some Varietals Produce Phytoalexins Which Inhibits Fungus or Have Looser Bunches.

VINICULTURE- Fermented for 2 to 3 Weeks, Then +AGED/ Sur Lees/ 16-18 Months.

  • BOTRYTIS WINE EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear/ Golden
    • Aroma: Saffron, Ginger, Honey, Roses, Boiled Cabbage
    • Palate: Sweet/ +BODY, Apricot, Beeswax, Vanilla, Carmel
    • Structure: Medi Tans., +Abv., Medi+Acid

      • PAIRING…Foie Gras, Roasted Duck, Cheese Cake
      • CHEESE…Blue, Parmigiano, Soft Cheeses
      • SERVING…Serve Chilled

Botrytized Regions & Wines of the World

COTEAUX DE L’AUBANCE AOC.     @Brissac-Quince

  • BLANC= Pineau de la Loire AKA=Chenin Blanc   |    ROUGE= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, Loire Valley(West-Central), Anjou-Saumur(North-Central)
    • South of Angers-City(1 km.), (Laps)Anjou Villages AOC., COMMUNES– 10
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Aubance~River~Tributary~Layon~River~
    • Number of Small Slopes, Facing Different Directions
  • SOILS= ”Metamorphic”, Gravel
  • VITICULTURE– 220 haPlanted
  • VINICULTUREBotrytis (Selection de Grains Nobles)
    • Estate/ Producers– Avrille, Bablut, Haute Perche, Montigilet, Prince

QUARTS De CHAUME AOC.    @

  • BLANC= Pineau de la Loire AKA=Chenin Blanc
  • GEOGRAPHY– Loire Valley, Anjou-Saumur, In Coteaux du Layon AOC.
  • TOPOGRAPHY-“Flat/ Rolling”, On~Loire~River~(South)
  • VITICULTURE– 40 ha.   |  VINICULTUREBotrytis
    • Estate/ Producers– Baumard, Forges, L’Echarderie, La Roche Moreau

SAUTERNES AOC.     @Sauternes

  • BLANC= Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle, Sauvignon Gris
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, South-West, REGION-Bordeaux, DEPARTMENT– Gironde
    • In Grave(South), BORDERS: Cerons AOC.
    • COMMUNES– Barsac, Bommes, Fargues, Preignac, Sauternes
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Ciron/ Garonne~Rivers~(Confluence)
  • SOILS= “Metamorphic“, Sedimentary, Gravel/ Pebbles On Limestone With Clay Veins
  • CLIMATE= Maritime/ Atlantic
    • Misty, Humid Mornings, Hot Afternoons.  Humid, Hot Meso-Climates
    • Botrytis Appears Late Summer or Early In Fall Morning, High Humidity/ Moist/ Hot Afternoon, Proximity to Water.
  • VITICULTURE– 2,000ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURE– Dry to Botrytis, +Abv.+13%, Dry Sauternes is Sold as “Bordeaux Blanc”
    • Estate/ Producers1st.Chateau d’ Yquem, De l’Alliance, La Clotte-Cazalis, De Fargues, Filhot, Guiraud, Haut-Peyraguey, Lafaurie-Peyraguey, Rayne-Vigneau, Rabaud-Promis, Rieussec, Sigalas-Rabaud, Suduiraut, La Tour Blanche
    • **Refer to “MAKING WINE SWEET/ Botrytis” For Detailed Information

MONBAZILLAC AOC.      @Monbazillac

  • BLANC= Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle
  • GEOGRAPHY– South-West France, In Cotes de Bergerac AOC.(Central-Interior)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– Confluence~of~Dordogne/ Gardonette~River~(Left Bank)
  • SOILS= “Sedimentary”, Limestone, Clay, Molasse Clay
  • CLIMATE= “Maritime
  • VITICULTURE– 2,000 ha.,  CHALLENGES– Late Summer/ Fall Humidity
    • All Hand Harvested/ Multiple Tries Required
  • VINICULTURE– Botrytis(Labeled Under Monbazillac AOC.), Dry Wine Labeled Under Bergerac AOC.
    • Estate/ Producers– Ancienne Cure L’Abbaye, Barouillet, Belingard, Le Fage, Grande Maison, Septy,  Tirecul-la-Graviere

