1. What is a Fortified Wine?
    2. Wine Fortified Before Fermentation
    3. Wine Fortified During Fermentation
    4. Wine Fortified After Fermentation


FORTIFIED/ Mutage Vinification Practice of Adding Distilled Grape Spirit (Brandy, Eau-De-Vie, Aguardeinte) to Must to Mute or Stop Fermentation Before the Yeast Converts All of the Sugars Into Alcohol.

  • Fortifying Wine is a Valuable Process or Tool For the Wine Maker. Mutage Stops Any Further Fermentation, Increases Alcohol Level While Retaining High Levels of Residual Sugar. Another Benefit is it Ensures Micro Biological Stability. (Most Yeast Strains and Bacteria are Rendered Impotent and Unable to React With Sugars In Solutions and Wines With More Than 16% ABV.)


  • VIN DE LIQUEUR-  French Term +FORTIFIED/ Before Fermentation With Local Grape Spirit
  • VIN DOUX NATUREL- French Term +FORTIFIED/ During Fermentation With Local Grape Spirit
    • Translates to Wine That is Naturally Sweet. (But the Process is Unnatural.) Arresting or Mutage the Conversion of Grape Sugar to Alcohol by Adding Spirit Before Fermentation is Complete. This Results In a Half-Sweet Style of Wine In Which the Grape Flavors Dominate the Wine Flavors.
  • MISTELA (Spain), MISTELLE– (France), MISTELLA/ SIFONE– (Italy)
    • Term For a Fortified Wine Produced by Neutral Grape Spirit to Unfermented Grape Juice.
  • RATAFIA– Dehydrated Grapes Fortified Before Fermentation With Grape Distillate Flavored With Local Bramble Fruit.
  • VITICULTURAL DISCLAIMER~ ~Late Harvest~  ~Dehydrating  Grapes~
    • Many of These Fortified Wines Are Produced to Be Sweet. As a Result the Grapes Used to Make These Wines Are Late Harvest, Meaning They Are Left On the Vine a Period Longer Than Normal to Accumulate Extra Sugar or Potential Alcohol.  Also Some of These Wines Are Produced From Dehydrated Grape, A Process Where the Grapes Are Left In the Sun the Concentrate the Sugar Levels Prior to Fermentation.


  • Rectified Neutral Grape Spirit- 95% ABV., Rectification is the Process of Repeated Distillation to Remove Flavor Compounds. Used In Fortified Wines That Want to Promote the Characters of the Grape Variety.
  • Grape Spirit/ Brandy- 77% ABV.
  • **Refer to WINE STYLES/ Distillation For Detailed Information On Distillation.





  • BLANC= Savagnin, Chardonnay
  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Poulsard, Trousseau
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Jura, In Cote du Jura AOC.(Greater)
  • VITICULTURE- Late Harvest (Juice, Must Boiled/ Reduced In Half)
  • VINICULTURE- Vin De Liqueur(Fortified Before Fermentation With Marc)
    • Fortified/ With 1/3 Marc Du Jura(Distilled Pomice Base Eau de Vie)
    • 1 Liter of Marc di Jura Added to Every 2 Liters of Grape Must.
      • +AGED/ +1yr.- 6 yr., Without Prior Fermentation, +16%- 22% ABV.
      • *STYLES/ White,  Rose,  Red
    • Estate/ Producers- Jean Bourdy


  • BLANC= Clairette
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Languedoc, In Languedoc AOC./ Terrasses du Larzac AOC.
    • VILLAGES-Adissan, Aspiran, Cabrieres, Ceyras, Fontes, Le Bosc, Lieuran- Cabrieres, Nizas, Paulhan, Peret, Saint-Andre-de-Sagonis
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly, On~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~
  • VITICULTURE- 90haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE- Vin De Liqueur(Fortified Before Fermentation),  Rancio
    • Estate/ Producers- Adissan & Cabrieres(Co.-Op.), Condamine Bertrand, La Croix Chaptal, Paul Mas

MUSCAT De FRONTIGNAN AOC.      @Frontignan, Languedoc

  • BLANC= Muscat Dore de Frontignan, Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Languedoc, DEPARTMENT-Herault
    • South-West of Montpellier-City(    km.)
    • BORDERS-Muscat de Mireval AOC.(North-East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ HillyOn~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean
  • VITICULTURE-  800 haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Cave des Vignerons de Frontignan(Co.-Op.), Mas Rouge, Peyrade, Stony
  • VINICULTURE- Vin De Liqueur(Fortified Before Fermentation With ?)
    • Vin Doux Naturel– +15% ABV.- 18% ABV.

PINEAU Des CHARENTES AOC.      @Charente

  • BLANC= Colombard, Folle Blanche, Merlot Blanc, Semillon, Ugni Blanc
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Jurancon, Merlot, Meslier
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-South-West, In Cognac AOC.
  • VITICULTURE- ? haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers– Bache Gabrielsen, Beaulon, Bonnin, Deau, Dominique Chainier et Fils, Jean Luc Ferrand, Moine, Pierre Ferrand, Reviseur, Tessendier’s
  • VINICULTURE- Vin de Liqueurs(Fortified Before Fermentation With Eau-de-Vie), +16%- 22% ABV.
    • EAU-De-VIE– Must Be Distilled From Cognac Grapes From Charente and Charente-Maritime Departments.
    • Charentes Producers Must Also Be Cognac Distillers.
      • Eau-de-Vie Must Be Aged 1 Year Prior to Blending and Have +60% ABV.
    • +BLENDED/ Juice and Cognac Eau-de-Vie at 3 to 1 Ratio
    • +AGING/ Blanc+AGED/ 18 mo./ 12 mo. Oak
      • Rouge/ Rose- +AGED/ 12 mo./ 8 mo. Oak
      • Vieux+AGED/ +5 yr. Oak
      • Tres Vieux+AGED/ +10 yr Oak
  • HISTORY- 400 Year History of Production
    • Legend Has It a Cellar-Worker In 1589 Poured Unfermented Must In to a Presumed Empty Barrel That Had Cognac In it.  Not Wanted it to Go to Waste He Drank it.
    • IN COCKTAILS– Pineau & Tonic, Martinelle

FLOC De GASCOGNE AOC.     @Gascogne

  • BLANC= Baroque, Colombard, Folle Blanche, Gros Manseng, Mauzac, Petit Manseng, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Ugni Blanc
  • ROSE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Fer Servado, Gamay, Malbec, Merlot, Tannat
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-South-West(Central), In Armagnac AOC.
  • VINICULTURE- Vin de Liqueur(Fortified Before Fermentation With Blend of Unfermented Juice With Armagnac)
    • Unfermented Grape Juice and Brandy Must Be Produced In Same Region.


RATAFIA-Di BOURGOGNE         @Bourgogne

  • BLANC= Chardonnay   |  ROUGE=
  • VINICULTURE-Fortified Before Fermentation/ WITH: ?


  • BLANC= Chardonnay   |  ROUGE= Pinot Noir
  • VINICULTURE- Late Harvest,  Passito,  Fortified Before Fermented/ WITH ?

RATAFIA-Di ANDORNO     @Alto Piemonte

  • VINICULTURE-  Fortified Before Fermentation/ WITH ?

RATAFIA-Di CATALONIA      @Barcelona

  • VINICULTURE-  Fortified Before Fermentation/ WITH ?
    • STEEPED/ 2 mo. With Lemongrass, Sage, Mint, Anis Walnuts +AGED/ Casks +26% ABV.



MAURY AOC.     @Maury, Roussillon

  • BLANC= Macabeu, Muscat Blanc a Grains, Muscat Alexandria
  • ROUGE= Grenach
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Roussillon, DEPARTMENTS-Pyrenees-Orientales
    • In Cotes du Roussillon AOC.(North)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Hilly/ Terraces, SLOPES/ Pyrenees, On~Maury~River~
    • COMMUNES-Maury, St-Paul de Fenouillet, Lesquerde, Tautavel, Rasiquers
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary Limestone, Schist, Slate
  • VITICULTURE-  ? haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers– Coume du Roy, Jean Marc Lafage, Mas Amiel, Saint-Roch
  • VINICULTURE- Vin Doux Naturel(Fortified During Fermentation With ?),  +AGED/+15yr., Rancio
    • Wine Must Be +70% Grenache to Be Labeled Maury AOC.

BANYULS AOC.     @Banyul

  • BLANC= Macabeu, Malvoisie, Muscat
  • ROUGE= Grenache, Carignan
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Roussillon(South), DEPARTMENT-Pyrenees-Orientales
    • BORDERS-Spain/ Catalunya(South)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Mountainous/ Terraces, On~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Vermeille(Dark Schist With Thick Soil On Top)
  • VITICULTURE-  ? haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Coume del Mas, Le Cabot des Mailloles(Nat.Pro.)
  • VINICULTURE- Vin Doux Naturel(Fortified During Fermentation With ?), +AGED/ 30mo.
    • Wine Must Be +50% Grenache to Be Labeled Banyuls AOC.
    • Matured In Bottles(Demi-Muids/ demijohns/ Bonbonnes)
  • BANYULS GRAND CRU AOC.     @Banyul
    • ROUGE= Grenache(+75%)
    • VINICULTURE- +AGED/ 30mo.
      • +STYLES/ Hors d’Age(Extended Aging/ +3 yr.),  Rancio,
        • Rimage(Maceration- 6/ 7 Weeks),  Rose

MUSCAT De LUNEL AOC.      @Lunel

  • BLANC= Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Languedoc, DEPARTMENT-Herault
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean
  • VITICULTURE-  ? haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE- Vin Doux Naturel(Fortified During Fermentation With ?)
    • Estate/ Producers- Grès Saint Paul, Lascoste, Tour de Farges


  • BLANC= Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Languedoc, DEPARTMENT-Herault
    • South-West of Montpellier-City(    km.)
    • BORDERS-Muscat de Frontignan AOC.(South-West)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ HillyOn~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~(Near/   km.)
  • CLIMATE- “Mediterranean
  • VITICULTURE- ? haPlanted
  • VINICULTURE- Vin Doux Naturel(Fortified During Fermentation With ?)
    • Estate/ Producers- Mas de Daumas Gassac, De La Chapelle, Exindre, Mas Neuf

MUSCAT De FRONTIGNAN AOC.      @Frontignan, Languedoc

  • BLANC= Muscat Dore de Frontignan, Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Languedoc, DEPARTMENT– Herault
    • South-West of Montpellier-City(    km.)
    • BORDERS-Muscat de Mireval AOC.(North-East)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- “Rolling/ HillyOn~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean
  • VITICULTURE-  800 haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Cave des Vignerons de Frontignan(Co.-Op.), Mas Rouge, Peyrade, Stony
  • VINICULTURE- Vin Doux Naturel(Fortified During Fermentation With ?)
    • Vin De Liqueur(Fortified Before Fermentation With ?), &  +15%- 18% ABV.

