Placing Grapes In the Sun or In the Shade to Dry-Out, Leaving the Grape Concentrated With Sugars, Acid, Flavors.

  • History- Centuries Old Tradition/ Technique Used Since Egyptian and Greek Times of Drying Out/ Dehydrating Grapes Prior to Fermentation.

DRYING GRAPES On The VINE/ Passerillage(France) Twisting Stem, Depriving Sap, Leaving Grapes on Vine to Rasinate
DRYING GRAPES On RACKS/ Passito/ Appassimneto(Italy), Fletri(France)

  • VINICULTURE- Dehydrating Bunches On Bamboo Bottom Baskets For 6-Weeks to 4- Months. (Until at Least December 1) During This Appassimento Process the Grapes Go Through a Dramatic Transformation. Physically They Lose 30%- 40% of Their Weight Through Water Evaporation, This Changes the Skin-to-Juice-Ratio. Chemically, Acidity Decreases and Sugar Content Increases, (Changing the Fructose to Glucose Ratio.) This Process Also Raises the Levels of Polyphenols and Glycerin. (Resulting In a Richer, Darker, Silkier In Texture Wine.)
  • This Appassimento Process is Often Done In Barns or Shack Which Posses Doors On Both End In Which the Air Can Pass Through.
  • VINICULTURE- CHALLENGES– Grape Bunches Susceptible to Mold and Botrytis
  • Air Dried Grapes Are Usually Harvested a Little Early to Posses More Acidity or to Keep Them In Balance When They Gain So Much Sugar Content Later.
    • Controlled Dehydration- The Used of Giant Fans and Dehumidifiers Helped Eliminate the Risk of Grey rot Which Had Previously Ruined Many Crops of Drying Fruit.
    • White= Assyritiko, Bosca, Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Erbaluce, Grunner Veltliner, Muscat, Riesling,
      Savagnin, Semillon, Vermentino, Viognier
    • Red= Poulsard, Corvina, Molinara, Rondinella, Negrara
    • Sight: Gold, Yellow, Amber
    • Aroma: Dried, Apricot, Honey, Almond, Hazelnut
    • Palate: +BODY, Carmel, Walnut
    • Structure: +Abv., Medi+Acid
      • PAIRING… Biscotti, Cream Based Dessert
      • CHEESE

Dehydrated Wines of the World


VIN SANTO DOC.     @Alto Adige/ Valledei Laghi

  • ROSSO= Nosiola(+85%)
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Trentino, PROVINCIA-Trento, In Sarca Valley
  • VINICULTURA- Passito(+AGED/ 3yr. Cast)
    • Estate/ Produttore-
  • CULTURAVino Santo In Tocana, Vin Santo In Trentino

VIN SANTO Del CHIANTI DOC.     @Greater Chianti

  • BIANCO= Amabile– Malvasia, Trebbiano
  • ROSSO=  Occhio di Pernice– Sangiovese(50%)
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Toscana
  • VITICULTURA- Late Harvest, Hand Harvest(Perfect/ Undamaged Bunches Raisinate Better.)
  • VINICULTURA- Passito(3-6 mo., Grapes Hang From Rafters to Dehydrate.)
    • +AGED/ 3-10 yr. Caratelli (75 L., 125 L., 300 L.)Barrels (Sealed/ No Topping Off.)
    • +Oxidized, 14%- 19% ABV. -Regional Variations Across Italy/ Liquoroso Versions
    • Variation Are Produced Across Toscana In the DOC.’s…Bolgheri, Carmignano, Elba, Montepulciano, Pomino, Sant’Antimo, and Across Italia In the DOC.’s…Gambellara, Trentino.
    • Estate/ Produttore- Castellare San Niccolò, Fontodi, Ricasoli, Rocca de Montegrossi, Travignoli, Villa Calcinaia
  • STORIA- Sacrament Wine of Eucharist Used For Holy Communion. White Wine Become Used for Masses Because Red Wine Stained Church Marble.
    • Sweet Wine “In Vogue” In Past and Preferred by the Masses.
    • Traditonal In Tuscan Culture to Offer Vin Santo & Amaretti Biscotti to House Guest.
  • CULTURA- Vino Santo In Tocana, Vin Santo In Trentino