TROCKENBEERENAUSLESE TBA. (Dried Selected Harvest of Berries) 150*-154*
Grapes Individually Selected, Fully Affected and Shriveled by Botrytis

  • WEIS= Riesling, Scheurebe, Ortega, Welschriesling, Gewurztraminer
  • GEOGRAPHY–  Germany, Mosel/ Johannisberg
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Hilly”, On~Mosel~River~
  • VINICULTURE– After Fermentation, TBA.’s Rarely Have More Than 8% Abv.
    • Will Always Contain Some Residual Sugar, For Its Unable to Ferment Completely Dry
    • Edelfaule- German Term of Botrytis

SELECTION De GRAINS NOBLES

  • BLANC= Riesling, Gewurztraminor, Pinot Gri
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, Alsace
  • TOPOGRAPHY “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”On~Rhine~River~
    • Estate/ Producers-

TROCKENBEERENAUSLESEN

  • WEIS= Bouvier, Muscat Ottonel, Welschriesling
  • GEOGRAPHY– Austria(Balaton), Rust
  • TOPOGRAPHY “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly”, On~Neusiedlesee~Lake~
    • Estate/ Producers-

TOKAJ-HEGYALJA DHC.     @Sarospatak

  • WHITE= Furmint 65%, Harslevelu 30%, Kabar, Koverszolo, Sargamuskotaly AKA=Muscat Blanc Petite Grains, Zeta AKA=Oremus
  • RED= ?
  • GEOGRAPHY– Hungary(North-East), Upper-Hungary(North-East)
    • North-East of Budapest-City(     km.), @Hw.#37/ 39
    • VILLAGES– (27) Bodrogkeresztur, Bodrogkisfalud, Szegi, Tarcal, Tokaj
    • Tokaj Hill
      • Vineyards– Bajusz, Barat, Bartus, Deak, dobo, Elohegy, Farkas, Gatya, Het-Szolo, Kassal, Kis-Garai, Hitvany, Izdenczi, Lencses, Lestar, Lonyal, Mandulas, Marias, Mezes-Maly, Mogyoros, Nagys-Szolo, Ovia, Szarvas, Pecsi, Perocz, Peter Deak, Serfozo, Sohajo, Szarvas, Szentkereszt, Szil-Volga, Teiekl, Terezia, Thurzo,  Zafir
    • Mad Basin
      • Vineyards– Betsek, Birsalmas, Bojtak, Dorgo, Galambos, Harcsa, Herceg, Hintos, His-Hegyak, Hegymegi, Hosszu-kotelrk, Jonap, Juharos, Kapi, Kerek-Tolgyes, Kis-Hegyak, Koldu, Koves-Hegy, Kovesd, Nagy, Nyulaszo, Makkos, Nyergesek, Nyulaszo, Okortanc, Padi-Hegy, Percza, Pipiske, Repas, Sajgo, Sarkad, Suba, Szent-Tamas, Uragya, Varoldal, Vimany, Zomborka
    • Sator Hill–                                Szava Hill
  • TOPOGRAPHYSLOPES/ Sheltered by Carpathian Mountians, +Alt.150mt.-400mt.
    • SLOPES/ Zemplen Hills, Highly Volcanic Range In the Carpathian Mountains
    • On~Tisza/ Bodrog~Rivers~Tributary~
  • SOILS= “Metamorphic
    • Sedimentary“, Influence by Ancient Dried Up Pannon Sea
    • Volcanic“(Rhyolite, Rhyodacite, Dacite, Andesite), From Upper Miocene Period, Loess
      • “Nyirok”(Detrital Andesite & Rhyolite Tuff/ Clay Mixed With Broken-Down Rock)
      • “Yellow Earth”(Formed by Loess)
      • “Rock Flour”(Silicified Rocks and Pumice)
      • “Hot Water Springs”, Deposited Alkalis(Potassium, Sodium), and Trace Elements On the Surface, Enriching Pulverized Volcanic Rock
  • CLIMATE= “Continental+DIURNAL SHIFTS
  • VITICULTURE- 5,600 haPlanted