MUCAT De ST.-JEAN De MINERVOIS AOC.     @Minerve, Languedoc

  • BLANC= Muscat Blanc a Petite Grains, Rose a Petits Grains
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Languedoc, DEPARTMENT-Herault
    • In Minervois AOC.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean
  • VINICULTURE- Vin Doux Naturel(Fortified During Fermentation With ?)
    • Estate/ Producers- Domaine Les Combes, Le Petit Domaine de Gimios(Nat.Pro.)


  • BLANC= Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains, Muscat de Alexandria
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Roussillon, DEPARTMENTS-Pyrenees-Orientales
    • In Cotes du Roussillon AOC.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean
  • VITICULTURE-  ?  haPlanted,  CHALLENGES/ Drought
    • Estate/ Producers- Aphrodis, Boudau, Caladroy, Cazes, Daure, Lafage, Mas Amiel
  • VINICULTURE- Vin Doux Naturel(Fortified During Fermentation With ?)
      • +STYLES/ (4)- Ambre,   Grenat,   Tuile,   Rose

RASTEAU AOC.     @Southern Rhone Valley

  • BLANC= Clairette, Picpoul
  • ROUGE= Grenache, Cinsault, Counoise, Mourvedre, Syrah, Terret Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Southern Rhone Valley, DEPARTMENT-Vaucluse
    • In Cotes du Rhone AOC., COMMUNE-Rasteau, In Cote Du Rhone(East-Central)
    • Sub-Zones- Bedarrides, Courthezon, Orange, Sorgues, BORDERS-Cairanne(West)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling, On~Ouveze~River~
    • On Large Hummock(Knoll/ Mound)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Sand, Galets, Marl(Grey/ Yellow/ Blue)
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean With Continental Influences, +WIND/ Le Minstral
  • VITICULTURE 47 haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Beau Mistral, La Colliere, Combe Juliere, Caves de Rasteau, Elodie Balme, Escaravailles, La Luminaille(17ha.), Rabasse Charavin, La Soumade
  • VINICULTURE- Vin Doux Naturel(Fortified During Fermentation With ?)
    • Wine Must Be +90% Grenache to Be Labeled Rasteau AOC.
    • +252 G./RS. Per L. & 15% Potential Alcohol, +15% ABV.- 21.5% ABV.
      • +STYLES/ White,  Rose,  Red,   Hors d’Age(+AGED– +5 yr.), Rancio

MUSCAT De BEAUMES De VENISE AOC.      @Southern Rhone Valley

  • BLANC= Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Southern Rhone Valley(Central), +Latitude(44.12°N)
    • BORDERS-Vacqueyras AOC.(West), Gigondas AOC.(North), Cotes du Ventoux AOC.(South-East)
    • DEPARTMENT-Vaucluse, COMMUNE-Beaume de Venise, Lafare, La Roque-Alric, Suzette
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraces
    • SLOPES/ Dentilles de Montmirail, +Altitude(500 mt.)
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean With Continental Influences, +WIND~~Le Minstral~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Limestone, Clay
  • VITICULTURE 1,200 haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Des Bernardins, De Coyeux, Demoiselle Suzette, Durban, De la Pigeade, Vidal-Fleury, Xavier Vignon
    • Vin Doux Naturel – Fortified During Fermentation(After Must Reaches +ABV.- 5% ) With Grape Spirit.
      • Final ABV.- 15%/ RS./110 Grams Per Litre
  • CULTURE- 1943- AOC. Officially Established.


  • BLANC= Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Corsica(North)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/ Hilly
  • VITICULTURE-  ? ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Antoine Arena, Clos Nicrosi, Gentile, Giudicelli, Jean-Baptiste Arena, Leccia, Marengo, Montemagni, Orenga de Gaffory
  • VINICULTURE- Late Harvest,  Passito,  Macerated 2 Days On Skins
    • Vin Doux Natural(Fortified During Fermentation With?)
  • CULTURE- 1993AOC. Established (But the Wine Has Been Produced Here For Centuries)


PORT     @Duoro/ Port, Portugal

  • **Refer to PORTUGAL/ Durenese For Detailed Information On Port.
  • BRANCO= Arinto, Alvaraca, Alvarinho, Bataca, Bical, Branco Especial, Branco Sem Nome, Branco Valente, Bual, Caramela, Carrega Branco, Cercial, Codega, Diagalves, Donzelinho, Folgasao, Formosa, Gouveio, Listrao, Pe Comprido, Pinheira, Praca, Rabigato, Rabo de Ovelha, Samarrinho, Sarigo, Sercial, Siria, Tamarez, Valente, Viosinho, Vital
    • International Malvasia Fina, Muscat Blanc a Petit Grain AKA=Moscatel Galego Branco, Verdelho
  • TINTO= Alvarelhao, Aramont, Baga, Bastardo, Casculho, Castelao, Cidadehe, Conciera, Corcieira, Donzelinho Tinto, Engomada, Goncalo Pires, Grangeal, Jean, Malandra, Melra, Mondet, Mourisco, Moreto, Nevoeira, Roseira, Rufete, Santarena, Sevihao, Souzao AKA=Vinhao, Tinta Amarela, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Bastardinha, Tinta Coa, Tinta Fontes, Tinta Francisca, Tinto Martins, Tinta Penajoia, Tinta Tabuaco, Touriga Franco, Touriga Nacional, Valdosa, Varejoa
    • International Tinto Roriz AKA=Tempranillo
    • 82 Grape Varietals Permitted, 30 Recommended, 6 Usually Used
    • Tinta Amarela, Tinta Barroca, Tinto Cao, Tinto Roriz, Touriga Franca, Touriga National
  • GEOGRAPHY Portugal(North), Duriense IG., In Douro River Valley(East)
    • LATITUDE: Porto: 41.1°N   |    Douro River Valley: 41.2°N
  • TOPOGRAPHY Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced/ Valley(Douro)
    • SLOPES/ Serra do Marao Range, +Alt. 100mt. – 900mt.
    • On~Douro~River~(40 Tributaries Run Into the Douro From Port to Spainsh Border.)
    • Douro River is Now Actually a Series of Lakes Since 5 Dams Were Constructed In an Effort to Control the River For the production of Electricity.
  • SOILS Metamorphic, Predominantly Schistous, Pre-Cambian Schist Surround by Granite
    • Top Soil is Shallow and Low In Nutrients, To Plant New Rootstock In the Hard Shist Soils Dynamite is Used
    • The Bedrock Fractured Vertically Allowing Roots to Venture Deep In Seach of Water and Nutrients
  • CLIMATE Continental,   *Summers– Hot, Dry   |   *Winters– Cold, Wet
    • +Rain Shadow– Serra do Marao Mountains
  • VITICULTURE  LabeledDURIENSE Refers to Wines Non-Conforming to a DOC.
    • CHALLENGES– Drought, Rain During Fruitset
    • Harvest Takes Place Between the Months of August and October
    • Traditional Walled Terraces- Terraces Supported by Dry Stone Walls, Built by Hand and On Steep Hillsides Some 5 Meters High. Most Terraces Are Narrow, Just Supporting 2 or 3 Rows.
    • Patamares- Modern Terraces That Stand Without Walls Cut Into the Banks and Mountainsides Using Earth Moving Equipment Such as Bulldozers and Catepiilars. Patamares Create Wider Terraces and Replace Narrow Tradional Walled Terraces Increasing Vine Density.
    • Vinha Ao Alto- Where It’s Not Too Steep Terracing are Planted In Vertical Rows of Vines Running Down the Hillside Instead of Across it. Vinha Ao Alto’s Are Modern and Allow For Drainage and Good Erosion Control, and Better Canopy Exposure.
    • Quinta Meaning Farm, Are Grape Growing and Wine Producing Estate. In Port Terms These Quinta Are Located In Douro River Valley and Are Where the New Wine Stays After Harvest Until Spring When the Wine is Shipped Down the Port Lodges In Villa Nova de Gaia For Aging and Storage.
    • OLD VINES– From 1857
  • VINICULTURE Still,  Rose,  Fortified
    • Grapes Fortified During Fermentation With Grape Spirit(+Abv.77%), Maderized, Oxidized, +AGED/ In City of Port, Abv.,        LABEL: Vinho DO. Porto Garntia
    • Fermentation Generally Take 24- 36 Hours to Complete
    • Fortification Done Around +6% ABV./ Fortified to 19%- 22% ABV. The Fermenting Wine is Added to the Nuetral Grape Spirit(77%Abv.). As it is Added the Spirit Kills Off the Yeasts and Fermentation is Arrested.
    • Reserva Wine- White +11.5% ABV., +AGED/ 6mo.   |   Red +12% ABV., +AGED/ 12mo.
    • Espumanto do Douro- (Sparkling)
    • Colheita Tartia- (Late Harvest)
    • The Best Vineyards For the Production of Port Wines Are Not the Best Vineyards For the Production of Still/ Dry Red Wines.
  • HISTORY @Douro Valley 1756- Region Legally Demarcated
    • Phylloxera Came to the Duoro Valley In 1868 Effect a Portion of Vineyards.
    • Douro Valley Railway The Railway Which Was Built In. Was a Catalist In the Port Wine Trade. Running From Porto at the Coast Inland to the Douro Valley to Pocinho and Beyond To the “Spainish Frontier. Its Service Linked Small Communities Along the River and Make the Movment of Port Wine Modern.
    • PIONEERS~ ~Baron Forrester~ Port Shipper, Visionary of the Early 1800’s Who Mapped the Valley In Detail.
  • CULTURE Generally 30% of Wine Produced is Cellared For Historical Purposes
    • UNESCO. WORLD HERITAGE SIGHT~  ~Alto Duoro(Cultural, Landscape, Vineyards)
    • GASTRONOMY… Pork, Smoked Sausages, Olive, Chestnuts, Figs
      • CHEESE
    • WINE BARRELS~ ~Port Pipe/ Pipa~ 550 Liters
      • ~Tonel~ 3,000 to 10,000 Liters   |   ~Balseiro~ 8,000 to 100,000 Liters

MADEIRA DOC.     @Madiera Island, Portugal

  • **Refer to PORTUGAL/ Portugal Islands For Detailed Information On Sherry.
  • BRANCO= Sercial AKA=Esgana Cao, Bual AKA=Boal,
  • International Malmsey 19% AKA=Malvasia di Lipari, Malvassia Candida AKA=Malvasia di Lipari, Verdelho
  • TINTO= Tinta Negra, Terrantez AKA=Folgasao, Bastardo, Moscatel
  • GEOGRAPHY- Portugal, REGION-Islands of Madeira
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraces, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt.+1,800mt.
  • SOILS- Volcanic
  • CLIMATE- Sub-Tropical With Atlantic/ Maritime Influences
    • +RAIN SHADOW EFFECT/ ~Island of Madeira~
  • VITICULTURE- 500 ha. Planted,  Series of Irrigation Canals Called Levadas Water Island
    • Wine Exporters- Vinhos Barbeito, Henriques & Henriques, Justinho Henriques, Pereira d’Oliveira, H.M. Borges, J. Faria & Filhos, P.E. Gonçalves, Madeira Wine Company
    • Estate/ Producers- Quinta Bela Vista, Quinta de Bela Vista, Quinta Casa Branca, Quinta Casa Velada Palheiro, Quinta do Furao, Quinta Serra Golf
    • MADEIRA– Grapes Fortified During Fermentation With Grape Spirit, Heated, Oxidized, and Carmel Sweetener Added.
      • BRANCO= Sercial, Bual, Malmsey, Verdelho
    • Starts as a Still Wine, Usually Fermented In Stainless Steel Then Racked to Barrels.
    • The Wine is Fortified With Grape Spirit(96% ABV.), to  77%. ABV.
    • In 1600’s Fortified With Cane Spirit, 1800 to Present With Brandy(Grape Spirit).
    • Long Sea Voyages Had the Effect of Maderization, This Along With Heat, Oxygen and Time Resulting In a Wine That Was Something Else Altogether.
    • Madeira Wasn’t Originally Fortified, It Was Naturally High In Sugar and Alcohol and Could Withstand Travel Better Than Most Wines. Not Until the 1700’s After Wines Like Sherry and Port Saw the Benefits of Fortifications For Travel Did the Practice Take Place On the Island.
    • Estufagem/ Stove/ Hothouse- Practice of Mimicking the Long Over Sea Voyage by Heating Wines.
      • (Heating Wine In Bulk to a Maximum of 55°C For a Minimum of 90 Days)
    • Cuba de Calor- Inexpensive Way to Directly Heat and Cool Wine In Large Stainless Steel Vessels at Temperatures as High as 130° For 3- 12 Months
    • Armazemde Calor– Tanks of Wine Are Placed In a Large Steam-Heated Room With a Boiler Furnace With Connected Coils On Walls That Heats Room to 115°, +AGED/ 6 Month to 1 Year.
    • Canteiro- Wine is Aged Long-Term In Warehoused Heated Only by the Sun. Canteiro is a More Natural But Longer Process For Maderization Wine. It Takes 3 Year In a Canteiro System Compared to 1 Year In the Estufagem System.


SETUBAL DOC.     @Setubal

  • BRANCO= Antao Vaz,  Arinto, Fernao Pires, Malvasia, Moscatel de Setubal, Rabo Ovelha, Roupeiro Branco, Viosinho
    • International Moscatel Galego Roxo, Verdelho
  • GEOGRAPHY- Portugal, REGION-Peninsula Setubal IG.
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ RollingSLOPES/ Serra da Arrabida Hills, On~Sado Esturary~
  • CLIMATE- Maritime
  • VITICULTURE-  ? ha. Planted
    • Estates/ Producers- Alambre, Bacalhoa, Jose Maria da Fonseca, Venanzio Costa
    • SETUBAL  Moscatel de Setubal or Moscatel Roxo (+67%)
      • Macerated and Fermented On Skins For 6 mo.
      • Fortified During Fermentation With Brandy, +16%- 22% ABV.
      • +AGED/ Barrel +5 yr.,  Superior(+AGED/ 20 yr.)

CARCAVELOS DOC.     @Estoril

  • BRANCO= Arinto, Ratinho, Galego Dourado
  • TINTO= Ramisco, Castelao, Preto Preto Martinho AKA=Negra Mole
  • GEOGRAPHY- Portugal, Lisboa IG.(South-West), West of Lisbon-City(10km.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling, On~Coast/ Atlantic~Ocean~
  • CLIMATE- Maritime
  • VITICULTURE- 200ha. Planted
    • Estates/ Producers- Bela Vista, Conde de Oeiras, Raul Ferreira & F. Quinta do Barao, Ribera de Caparide
  • VINICULTURE- Branco,  Tinto,  Vinho
    • Vinho de Carcavelos/ Villa Oeiras-
      • Licoroso(Fortified to 18%- 20% ABV. With Vinho Abafado(Brandy From Lourinha DOC.)
        • Sweetened With Must, +AGED/ 5yr./ Oxidized

MALAGA DO.     @Malaga

  • BLANCO= Muscat Alexandria, Pere Ximen AKA=Pedro Ximenez
  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(South-East), PROVINCE-Malaga
    • Non-Contiguous(2), North & South Malaga
    • SERRANIA De RONDA     @Ronda
      • Geography- Malaga(West), On~Coast~(Near/  km.)
      • Topography- Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous”, +Alt. 700mt.
      • Geography- Malaga(West), On~Coast~, West of Malaga-City(  km.)
      • Geography- Malaga(North), On~Coast~(Near/  km.)
      • Geography- Malaga(East), On~Coast~, East of Malaga-City(  km.)
    • AXARQUIA      @Antequera
      • Geography- Malaga(East), On~Coast~, East of Malaga-City(  km.)
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling/  Hilly/ Mountianous, +Alt. 700mt.
    • On~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~, On~Guadalhorce~River~
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean With Continental Influences
  • VITICULTURE- 1,320 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Antigua Casa de Guardia, Bentomiz, Descalzos Viejos, Hijos de Antonio Barcelo, Jorge Ordonez, Larios Principe, Malaga Virgen, Schultz Hermanos, Sedella, Telmo Rodriguez, Quitapenas
    • VINOS De LICOR Fortified or Liqueur Wines
      • Pedro Ximenez, Muscat Alaxandria  -30% Doradilla, Lairen Rome
    • Paseros- Grapes Dehydrated Drying Beds, Fortified During Fermentation With?
    • +BLENDED/ Solera(Often), +15% – 22% ABV.
      • +AGED/  Malaga Palido- (6mo.)   |   Malaga (6mo.- 24mo.)
        • Malaga Nobile- (2 yr. – 3 yr.)   |   Malaga Anejo- (3 yr. – 5 yr.)
        • Malaga Transanejo- (+5 yr.)
    • Pajarete- (Little Bid) Fortified Wine With a Sugar Content of 45 – 140 G./L.
    • Vino Maestro- (Master Wine) Grape Distilled Alcohol is Added(8% by Volume) Before Fermentation
  • HISTORY- 1000 BC. @Malaga– Phoenician Trades Brought Wine Culture to the Area.
    • PASAS De MALAGA DO.- Dedicated to Eating Grape Production.
    • ECONOMICS~ ~Important Agricultural Heritage Systems~ Cultivation of Muscatel Grapes
  • GOING THERE-  ~Malaga Wine Museum~



  • WHITE= Xynisteri   |    RED= Mavro
  • GEOGRAPHY- Cyprus, DISTRICT-Lemesos
    • VILLAGES-(14) Ayios Georgios,  Ayios Konstantinos,  Ayios Mamas,  Ayios Pavlos,  Apsiou,  Gerasa,  Doros,  Zoopigi,  Kalo Chorio,  Kapilio,  Laneia,  Louvaras,  Monagri,  Silikou
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ HillyOn~Cyprus~Island~
    • SLOPES/ Troodos Mountains(South-West), +Alt. 500mt.-900mt.
  • VITICULTURE-  ?  ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers- Alasia, Aes Ambelis, Antoniades, Beaufoys, Etko, Keo St. John, St. Barnabas, Tsiakkas
    • COMMANDARIA Oldest Named Wine Still In Production Dating Back to 800 BC.
      • VITICULTURE- Late Harvest,  Passito (In Sun/ 10 Days)
      • VINICULTURE- WHITE= Xynisteri   |   RED= Mavro
      • +FORTIFIED/ Can Be Fortified With Grape Spirits, Or Not Fortified
      • +AGED/ 2-4 yr., Oak Barrels, 15% ABV.– 20% ABV.
      • Grapes Must Be Grown/ Vinified In Commandaria, Can Be Aged Outside of Region.
    • ~Etymology~ Comes From Grand Commardery, Referring to the Land Belonging to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, Where Original Vineyards Were Located.

MUSCAT RIO PATRAS PDO.     @Peloponnese, Greece

  • WHITE= Muscat Blanc Petits Grain AKA=Moschoudi
  • GEOGRAPHY- Greece, REGION-Peloponnese, DISTRICT-Achaia
  • TOPOGRAPHYRolling/ Hilly, On~Korinthos~Gulf~
  • VITICULTURE-  ? ha. Planted
    • Estates/ Producers- Bozaitika, Paraparoussis
  • VINICULTURE- Dehydrated Grapes, Fortified During Fermentation With?
      • (Vin Naturellement Doux de Raisins Passerilles)

MAVRODAPHNE Of PATRAS PDO.     @Peloponnese, Greece

  • WHITE= Mavrodaphne
  • GEOGRAPHY- Greece, REGION-Peloponnese(North), DISTRICT-Achaia
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Rolling/ Hilly
  • VINICULTURE- Dehydrated Grapes, Fortified During Fermentation With Neutral Grape Spirit.
    • +AGED/ 1 yr., Solera
  • VITICULTURE- ?  ha. Planted
    •  Estates/ Producers- Achai Clauss, Foivos, Hermes, Kourtaki Lokatos, Tsantali

MUSCAT Of RHODES PDO.     @Rhodes Island, Greece

  • WHITE= White Muscat AKA=Muscat Blanc Petite Grains, Muscat Traini
  • GEOGRAPHY- Greece, Aegean Sea(South-East), In Dodekanese Archipelago, On~Rhodes~Island~
    • VILLAGES-Afandou, Apollona, Archangelos, Embonas, Fanes, Psintos, Rhodes
  • CLIMATE- Mediterranean
  • VITICULTURE-  ? ha. Planted
    • Estates/ Producers- C.A.I.R
  • VINICULTURE- Vin Doux Naturel,  Vin Naturellement Doux
    • Dehydrated Grapes Fortified During Fermentation With Grape Spirit.

RUTHERGLEN GI.      @Victoria

  • WHITE= Muscadelle  AKA=Tokay, Rutherglen Topaque, Brown Muscat AKA= Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
  • RED= Durif AKA=Petite Sirah, Muscat a Petits Grain Rouge, Shiraz, Tempranillo, Touriga Nacional
  • GEOGRAPHY- VictoriaState, North-East VictoriaZone, @Hw#M31, LATITUDE: 36.05° S
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt. 175mt., On~Murray~River~
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Alluvial, Grey-Brown Loam, Sand
  • CLIMATE- Continental, Long Growing Season, Mild Autum
  • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
    • LIQUEUR MUSCAT AKA=Liqueur Tokaj, Rutherglen Muscat
    • Late Harvest, Fortified During Fermentation With ?
    • +BLENDED/ Solera System Modified
    • +AGED/ 10 yr.-15 yr./ Small Barrels, +Aged In Barrel 2 Years Before Bottling
      • Rutherglen Muscat+AGED/ 3-5 Years,  180-240 G./L. of RS.
      • Classic Muscat+AGED/ 5-10 Years,  200-280 G./L. of RS.
      • Grand Muscat+AGED/ 10-20 Years,  270-400 G./L. of  RS.
      • Rare Muscat+AGED/ +20 Years,  270-400 G./L.  of RS.
    • Rutherglen Muscat Are Identifiable by Producers House Style.
    • Estates/ Producers- All Saints, Buller, Campbells, Chambers, Morris, Stanton & Killeen, Rutherglen Estates
  • HISTORY- Rutherglen Has a 150 Year History of Producing Fortifying Muscat Wine.
    • 1850’s @Rutherglen  Immigrant Influence
      • Rutherglen Was a Prominent Gold Rush Town In 1850’s.  A Steady Influx of Immigrant Come to Australia Bringing Grapevine Cutting Wine Culture.
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Rutherglen Muscat Producers Syndicate~
      • Mission~ Group of Producers Who Grow, Produce, and Defend Liqueur Muscat.

TAWNY PORTS     @LanghorneCreek

  • RED= Shiraz, Grenache, Port Grapes
  • VINICULTURE-  Fortified During Fermentation/ WITH: ?


  • BIANCO= Malvasia   |   ROSSO= Corinto Nero
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-Sicilia(East), North of Sicilia/ Messina(60km.)
    • Island of Lipari/ Aeolian Islands….Alicudi, Basiluzzo, Filicudi, Panarea, Salina, Stromboli, Vulcano
  • TOPOGRAFIA- Rolling/ HillyOn~Tyrrhenian~Sea~
  • CLIMA- Mediterranean
  • VITICULTURA- 25 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Produttore- Barone di Villagrande, Cantine Colosi, Caravaglio, Castellaro, Colosi, Fenech, Florio, Gaetano Marchetta, Hauner, Lantieri, Salvatore d’Amico, Virgona
  • VINICULTURA- Still,  Passito
    • Liquoroso- Dried Grape, (Fortified During Fermentation With ?), +AGED/ 6 mo. Barrel, +18% – 20% ABV., 6% RS.
    • 100 BC. @Sicily Liquoroso Production of Wine Began With the Influence of Greeks.


MARSALA DOC.      @Marsala

  • WHITE= Catarratto, Damaschino, Grillo, Inzolia, Pignatello
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-Sicilia(North-West), PROVINCIATrapani
    • On~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~, Multi-Appellation
    • Sub-Zones Mozia Island- Off North Coast of Marsala Growning Grillo
  • TOPOGRAFIA- Flat/ Rolling,  On~Coast/ Mediterranean~Sea~
  • VITICULTURA-  ? ha. Planted, VINE TRAINING/ Alberello/ Bush Vine
  • VINICULTURA- Rubino,  Ambra,  Oro
    • Estate/ Produttore- Baglio Baiata Alagna, Marco de Bartoli, Caruso & Minini, Florio, Martinez, Pellegrino, Woodhouse
  • STORIA- Marsala Was Founded as a Colony by the Carthagins Dating Back to 397 BC.
    • 1700’s @England Bordeaux Has Heavy Claret Tax to English On all Imported Wines.
    • 1773  @Sicily English Trader John Woodhouse Landed at the Port of Marsala.
    • PIONEERS~ ~John Woodhouse~  English Trader
      • Found” Local Wine Produced In Sicily and Introduced Marsala to the English Market
    • ~Vincenzo Floria~ Sicily Wine Producer Who Influenced Exportation of Marsala Wines Throughout World.
    • Produced by One or Blend of Four White Grapes, Catarratto, Damaschino, Grillo, Inzolia.
    • Fortified After Fermentation With Acqua-Vite.
    • Some Fortified During Fermentation Version, Depending On Desired Sweetness Level.
    • Addition of a Grape Concentrate Used to Add Colour and/ or Sweetness,
      • Mosto Cotto(Cooked Must) or Sifone(a Mistelle Produced by Unfermented Must of Overripe Grapes)
    • Oxidized,  +AGED/ Marsala Aged In a Process Called In-Perpetuum(Similar to Soleras System).
    • Until the 1700’s Marsala Was Referred to as Vino Perpetuo.
  •  STYLES Of MARSALA-  Can Be Classified by…Color, Sweetness Level, Style
    •  Color
      • Rubino/ Ruby,   Ambra/ Amber,     Oro/ Golden
    • Sweetness Level,/ Residual Sugar…
      • Secco/ Dry Less  4% RS.
      • Semi-Secco/ Semi-Dry 4.1%- 10% RS.
      • Dolce/ Sweet +10% RS.
    • Fine +AGED/ +1yr., -17.5 ABV.
    • Superiore- +AGED/ +2yr., +18% ABV.
      • Reserva+AGED/ +4 yr.
    • Vergine +AGED/ +5yr. +18% ABV., -4% RS.
      • Reserva– +AGED/ +10 yr.
    • Vergine Stravechhio +AGED/ +10yr.
      • Secco–  -40 G./ L. of RS.
      • Semi-Secco–  41-100 G./ L. of RS.
      • Dolce– +100 G./ L of RS.
    • Sight: Varies
    • Aroma: Vanilla, Apricot, Tamerine
    • Palate: Raisins, Dates
    • Structure: Medi-Tannins, +ABV., Medi+Acid
    • PAIRING… Fruit Pastries
    • CHEESE… Gorgonzola, Roquefort
    • SERVING… Once Opened Marsala Keeps For 1 Month.
    • COOKING… Chicken Marsala~
        • Flour-Coated Chicken Braised In Marsala, Butter, Olive Oil, Mushrooms and Spiced.
      • Typical Marsala Sauce-
        • Reducing the Marsala Wine Almost to a Syrup With Onions and Shallots, Then Adding Mushrooms and Herbs.


