1. What is a Oxidized Wine?
    2. Oxidized Wine of the World
    3. Heating Wine


OXIDATION Traditional Vinification Where Wines Are Exposed to Oxygen During Wine Making Processes. (Fermentation, Racking, Barrel Aging),Wine Exposed to Air Causes Chemical Reactions and Leads to Accelerated Deterioration, +Air Exposure, Converts Acetaldehyde to Acetic Acid.

  • Ethanol, Polyphenols, Organic Compounds Oxidize In Presence of Oxygen.
  • Sotolon- Compound 3-Hydroxy-4,5-Dimethyl-2-(5H)-Furanone, From From Acetaldehyde and is Found In Oxidized and Botrytized Wines.

OXIDATIVE- A Wine That is Effected by Oxidation, Either Deliberately or Over the Course of Time.

OXIDIZED- Past Tense, a Wine That Has Become Oxidized.

Oxidation is a Fault, Oxidative is a Style.

OXIDATIVE WINEMAKING- Making Wine With the Deliberate Exposure to Oxygen. Depending On the Timing and Length of Exposure to Oxygen Can Have Many Effects On the Finished Wine.

  • Do You Let the Juice Oxidize Right Away or Do You Protect it From Oxygen?  A Little Oxygen During Wine Making Process is Good, But Uncontrolled Oxidation is Bad. You Need a Little Oxygen to Create Aldehyde and Form Complexed Phenolic and Tannin.
  • Excessive Oxidation of Juice Before Fermentation or Wine After Fermentation Prior to Barreling Potentially Volatilizes and Oxidizes Aromas Out of the Wine.
  • While In Juice Form Oxygen Should Be Embraced and Absorbed, Its Enhances the Yeast During Fermentation. Post Fermentation Wine Should Be Protected at All Times With Reductive Environment or Inert Gas.
  • Too Much Oxygen Exposure Can Lead to a Wine Which Looses Its Freshness.
  • Too Little Oxygen Can Produce a Reductive Wine With Minimal Expression.
    • **Refer to VINIFICATION/ Fermentation/ Reduction For Detailed Information On  Reduction.
  • PRE-FERMENTATION OXIDATION-  Winemakers Will Encourage a Certain Amount of Oxygen In the Must or Brown-Juicing the Must Prior to Fermentation.
    • This is Done In an Effort to Oxidize the Phenolics That Will Be Extracted During the Fermentation Process.  The Thought is if These Phenolics or Not Oxridized Out of the Must They Will Express Themselves Negatively at a Later Time Often After Bottling.
    • **Refer to WINE FAULTS/ OxidationFor Detailed Information.
    • Pumpover
    • Punch Downs
    • Fermenation
    • Racking
    • Jura AOC.
    • Jerez DO.
    • White= Marsanne, Rousanne, Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay
    • Red= Pinot Noir
    • Sight: Amber-Brown
    • Aroma: Sulfur Caramel
    • Palate:
    • Structure: High Acid
      • FOOD PAIRING… Licking Envelops

MICRO-OXYGENATION- Process of Introducing Small Precise Amounts of Oxygen to Wine In Accelerated, Controlled Manner. Micro-Oxygenation Promotes Binding of Harsh Phenolics Making Less Astringent All In an Effort to Make the Wine More Approachable at an Earlier Age.

  • WINE & PHILOSOPHY? Serving Oxidized Wine?
    • (Contentious Wine Issue!)Is it Alright to Serve Noticeably Oxidized Wine Just Because It’s Produced by a Legendary Natural Wine Pioneer In Friuli, Italy Using Amphora?  On One Hand Under No Situation Should a Drastically Flawed Wine Be Served.  On the Other Hand Oxidized Wine is Fault But Also Can Be a Style of Wine That’s Not Appreciated by All Wine Consumers But Should Be Available For People to Consume. So In This Case It’s Alright to Serve This Wine as Long as Its Style is Discussed With the Customer Before Ordering.