    • 487 Named Crus/ 52 Considered Grand Cru, First Classified In 1937, Consisting of 1st. Growth, 2nd. Growth, & 3rd. Growth
      • 1/3 is Dry Wine, 2/3 is Sweet Wine.  Of the 2/3 Sweet Wine, 1/2 is That is Botrytis Effected and 1/2 of That is Late Harvest
    • CHALLENGES– Cool Bodrog River and Warmer Tisza Rivers Converge at the Town of Tokaj.  The Morning Fog, Mist and Wetness Combined With the Hot Afternoon Moisture Lead to High Humidity and Botrytis.  Botrytis is Potentially Benevolent and Unwanted In Certain Regions of the World But Encouraged In Tokaj and Great For Producing Tokaj Aszu.
    • Strict Pruning Leads to Limited Yields and Maximization of the Spread of Botrytis
    • Harvest On Many Tries Into November, Aszu Berries Dried and Held In Container Until Commencement of Vinification Process.
    • Botrytis Berry Lose Up to 80% of Their Size
    • Some Years Botrytis Outbreak is Minimal and Not Wide Spread. These Years There’s Not Quality/ Quantity Enough to Make Vintage.
  • VINICULTURE– The Region of Tokaj Produces Dry & Sweet Wines
    • TOKAJ ASZU– Botrytis Grapes Made Into Paste, Added to Must, Resulting Juice is Slow Fermented, +AGED/ -Only 5% of Country Production
    • PROCESS– Aszu Berries Mixed With Pre-Made Still Wine or Fermenting Grape Must, to Extract Essence Through Skin Contact. Proportion of Still Wine to Aszu Berries is Important.
    • Puttonyos– (Baskets) Traditionally Indicates the Number of Puttonyos (Baskets) of Sweet Aszu Berries That Were Added to the Base Wine.
    • Now It’s Measured In Grams of Residual Sugar.Unit Given to State the Measure of Sweetness or Sugar Level of Hungarian Botryis Wine. (From 1-6)
    • BARRELS– Gonci(136 Liters), Szerednyei(220 Liters)
    • FLOR– Szamorodni Szaraz, Name For Flor is Hartya AKA=Film
      • Matures In Barrels Under Flor Layer For 3-5 Years In Humid Cellars of Over 85% Humidity Before Bottling, Dry Flor Wine Produced From Botrytis Grapes
      • -Estate/ Producers- Samuel Tinon
  • Estates/ Producers– Barta(10ha.), Basilicus(7ha.), Beres(45ha.), Dereszla, Disznoko,
    • Erzsebet(9ha.), Grand Tokaj, Grof Degenfeld(34ha.), Holdvolgy(26ha.), Kiralyudvar(8ha.), Kvaszinger, Mad Wines, Majoros, Olaszliszka, Patricius, Royal Tokaji Wine Company(100ha.), Somloi Vandor, Szent Tamas

TOKAJ     @Slovakia

  • WHITE= Furmit, Koverszolo, Lipovina AKA=Harslevelu, Zeta
    • -International- Muskat Zity AKA=Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
  • GEOGRAPHY– Slovakia(SouthEast), @Hw.#75
    • VILLAGES– (3) Bara, Mala Trna, Slovenske Nove Mesto, Vinicky
    • BORDERS– Hungary(South-West), Vychodoslovenska(East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Tisza/ Bodrog~Rivers~
  • SOILS= “Metamorphic”, ”Volcanic“, Clay, Loess
  • VITICULTURE-565 ha. Planted,   Botrytis
    • Estate/ Producers- Macik, Tokay & Co, In Vino Tokay, Zlaty Strapec
  • CULTURE– Treaty of Trianon- 1920, Czecchoslovakia(Now Slovakia) Split From Hungary and the Vineyards of Tokaji Were at the Middle of it All.