  • **Refer to SPAIN/ Andalusia For Detailed Information On Sherry.
  • BLANCO= Palomino Fino/ Palomino de Jerez 90%, Moscatel, Pedro Ximenez
  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(South-West), On Coast Andalusia(South-West)
    • Multi-Appellation, @Hw.#A-381/ E-5
    • Sub-Zones- Marco de Jerez AKA=The Sherry Triangle, Triangle Shape of the 3 Cities of Sanlucar de Barrameda, Jerez de la Frontera and Puero de Santa Maria. The 3 Towns In the “Sherry Triangle” Are Only Miles Apart But Each Has Its Own Distinct, Culture, History and Microclimate Unique to Jerez.
    • Others- Chiclana de la Frontera Roto,  Chipiona Cadiz,  San Fernando,  Puerto Real
      • DISTRICTS– Macharnudo, Balbaina, Carrascal, Anita
      • Abulgar, Ahorcado, Almocaden, Anina, Atalaya, Balbaina, Burujena, Callejuela, Campix, Carrascal, Cerro Viejo, Corchuelo, Los Cuadrados, Cuartillo, Espartina, Gibalbin, Hornillo, La Loma, Lagunetas, Lombardo, Macharnudo, Maestre, Mahina, Majadale, Majuelo, Meca, Medidora, Miraflores, Montecorto, Montegililo, Munive, Nino de Oro, Orbaneja, Osborne(1772),Pagollano, Pastrana, Portugalejo, Punta del Aguila, Los Quemados, Santa Lucia, Tabajete, Los Tercios, Tizon, Torrox
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary
    • Barros- Clay With Organic Matter, Darker In Color, 10% Chalk
      • (Predominantly Planted With Grapes For Ororoso Production.)
    • Arenas- Sand(Silica-Based) With Limestone, Yellow/ Reddish In Color, 10% Chalk
      • (Predominantly Planted With Moscatel Grapes.)
    • Albariza- 30%- 80% Calcarious, High In Chalk With Limestone, Clay, Sand. Derived From Oligocene Epoch
      • (Predominantly Planted With Palamino, Grapes For Fino Production.)
  • CLIMATE- Maritime With Mediterranean Influence
    • SUNSHINE…300 Days, RAINFALL…25 Inches, Over 65 Days
  • VITICULTURE-  17,500 haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Barbadillo, Buleria, Domecq(International), Emilio Lustau, Equipo Navarros, Oxford 1.970, Osborne, Romate
    • Non-Sherry Wine- These Are Still Wines From the Region That Are Not Fortified to the Minimum of 15% Abv.
    • Aseria/ Alumbra– Vineyard Managers Build Rectangular Pits In Vineyard Between Rows of Vines to Help Collect Water For Hot Growing Season.
    • Vinos de Lagrima- Wine From Free-Run Juice
    • PIONEERS~ ~Jose Ignacio Domecq~ Jerez, Winemaker/ Pedro Domecq Wineries
    • COOPERAGE~ ~Toneleria Tevasa~
  • GOING THERE– Visit the Historic Alcazar Fortress/ Mosque Turned Into Church In 1264
    • WINE ROUTE~ ~Marco de Jerez~ Wine & Brandy Route Which Intersects 8 Municipalities That Make Up the Jerez Region, All Offering a Variety of Landscapes and Wine Tourism Resources That Enable New and Unforgettable Experiences.

Others Wines Fortified After Fermentation

VERMOUTH       @Italy

LILLET       @France

ANGELICA       @California

  • RED= Mission
  • GEOGRAPHY- California
  • VINICULTURE- STYLE- Sweet Amber-Colored Dessert Wine Which Was Enjoyed After Dinner.
    • 50% Mission Grape Fortified With 50% Mission Brandy. or
    • 50% Mission Wine Fortified With 50% Mission Brandy.
  • HISTORY- Dates Back to the 1800’s.
    • Angelica Dates Back to the Mission Period In California and the Name was Thought to Be Taken From the City of Los Angeles.  Angelica Was First Produced by Franciscan Missionaries From Mission San Gabriel Around 1830.
    • Angelica is the Only Approved American Semi-Generic Name Wine.

**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.