  • ROSSO= Aleatico
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Toscana(Coastal/ West), PROVINCIA-Livorno
  • TOPOGRAFIAOff Coast(10 km.), On~Elba~Island~In~Tyrrhenian~Sea~
  • VITICULTURA-   ?  haPlanted
    • Estate/ Produttore- Acquabona, Mola, Monetfabbrello

VALCALPIO PASSITO DOC.      @LombardiaBergamo

  • BIANCO= Moscato
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Lombardia, In Terre Del Colleoni DOC., East of Milan-City(    km.)
    • PROVINCIA-Bergamo
  • TOPOGRAFIA- Rolling/ Hilly, SLOPES/ Lombardian Alps, On~Oglio~River~
  • VITICULTURA-  ? ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURA- Passito
    • Estate/ Produttore Il Calpepino, Castello di Grumello, La Rocchetta, Tosca

LUGANA PASSITO DOC.     @Lombardia

  • BIANCO= Moscato

VALPOLICELLA DOC.     @Valpolicella

  • ROSSO= Corvina 24%, Corvinone, Croatina, Dindarella Nero, Molinara, Negrara, Oseleta, Rondinella
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Veneto, PROVINCIA-Verona(North-West)
    • North-East of Verona-City(5 km.)
    • VILLAGES-Fumane, Marano, Negrar, Pescantina, St. Ambrogio, San Pietro
    • Sub-Zones-
    • Valpolicella Classico- See Below
    • Valpolicella Valpantena- Growing Highlands North of Verona
    • Valpolicella Orientale- Large Growing Area North-East of Verona
  • TOPOGRAFIA- Hilly/ Valley(Fumane/ Marano/ Negrar)
    • Fan Shaped Area of Hills and Valleys, SLOPES/ Monti Lessini
    • 13 Valley Extending From Veronese Plains Along the Eastern Banks of the Adige River and the Lessini Mountains
  • TERRE- Metamorphic Gravel, Clay, Sand, “Volcanic” Basalt
    • Sedimentary,  Limestone, Calcareous-Clay
  • CLIMA- Continental With 4 Distinct Seasons, LAKE EFFECT/ Lake Garda
  • VITICULTURA- ? ha. Planted,   Tresseling– 80% Pergola, 20% Guyot
  • VINICULTURA- Stainless Steel, Some Oak
    • Estate/ Produttore- Allegrini, Danese, Tommasi
  • CULTURA-   Etymology~ From Greek Vallispolis-Cellae…Meaning Valley of Many Cellars.
    • PIONEERS~ ~Giuseppe Quintarelli~

  • AMARONE Della VALPOLICELLA DOCG.     @Valpollicella
    • ROSSO= Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara, Corvinone, Negrara, Oseleta, Dindarella Nero
    • VINICULTURA- Passito/ Appassimento**Refer to Veneto “Home” For Details
      • Fermented Completely Dry- 40 Days +15%Abv.
      • Reserva(+AGED/ +4yr. Prior to Release)
      • Estate/ Produttore- Allegrini, Bertani, Dal Forno, Masi, Monte dall Ora, Monte dei Ragni, Novaia, Tommasi, Zyme
    • Passito/ Appassimneto
      • Dehydrating Bunches On Bamboo Bottom Baskets For 6-Weeks to 4-Months In Sheds Called Fruttaio. During This Appassimento Process the Grapes Go Through a Dramatic Transformation. Physically They Lose 30%-40% of Their Weight Through Water Evaporation, This Changes the Skin-to-Juice-Ratio. Chemically, Acidity Decreases and Sugar Content Increases, (Changing the Fructose to Glucose Ratio) This Process Also Raises the Levels of Polyphenols and Glycerin. (Resulting In a Richer, Darker, Silkier In Texture Wine),
      • Management of the Appassimento Process is Paramount.  While Grapes Can’t Be Press Before December 1st. Some Producers Wait Longer, Well Into The New Year.
      • Some Producers Use Communal Facilities Where Giant Fans and Dehumidifiers Helps to Provide Ideal Conditions. Some Producers Maintain Air Circulation by Opening and Closing Large Windows On Opposing Sides of Personal Barns or Drying Rooms.