SHERRY DO.      @Cadiz

  • BLANCO= Palomino Fino/ Palomino de Jerez 90%, Moscatel, Pedro Ximenez
  • TINTO= Tintilla de Rota AKA=Garnacha
  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Andalusia(South-West), On Coast Andalusia(South-West)
    • Multi-Appellation, @Hw.#A-381/ E-5
    • Sub-Zones- Marco de Jerez AKA=The Sherry Triangle, Triangle Shape of the 3 Cities of Sanlucar de Barrameda, Jerez de la Frontera and Puero de Santa Maria. The 3 Towns In the Sherry Triangle Are Only Miles Apart But Each Has Its Own Distinct, Culture, History and Microclimate Unique to Jerez.
    • Others- Chiclana de la Frontera Roto,  Chipiona Cadiz,  San Fernando,  Puerto Real
      • DISTRICTS-Macharnudo, Balbaina, Carrascal, Anita
      • Abulgar, Ahorcado, Almocaden, Anina, Atalaya, Balbaina, Burujena, Callejuela, Campix, Carrascal, Cerro Viejo, Corchuelo, Los Cuadrados, Cuartillo, Espartina, Gibalbin, Hornillo, La Loma, Lagunetas, Lombardo, Macharnudo, Maestre, Mahina, Majadale, Majuelo, Meca, Medidora, Miraflores, Montecorto, Montegililo, Munive, Nino de Oro, Orbaneja, Osborne(1772),Pagollano, Pastrana, Portugalejo, Punta del Aguila, Los Quemados, Santa Lucia, Tabajete, Los Tercios, Tizon, Torrox
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Flat/ Rolling
  • SOILS- Metamorphic, Sedimentary
    • Barros– Clay With Organic Matter, Darker In Color, 10% Chalk
      • (Predominantly Planted With Grapes For Ororoso Production.)
    • Arenas- Sand(Silica-Based) With Limestone, Yellow/ Reddish In Color, 10% Chalk
      • (Predominantly Planted With Moscatel Grapes.)
    • Albariza- 30%- 80% Calcarious, High In Chalk With Limestone, Clay, Sand. Derived From Oligocene Epoch.
      • (Predominantly Planted With Palamino, Grapes For Fino Production.)
  • CLIMATE- Maritime With Mediterranean Influence
    • SUNSHINE…300 Days, RAINFALL…25 Inches, Over 65 Days
  • VITICULTURE-  17,500 haPlanted
    • Estate/ Producers- Barbadillo, Buleria, Domecq(International), Emilio Lustau, Equipo Navarros, Oxford 1.970, Osborne, Romate
  • VINICULTURE Fortified After Fermentation, +OXIDIZED, +AGED/
    • Non-Sherry Wine- These Are Still Wines From the Region That Are Not Fortified to the Minimum of 15% Abv.
    • Aseria/ Alumbra– Vineyard Managers Build Rectangular Pits In Vineyard Between Rows of Vines to Help Collect Water For Hot Growing Season
    • Vinos de Lagrima- Wine From Free-Run Juice
  • **Refer to Spain/ Andalusia For Detailed Information On Sherry

MADEIRA     @Madeira Island

  • BRANCO= Bual, Malmsey, Verdelho, Serical
  • VINICULTURE- Fortified During Fermentation HEATED/ OXIDIZED

VIN JAUNE    @Jura

  • VITICULTUREMETHOD/ Late Harvest, No Botrytis, Normal Fermentation
    • +AGED/ 6 yr., Neutral Oak Cast, Oxidized/ With Out Topping Off, +13.5%- 15% ABV.
    • Under Voile/ Flor Induced by Air Pocket From Evaporation.
      • **Refer to POST FERMENTATION/ Flor For Detailed Information
    • QUALITY– Technician From the Official Jura Wine Laboratory Visits Vin Jaune Producers Twice a Year to Test All Barrels of Savagnin Destined to Become Vin Jaune. Level of Acetic Acid Need Not to Be Too High, and Ethanal Level Need to Be Rising the First Few Years.
    • No Racking or Any Other Handling Takes Place During the 6 Years of Aging.
    • Estate/ Producers- 20 Independent Produces, Berhet-Bondet, Henri Maire, Macle, Marnes Blanches, Philippe Butin
    • SERVING… Cool, Not Chilled.  Open Bottle Will Keep For Months.
    • PAIRING… Poulet de Bresse, Walnuts   |   CHEESE… Comte
    • BOTTLE SHAPES~~Clavelin~ Jura, Short/ Squat Fat Bottle (62cl.). The Amount of Wine Left of a Liter of Wine After Aging In Cask For Six Years and Three Month
      • **Commissioned by Producers In Chateau-Chalon From La Vielle Loye Glassworks In 1700’s
    • ~Etymology~ Gets Name From Abbot of Clavelin Who Ordered 50 Bottles With His Own Emblem From the La Vielle Loye Glassworks In 1914.
    • **One of the Few Non-Standard Bottles Sizes Allowed by EU. Wine Law

SIERRE      @Anniviers, Switzerland

  • WHITE= Arvine, Ermitage, Fendant   |   RED= Cornalin, Syrah
  • GEOGRAPHY- REGION-Suisse Romande, CANTON-Valais(East)
    • In Haut-Valais AOC.
  • VITICULTURE- ? ha. Planted
    • Glacier Wine WHITE= Ermitage, Reze @Grimentz Village
      Traditionally- Reze 90% +Humagne Blanc, Ermitage, Petite Arvine, Malvoisie
      +AGED/ 10yr.- 15yr. In Larch Wood Barrels Solera System, Only Tasted In Cellars of Anniviers Drawn Directly From Barrels In Village.


MADERIZED- Organic Chemical Reaction When Wine is Exposed to Heat Over Time Accelerating Development and Maturation.

RANCIO  Deliberately Subjecting Wine to Oxidation or Heat/ Maderized.

  • VINICULTURE Oxidatively Aged In Exposed Conditions Where Heat, Light and Oxygen Combine to Transform the Final Dry Wine.  The Rancio Process Diminished the Primary Fruit Aromas and Flavors of the Wine and is Replaced by Tertiary Aromas and Flavors of Cocoa Curry and Walnut.
    • Rancio Wines Are Not Fortified, Barrel Are Not Topped Up, and Little to No Sulfur is Added.
    • Sometimes Barrels Are Housed In Hot Warehouses, Under Roof Rafters.
    • In Glass Jars/ Bonbonne, Left Outside, Subject to Temperature Fluctuation
  • Estufagem- Heated Wine In Stainless Steal Vat (Estufa) Via Serpentine Method at 120°- 130° For 3- 12 Month, Rested, then Bottled.
  • History- Historically Native to Catalonian Region of Southern France and Produced Since Roman Times.  These Wines Where Produce For Family and Friends
    • Sight: Chestnut Brown 
    • Aroma: Salted Nuts, Caramel
    • Palate: Nutty, Saline, Chlorinated, Spicy
    • Structure: Medi-Tannins, +ABV., Medi Acid

RANCIO SEC      @France

  • BRANCO=  Grenache Blanc, Macabeu,
  • TINTO= Grenache
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTY-France, REGION-Roussillon, (IGP. Cotes Catalanes/ IGP. Cote Vermeille)
  • SOILS- Metamorphic
  • CLIMATE- Continental
  • VITICULTURE-  AKA=Vi Ranci In Catalan
  • VINICULTURE- Elevage 4/ 5 Years
    • Estate/ Producers- Abbe Rous, Rombeau, Terres Des Templiers, Tresmontaine

Heated Wine of the World

MADEIRA DOC.     @Funchal

  • BRANCO= Sercial AKA=Esgana Cao, Bual AKA=Boal, Malmsey AKA=Malvasia, Verdelho
  • TINTO= Tinta Negra, Terrantez AKA=Folgasao, Bastardo, Moscatel
  • GEOGRAPHY- Portugal, Islands of Madeira
  • TOPOGRAPHY- Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraces, SLOPES/ ?, +Alt. +1,800mt.
  • SOILS- Volcanic
  • CLIMATE- Sub-Tropical With Atlantic Influences
    • RAIN SHADOW EFFECT/ Island of Madeira
  • VITICULTURE- 500 ha.,  Series of Irrigation Canals Called Levadas Water Island.
  • VINICULTURE- Fortified Wine Under Madeira DOC., Unfortified Wines Produced Under Terraas Madirenses IGP.
    • MADEIRA– Grapes Fortified During Fermentation With Grape Spirit, Heated, Oxidized, and Carmel Sweetener Added.
      • BRANCO= Sercial, Bual, Malmsey, Verdelho
    • Starts as a Still Wine, Usually Fermented In Stainless Steel Then Racked to Barrels
    • The Wine is Fortified With Grape Spirit(96% ABV.), to  77% ABV.
    • In 1600’s Fortified With Cane Spirit, 1800 to Present With Brandy.(Grape Spirit)
    • Long Sea Voyages Had the Effect of Maderization, This Along With Heat, Oxygen and Time Resulting In a Wine That Was Something Else Altogether.
    • Madeira Wasn’t Originally Fortified, It Was Naturally High In Sugar and Alcohol and Could Withstand Travel Better Than Most Wines. Not Until the 1700’s After Wines Like Sherry and Port Saw the Benefits of Fortifications For Travel Did the Practice Take Place On the Island.
    • ESTUFAGEM/ Stove/ Hothouse- Practice of Mimicking the Long Over Sea Voyage by Heating Wines.
      (Heating Wine In Bulk to a Maximum of 55°C For a Minimum of 90 Days.

      • Cuba de Calor- Inexpensive Way to Directly Heat and Cool Wine In Large Stainless Steel Vessels at Temperatures as High as 130° For 3-12 Months.
      • Armazemde Calor- Tanks of Wine Are Placed In a Large Steam-Heated Room With a Boiler Furnace With Connected Coils On Walls That Heats Room to 115°, +AGED/ 6 Month to 1 Year.
      • Canteiro- Wine is Aged Long-Term In Warehoused Heated Only by the Sun. Canteiro is a More Natural But Longer Process For Maderization Wine. It Takes 3 Year In a Canteiro System Compared to 1 Year In the Estufagem System.
    • Reason For Indefinite Aging Potential of Madeira
      • High Levels of Natural Acidity-       Fertile Volcanic Soils-
      • High Levels of Residual Sugars-     Fortification-
  • Estate/ Producers- Quinta Bela Vista, Quinta de Bela Vista, Quinta Casa Branca, Quinta Casa Velada Palheiro, Quinta do Furao, Quinta Serra Golf


  • WHITE= Mucat
  • GEOGRAPHY- COUNTRY-Australia, REGION-Victoria

**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.