CANNELLINO Del FRASCATI DOCG.      @Frascati

  • BIANCO= Malvasia Bianco di Candia or Malvasia del Lazio AKA=Malvasia puntinata(+70%), Bellone, Bombino Bianco, Trebbiano
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, Lazio(Interior), PROVINCIA-Roma, South-East of Roma-City(    km.)
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Flat/ Rolling/ Plain”, SLOPES/ Colli Albani
    • BORDERS: Marino DOC.(West)
  • VINICULTUREBotrytis (Muffa Nobile), RS. +35 G./ L.
    • Late Harvest(Harvest Usually Takes 2 Tries, the 1 st./ Capata, the Grapes Around the Spur Cane, and the 2nd., the Remaining Clusters. The 2nd. Harvest Allows For the Remain Grapes to Fully Over-Ripen. The 3rd. Harvest Allows For Grape That Have Hopefully Effected by Botrytis.
    • Estate/ Produttore– Costantini Villa Simone, Fontana Candida, Poggio le Volpi, Scanctis Diciassette

LOAZZOLO DOC.    @Asti

  • BIANCO= Moscato(100%)
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, Piemonte, PROVINCIA-Asti
  • TOPOGRAFIA– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, On~Bormida~River~
  • VITICULTURA–  ? ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURABotrytis,  Late Harvest(Harvest After September 20th.),  Passito
    • Estate/ Produttore– Borgo Maragliano, Forteto della Luja Piasa, Isolabella della Croce

COTNARI DOC.     @Romania

  • WHITE= Grasa, Feteasca Alb, Fincus, Tamaioasa Romanesca, Feteasca, Francusa
  • GEOGRAPHY– Romania, In Moldavia DOC.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”, On~Cotnari~River~Tributary~Rascana River~
  • VINICULTURESparkling,  Botrytis
    • -Estates/ Producers- Cotnari, Cucuteni, Grumusica

CURICO VALLEY DO.      @Curico

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer, Sauvignon Blanc, Sauvignon Vert AKA=Friulano, Semillon
  • RED= Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Carignan, Carmenere, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Petite Syrah, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY– Chile, REGION-Central Valley(Central), LATITUDE: 35* ‘S’
    • In Rapel Valley DO.
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Curico)”
    • On~Mataquito/ Teno/ Lontue/ Claro~Rio~
  • SOILS= Metamorphic”, ”Volcanic”, ”Sedimentary”, Alluvial, Clay, Sand, Granite
  • CLIMATE=Mediterranean, RAIN SHADOW EFFECT– Coastal Range
  • VITICULTURE– 1,484 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE– Botrytis…Gewurztraminor, Riesling, Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc
    • -Estate/ Producers- Altacima, Aresti, (350ha.), Torres(Multi-National), Montes, San Pedro, Vina Requingua
    • Vineyards– Micaela, Penaflor, La Reserva
  • CULTURE
    • PIONEERS– ~Miguel Torres~ Founder of Torres Winery In Penedes and Chile
  • SUB-ZONES Of CURICO VALLEY
    • VALLE Del LONTUEDistrict– (Molina, Sagrada Familia)
      • Geography– Curico Valley
    • VALLE Del TENODistrict– (Rauco, Romeral, Vichuquen)
      • Geography– Curico Valley