  • ROSSO= Chiavennasca
  • VITICULTURA-  ? ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURA- Late Harvest(Passito 3mo., Whole Bunches of Grapes Put In Aerating  Boxes to Dry to Lose 35% of Mass. Wine Vinified Dry)
    • +AGED/+20mo., 12/Oak., French Barrique, Abv.+14.5%
    • Fruttaio– Climate Controlled Rooms Used For Dehydrating Grapes
    • Estate/ Produttore Bettini, Nino Negri, Plozza, Sandro Fay
  • CULTURA- AKA=Veltellina Sfursat
    • Sforzato Produced Using No Technology Only Tradition.


  • BIANCO= Vespaiolo
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Veneto, PROVINCIA-Vicenza
  • VITICULTURA- ? ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURA- Botrytis,  Passito(Winding Bunches Around Twine, Hang From Ceiling)
      • Estate/ Produttore-


  • BIANCO= Marzemino
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Veneto, PROVINCIA-Treviso
  • TOPOGRAFIA- +Alt. 200mt.-300mt.
  • VITICULTURA- ? ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURA- Passito
    • Estate/ Produttore- Bernardi, De Stefani

RECIOTO Di SOAVE DOCG.     @VenetoSoave

  • BIANCO= Garganega, Chardonnay, Pinot Bianco, Trebbiano
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Veneto, PROVINCIA-Verona, East of Verona(     km.)
    • COMMUNE-Monteforte, San Martino Buon Albergo, Mezzane di Sotto, Ronca, Montecchia de Crosara, San Giovanni Ilarione, San Bonifacio, Soave, Cazzano Di Tramigna, Colognola ai Colli, Caldiero, Illasi, Lavagno
  • TOPOGRAFIA- “Hills”, +Alt. 350mt.
  • TERRE- “Metamorphic”, ”Volcanic” Basalt, “Sedimentary” Chalk, Limestone
  • VINICULTURA- Passito(Dried September to February/ Botrytis Can Develop)
    • Estate/ Produttore- Gini Renobilis, Suavia Acinatium, Vicentini Agostino


  • BIANCO= Bosca(60%) +Vermentino, Albarola
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Liguria(South-East), PROVINCIA-La Spezia, Southern Coast of Liguria
    • Sub-Zone- Costa da Posa Costa de Campu Costa de Sera
    • VILLAGES-Monterosso al Mare, Vernazza, Coniglia, Manarola, Riomaggiore
  • TOPOGRAFIA- “Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraces”, SLOPES/ Tuscan Apennines Mountains
    • On~Molinello~River~On~Coast/ Gulfo~Genoa/ Mare~Ligure~
  • VITICULTURA- 500 ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURE- Late Harvest, Passito, +AGED/ 3 Years
    • Estate/ Produttore- Cantina Cinque Terre, La Ploenza, Sassarini,Terenzuola
    • UNESCO. WORLD HERITAGE~  ~Cinque Terre(Cultural, Landscape, Vineyards)

CALUSO PASSITO DOC.      @Piemonte

  • BIANCO= Erbaluce
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Piemonte
  • VINICULTURA- Passito(+AGED/ 5 yr., +Abv.+17.5%),  Liquoroso
    • Estate/ Produttore- Cantina Della Serra, Ferrando Vini


  • BIANCO= Verduzzo, Friulano
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Friuli, PROVINCIA-Udine, In Colli Orientali DOCG.(North)
    • In Ramandolo DOCG., BORDERS-Slovenia(East)
  • TOPOGRAFIA- “Rolling/ Hilly”, SLOPES/ Nimis Hills, +Alt.381mt.
  • VITICULTURA- ? ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURA- Late Harvest,  Passito
    • Estate/ Produttore- Anna Berra, Bressani


  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, MARCHE-Marche(Central-Interior)
    • In Catelli di Jesi Verdicchio DOCG.
  • VITICULTURA-ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURA- Passito,  Verdicchio (+85%)
    • Estate/ Produttore- Moncaro Tordiruta, Pievalta Curina, Sartarelli


  • WHITE=

PASSITO Di SARACENA IGP.    @Saracena, Calabria

  • BIANCO= Addoraca, Guarnaccia, Malvasia, Moscatello
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Calabria(Interior), PROVINCE– Cosenza
  • VINICULTURA- Passito
    • Estate/ Produttore- Cantina Diana, Feudo dei Sanseverino, Viola


  • BIANCO= Zibibbo
  • GEOGRAFIA- Sicilia(East), Island of Pantelleria
    • South of Italy(85 km.), North of Tunsia(70 km.)
  • TOPOGRAFIA- “Hilly/ Mountainous”, On~Coast/ Stretto Sicilia~
    • Volcanic Mountains– Pantelleria, +Alt.1,300 mt.
  • VITICULTURA-  Vine Training- Alberello/ Head Trained Bush-Vine
  • VINICULTURA- Passito/ 3-4 Weeks, 10 Pounds of Fresh Grapes Yields 2.5 Pounds of Dried Grapes. For Every 100 Liters of Fresh Zibibbo Must,? of Dried Grapes are Adding In 3 Stages as it is Fermenting.
    • Estate/ Produttore- Donnafugata, Murana, Serragghia(Nat.Pro.)
  • STORIA- 2,500 Year Wine History
    • UNESCO. WORLD HERITAGE SIGHTTraditional Head Trained Grapevines of Zibibbo


  • BIANCO= Zibibo AKA=Moscato/ Muscat Alessandria
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, Sicilia(North-West), PROVINCIATrapani
    • COMMUNES-Castellammare del Golfo, Custonaci, Trapani, Valderice
  • TOPOGRAFIA- “Hilly”, SLOPES/ Mt. Erice, On~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~
  • VITICULTURA- 43 ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURA- Passito– 16% ABV.
    • Estate/ Produttore- Anna Fendi, Fazio, Scarpantonio


  • ROSSO= Carignano(+85%), +(-15%)Grapes Approved For Sardegne Production
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-Sardegna, PROVINCIA-Carbonia-Iglesias/Cagliari
  • TOPOGRAFIA- “Hilly”, +Alt. 400mt., On~Coast/ Island~
  • VITICULTURA- 310 haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE- Varietal,  Rosato,  Riserva(+Abv.+12.5%),  Superiore, Passito(+Abv.+13%)
    • Estate/ Produttore- Cantina Mesa Buio, Santadi


  • ROSSO= Primitivo(100%)
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-Puglia(South-West), PROVINCIA-Taranto/ Brindsi, MANICIPALITIES-18
  • TOPOGRAFIA- “Flat/ Rolling”, On~Coast/ Gulf~Taranto~
  • TERRE- Metamorphic“, “Sedimentary”, Calcareous Clay, Sand
  • CLIMA-Mediterranean
  • VITICULTURA- Passito(Dried On Vine), RS.(+80 G./L.),  Abv.+16%
    • Estate/ Produttore- Antica Masseria Jorche, Attanasio, Feudi di San Marzano, Gianfranco Fino, Produttori Vini Manduria Madrigale
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Consorzio di Tutela Primitivo di Manduria~


VIN De PAILLEStraw Wine” @France

  • BLANC= Savagnin, Trousseau, Chardonnay    |   RED= Poulsard


  • BLANC= Chardonnay, Savagnin
  • ROUGE= Poulsard, (No Pinot Noir)
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Jura, In Cote du Jura AOC.(North), In Arbois(South)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly”
  • VITICULTURE-   ? ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- D’Arlay, Desire Petit, Pierre Overnoy/ Emmanuel Houillon(Nat.Pro.)
    • Grapes Dried, In Small Boxes In Ventilated Attics or On Straw Mats.
    • Grapes Press and Fermented After 6 Weeks, +AGED/ Min. 18mo. In Oak, +14% Abv.


  • BLANC= Marsanne
  • GEOGRAPHY- REGION– Northern Rhone

JURANCON AOC.     @France

  • BLANC= Courbu  |   ROUGE= Gros Manseng, Petit Manseng
  • GEOGRAPHY- REGION– South-West/ Jurancon

The World

SCHILFWEIN       @Austria

  • WHITE= Riesling, Grüner Veltliner

STOHWEIN       @Germany

  • WHITE= Riesling


  • BRANCO= Pedro Ximenez
  • GEOGRAPHY- REGION– Andalusia, Cadiz

VINSANTO PDO.     @Greece

  • WHITE= Assyritiko, Mandelari, Adoni
  • GEOGRAPHY- REGION Santorini Island

PROSEK     @Croatia

  • WHITE= Bogdanusa, Marastina, Vugava

SAMOS      @Cypus

  • BIANCO= Muscat Blanc a Petite Grains

CORDON CUT      @Australia

  • WHITE= Riesling
  • GEOGRAPHY- REGION– “Every Where”

VIN De CONSTANCE      @Constantia, South Africa

  • HISTORY- In 1700 & 1800’s the Wine of Constantia Was Recognized as One of the Greatest Wines of the World. Vin de Constance Was In a League of Fine Wines With Tokay and Chateau d’Yquem.
  • CULTURE- “Piece of Living Wine History”
    • PIONEERS~ ~DuggieLowell Jooste~ Bought and Redeveloped the Wine Estate Klein Constantia. They Were On a Mission to Bring Back the Famous Wine That For the Past 100 Years Had Disappeared From the Phylloxera Disease and Bankruptcy From the Effects of Apartheid.
  • VITICULTURE- Late Harvest, After Regular Harvest All Foliage is Removed, The Vine is Snap and Twisted Base of Vine Leaving the Grapes to Shrivel and Resinate In Sun.
      • WHITE= Muscat de Alexandria & Muscat de Frontignac
      • FORTIFIED & No-Fortified Versions
      • Hand Harvested and Left to Macerate On Their Skins For a Few Days Allowing Grapes to Soften and Swell-Out Facilitating Extraction of Juice During Pressing.
      • Fermentation Can Take 6 Months Due to the High Sugar Levels
        • +AGED/ 2 Year In Oak Before Bottling. Bottled In Squatie Shaped
        • Sight: Hazy/ Golden/ Amber
        • Aroma: Dried Apricot, Spice
        • Palate: +BODY(Full), Honey
        • Structure: Low Tannins, +ABV., Medi+Acid
          • PAIRING… Foie Gras, Pineapple Tart Turkish Apricots
          • CHEESE… Blue Cheese
  • CONSTANTIAWard     @
    • WHITE= Muscat Blanc a Petite Grains AKA=Muscat de Alexandria/ Muscat de Frontignan
    • GEOGRAPHY- South Africa, Coastal Region, DISTRICT-Cape Town(South-West)
      • South of Cape Town-City(15km.), BORDERS-Hout Bay(West/Near)
    • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley”, South of Table Mountain(   km.)
      • BETWEEN-Atlantic Ocean & False Bay
    • SOILS- “Metamorphic”, “Sedimentary“, Shale, Granite, Table-Top Sandstone
    • CLIMATE- “Maritime”, +WINDS/ False Bay
    • VITICULTURE-  ? haPlanted
      • Estates/ Producers- Klein Constantia(146ha.)
    • HISTORY 1659 @South Africa First Vines Planted at Constantia by Colonists of the Dutch East India Company.


  • Dehydrated Grape Wine of Ancient Carthage, Popular In Roman Empire.
  • WHITE= Muscat Blanc a Petite Grains, Pontac, Muscadel, Chenin Blanc

**Refer to OLD WORLD/ NEW WORLD/ Locations For Additional Information.

**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.