STELLENBOSCHDistrict    @Stellenbosch

  • WHITE= Steen AKA=Chenin Blanc 17%, Chardonnay, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon
  • GEOGRAPHY– South Africa, “Western Cape”, Coastal Region(South),  LATITUDE: 33.9*’S’
    • East of Cape Town-City(45 km.), BORDERS: Cape Town District(West)
    • Sub-Zones- Jonkershoek Valley, Helderberg Basin
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, +Alt.200 mt.-400 mt.
    • SLOPES/ Simonsberg Mountains(North), Hottentot Hollands Mountains(East)
      • Stellenbosch Mountain Peak(South), Helderberg Peak(South)
      • Hottentots Holland Mts., Jonkershoek Mts., Stellenboschberg Mts.
      • On~False Bay~(Near/ 5km.)
  • SOILS= “Metamorphic“, Decomposed Granite, Table Rock Sandstone
    • Sedimentary“, Loam, Shale
  • CLIMATE= “Mediterranean” With “Maritime” Micro-Climates
  • VITICULTURE– 15,252ha. Planted (35% White/ 65% Red)
    • CHALLENGES– Leaf Roll Virus
  • VINICULTURE– Botrytis/ Edelkeur, Noble Late Harvest
    • Estates/ Producers– Alto, Annandale, Bilton, Bredell’s, Ernie Els, Foothills, Glenelly, Kanonkop, Keermont, Ken Forrester, Meerlust, Morgenster, Peter Falke, Rudera, Rust en Vrede, Spotswood, Stellenrust, Thelema Mountain, Trafford, Vergelegen

CANADA / Botrytis

  • WHITE= Optima, Riesling
  • GEOGRAPHY– Canada, British Columbia, REGION– OkanaganValley
  • TOPOGRAPHY “Rolling/ Hilly”,  On~Okanagan~River~
    • Estate/ Producers-

RIVERINA GI.      @Griffith

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Moscato, Riesling, Semillon, Vermentino
  • GEOGRAPHY– New South Wales”State”(South-Central), Big Rivers”Zone”
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Lachlan/ Murrumbidgee~Rivers~
  • CLIMATE= “Continental“,  Summers– Hot
  • VITICULTURE–   ? haPlanted
  • VITICULTURELate Harvest,  Botrytis
    • -Estates/ Producers– Berton, Calabria Family, Casella, De Bortoli, Lillypilly, McWilliam’s, Nugan, Spotlight, Wagga Wagga, Warburn, Westend

YAKIMA VALLEY AVA.     @Yakima

  • WHITE= Pinot Gris 15%, Aligote, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Marsanne, Picpoul, Riesling, Roussane, Sauvigon Blanc, Semillon, Viognier
  • GEOGRAPHY– Washington, In Columbia Valley AVA., @Hw.#82
    • (80 Miles Long & 20 Miles Wide),  “Multi-Appellation”
    • Sub-Zones Rattlesnake Hills AVA., Snipes Mountain AVA., Red Mountian AVA.
    • CITIES– Wapato, Zillah, Sunnyside, Proser
    • BORDERS: Ahtanum Ridge(North), Horse Heaven Hills AVA.(South)
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Yakima)”, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.900ft.-1,300ft., -Anticline Range
    • On~Yakima/ Snake~Rivers~Tributary~Columbia~River~
    • GAP/ Selah(North), Union Gap(South)
  • SOILS= “Metamorphic“, “Volcanic“, “Sedimentary“,  Alluvial, Wind-Loess
    • Silt, Loam Top Soil Over Stone
  • CLIMATE= “Continental” With “Desert” Influence
    • RAIN SHADOW EFFECT/ Snipes Mountain Range
  • VITICULTURE– 18,000 ac. Planted,  Botrytis(Influenced by Yakima River)
    • Estate/ Producers– Agate Field, Airfield, Beeman’s Backacres, Barnard Griffin, Black Wood, Bonair, Boshey, Cote Bonneville, Desert Hill, Gilbert Cellars, James Rain, Lip Stinger, Olsen, Oasis, Owen Roe
    • Vineyards– Boushey, Brother Copeland, Den Hoed, DuBrual, French Creek, Good Earth, Kestrel, Merchant, Otis(75ac.), Olsen, Phil Church, Red Willow, Rothrock, Two Blonds, Willard Farms(250ac.)

NAPA VALLEY AVA.

  • WHITE= Chardonnay
  • GEOGRAPHY– California, Napa/
  • TOPOGRAPHY– “Rolling”, On~Napa~River~
    • Estate/ Producers- Rombauer

**Refer to “@OLD WORLD/ @NEW WORLD” For Detailed Information




**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced