SPARKLING WINE


  • SUB-TOPICS Of SPARKLING WINE CHAPTER
    • What is Sparkling Wine?
    • Different Sparkling Wine Methods
    • Sparkling Wine Process
    • Sparkling Wine Regions of The World

WHAT IS SPARKLING WINE?

SPARKLING WINE- Wine That Undergoes a Second Fermentation With Addition of Yeast.
CHAMPAGNE- Term Used to Designate Sparkling Wine Produced In Champagne Region of France.

  • Sparkling Wine is Produced In Almost Every Country Where Wine is Produced.
  • It’s Vital In Sparkling Wine Making That the Still Wine You’re Making Sparkling Wine Into is Un-Compromised In Quality. Second Fermentation Does’t Fix or Covers a Still Wines Flaws or Shortcomings.

No One Invented Sparkling Wine, It’s a Phenomena of Nature That No One Gets Credit For.


DIFFERENT SPARKING WINE METHODS

TRADITIONAL METHOD/ Champenoise/ Traditionelle/ Traditional

  • VINIFICATION- Second Fermentation Done In Bottle.

TANK METHOD/ Charmat-

  • VINIFICATION- Second Fermentation Done In “Autoclave”, That Could Be Sealed Airtight So Carbon Dioxide is Forced to Dissolve Into Wine. Fining, Filtering, Bottling All Achieved Without Loss of Carbon Dioxide In Process.
    • Autoclave- Large, Sometimes 30 Feet Tall Steel Pressurized Tanks Used In Italy for Mass Production of Sparkling Wines. (Prosecco, Asti Style)

METHODE ANCESTRALE/ Rurale, Artisanale, Gaillacoise

  • VINIFICATION- Method Historically Practiced In the French Regions of Gaillac, Die, Bugey.
  • Relies On Fermentation Shutting Down Before It’s Complete, Due to Cold Climate and Then Restarting After the Partially Fermented Grape Juice was Bottled. Wine is Partially Fermented In Vats and Then Fermentation is Stopped, Historically by Cold Winter Weather, But Now by Lowering the Temperature of the Vat Its In. Partially Fermented Wine is Then Bottled and Where Fermentation Resumes. Present Day Producers Are Bottleing Wines Before the First Fermentation is Completed.
    • This Process Leads to Low-Alcohol, Slightly Sweet Sparkling Wine With High Acidity and Bright Fruit Aromas and Flavors.
  • Certain Producers Slightly Filter Wine.
  • HISTORY- “Monks & Monasteries  ~Abbey of Saint Hilaire~
    • 1531 @Limoux– Oldest Intentionally Produced Sparkling Wine.

PETILLANT-NATUREL/ Pet-Nats

  • VINIFICATION– Grape Juice is Bottled While Still Fermenting, Trapping Carbon Dioxide Inside. Petillant Wines Can be Disgorged but Usually Left On its Sediment. Petellant-Natureal is a Simpler Less Expensive Way of Making Sparkling Wine. Part of Natural Wine Movement.
    • Certain Producers Slightly Filter Wine.

CARBONATION METHOD/ Sparging, Forced Carbonation

  • VINIFICATION– Injecting Co2 by Needle Through Cork.
    • Sparging- Refers to the Process of applying Nitrogen in the Form of Very Fine Bubbles I Order to Remove Dissolved Oxygen From the Wine.  Sparging Can Be Used to Give Bubbles to a Wine or Improve the Wine’s Taste and Shelf Life.

SPARKLING WINE PROCESS

  • HARVEST WHOLE CLUSTER PRESS
  • INOCULATED WITH YEAST COLD FERMENTATION (8-20 Days)
  • FERMENTATION RACKING
  • CUVEE BLENDING TIRAGE CUVEE BLEND
  • SEALED BOTTLING SECONDARY FERMENTATION
  • BOTTLE AGING (Sur-Lie) RIDDLING
  • FREEZE NECK DISGORGING
  • DOSAGE AGED (3 Month- ?Years)
  • STABILIZATION FILTERING FINNING

HARVESTING GRAPES- Grapes Destined to Become Sparking Wine Must be Harvested
at a Lower Brix Level Than Grapes Destined to be Still Wine. If Sugar is Too High Second Fermentation Gets Too Hot, Yeast Dies and Can’t Complete Fermentation.

  • Secondary Fermentation Will Add +1% Abv. to Finish Sparkling Wine.

DOSAGE- Addition of Precise Measure of Sugar, Wine, Grape Spirit, Citric Acid to Wine with Specific Purpose During Champagne Process
SECONDARY FERMENTATION- Second Fermentation is Initiated by Addition of Liqueur de Triage.

  • Carbon Dioxide is One of the by-Products of Fermentation, an Gets Trapped Inside the Bottle. Under Pressure Carbon Dioxide Dissolves Into the Liquid. When the Bottle Opened the Carbon Dioxide Will Reemerge In the Form of Tiny Bubbles.

LIQUEUR De TIRAGE-  Adding Mixture of Sugar/ Cane (.5oz. per Pint), Yeast to Induce Second Fermentation in Bottle.

LEES Dead Yeast and Sediment That Fall to the Bottom of the Fermentation Vessel During the Completion of First or Second Fermentation.

  • GROSS LEES- Refers to the ‘Larger’ Size of Lees, Sediment and Debris On Bottom of Maceration/ Fermentation Container: Grape Skins, Seeds. If Left Unattended Gross Lees Decompose and Often Lead to Undesirable Compounds, Spoil Wine or Impart Funky Undesirable Flavors and Aroma. Gross Lees are Mostly Found On Bottom of Maceration Vessels After Pressing and are Racked-Off Before Fermentation.
  • FINE LEES- Refers to the ‘Smaller ’ Size of Lees, Silky Sediment That Accumulated On Bottom of Maceration/ Fermentation Vessel. After Fermentation is complete There Can be 1-3 Gallons or Lees On Bottom of the Fermentation Barrel.
    • Fine Lees– Made Up of Dead Yeast Cells. (More Desirable Outcome)
  • SUR LIE AGING-  Process of Allowing Fermented Wine to Continue to Sit On Lees In Order to Extract Additional Flavors Prior to Racking & Bottling.
    • Autolysis- Chemical Reactions Caused by the Decay or Breaking Down of Yeast Cells by Their Own Enzymes. This Enzymatic Process is Called Autolysis. Once Yeast Cells are Done Feeding On Sugar Fermentation is Stops and the Yeast Cell Dies. Dead Yeast Cells are Called Lees and Start to Decompose Caused by Enzymes Inside the Lees Which Eat Away at the Cell Membrane Until the Cell Ruptures Releases Mono-Proteins Which Can Lend to a Wines Enhanced Body and Mouthfeel. During Sur Lie Aging Autolysis Also Releases Amino Acids, and Other Biological Compounds Giving Wines and Champagne Complexity, +BODY, Creamy Notes and Toasty/ Bread Like Scents.
  • Stages/ Levels of Autolysis- Autolysis and Aging Potential is a Balance
    • 9-12 Months– Yeast is Barely Dead, You Can Sometime Taste the Yeast Primary and Fermentation Aromas.
    • 1 Year to 2 Years- The Depth and Expression of Autolysis Really Start to Come Out. The Textual Feel Starts to Come Out In the Wine.
    • 5 Years Plus– Wines Start to Lose There Freshness and Become Tires and Flavors Start to Mute-Out.
  • LEE STIRRING/ Batonnage- Stirring(with Wood-Baton) of Lees That Have Settled On Bottom of Barrel, Cask, Tank, Vat (Burgundian Method), Batonnage Increases Wine Contact with Yeast Resulting In Increased Complexity.
    • VINICULTURE- ADVANTAGES– Nuttiness, Toastiness, Biscuit, Baked Bread.
  • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ The Term Lees Come From Word Autolysis.
  • VARIETALS THAT SEE “SUR LIE” AGING
    • White= Albarino, Chardonnay, Muscadelle, Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon Blanc
  • SUR LIE AGING EVALUATION
    • Sight: Hazy
    • Aroma: Cheese Rind, Sour Cream, Marsh-Mellow
    • Palate: +BODY
    • Structure:

RIDDLING/ Remuge- Rotating Bottles at an Increasing Downward Angle to Induce Lees and Sediment to Pool at Neck of Bottle. Riddling is Achieved by Twisting Punt of Bottle 1/8 of a Rotation Every Day for 5-8 Weeks to Complete.

  • PUPITRE- Rack Bottles are Placed In for Riddling
  • HISTORY-  1810 @Champagne, France ~Widow Clicquot~
    • Created For Creating First Riddling Board by Drilling Holes In a Kitchen Table.
  • SINGLE CAGE RIDDLING SYSTEM/ Gyropalette- Spherical Steel Frames Mimic Riddling Electronically.
  • Agaraffe- Metal Clasp Used to Keep Cork In Place During Sparkling Second Fermentation. (Now Predominately Done With Crown Cap.)

DISGORGEMENT- Removal of Yeast and Sediment Accumulated In the Neck of Bottle After Riddling is Completed. The Neck of Bottle is Placed In a Solution of Freezing Brine and Then Blasted Out with Removal of Crown Cap.

  • Disgorge Date- Date the Bottle was Done Aging Sur-Lee and Cork Was Put In.
  • Vinetage Date- Date That the Grapes Were Harvested.

LIQUEUR D’EXPEDITION Precise Measure of Sugar,Yeast and Sulfur Solution Added to Wine to Top Off Bottle From Loss of Liquid During Disgorgement and Produce Calculated Amount of Carbon Dioxide and Abv.

  • Determines Sweetness/ Type of Champagne.
  • If No Sugar Added the Wine is: Natural, Non-Dose, Extra Brut, Ultra, Integral.

PUNT  Indentation In the Bottom of Wine and Sparkling Bottles Left From Glass Blowing Process.

  • Beneficial For
    • Punt In Bottom of Bottle Was Designed to Strengthen the Integrity of the Bottle and Elevate Pressure In Sparkling Wine Bottles. (1940) (Pressure In Champagne Bottle is 90Lb. of Pressure per Square Inch)
    • Riddling Champagne
    • Ease of Nesting End to End During Shipment and Storage.
    • Consolidation of Sediment. (When Upright)

NUCLEATION POINTS- Small Traditionally Random Defect Points In the Wine Glass That Trap Pockets of Carbon Dioxide. Glassmaker Now Use a Laser to Engrave Artificial Nucleation Sites On the Bottom of the Glass to Make the Effervescent Pattern Pleasing to the Eye In the Form of 20+ Scratches to Create a Ring Shape Which Produce a Consistent Column of Rising Bubbles.

  • Muselet- Wire Wrapped Around Cork So Cork Doesn’t Exploding During Storage.
    • From the Internal Pressure. (6 Counter Clock-Wise Turns to Get Off)
  • Muselet Cap-  Metal Cap On Top of Cork Usually With Producers Name Use to Protect the Cork From the Wire Cutting Into the Cork.
  • Plexomuselaphile- French Name Given For People Who Collect the Muselet Caps On the Top of Champagne and Sparkling Wines. Some Are Produce With Limited Art or Collectable Images On Them. Some Muselet Are Produce With Images Marking Special Occasions On Them.
  • ATTRIBUTES Of The CHAMPAGNE BLEND
    • ChardonnayBrings…Pomaceous Fruit, Finesse, Floral, Minerality
    • Pinot Noir- Brings…Red Fruits, Structure, Elegance, Perfume
    • Pinot Meunier- Brings…Body, Fruit
      • Experience- 300 Year the Champenoise Have Made Sparkling Wine
      • Aging- Cold, Cellars Dug into Chalk Hills(Miles Deep) Tempurature- 40*-55*
      • +Aged/ +15 mo. to 2 yr.-3 yr. to +6 yr., +Complexity, +Character, Creamy
      • +Blended/ More Than 50 Different Wine, From Multiple Villages

STYLES Of CHAMPAGNE

  • By Quality
  • By Village
  • By Grape
  • By Sweetness
  • By Price
  • Blanc de Blanc- Refers to Sparkling Wine Produced From Only White Grapes.
  • Blanc de Noir- Refers to Sparkling Wine Produced From Only Black Grapes.
  • Champagne is Produced Under Higher Pressure Than Prosecco Which Leads Finer, Smaller Bubbles, Rather Than Bigger, Frothier Bubbles.
  • Atmosphere- Measurement For Pressure at Sea Level Used to Produce Sparkling Wine.
    • Normal Air Pressure at Sea Level is 14.7-Atm.
    • Champagne 6-Atm. Cremant 3-Atm. Prosecco 2-Atm.

HEAD/ Mousse- Collective Amount of Carbon Dioxide Which Rise to the Surface In the Form of Bubbles and the Resulting Effervescence and Accumulate On the Surface the Wine.

  • Large Coarse, Frothy Bubbles are a Sign of Prosecco or Poor Wine Making.
  • Small Bubbles Are a Sign of Quality
  • Champagne Mousse Scale  Low   |   Medi-   |   Medium   |   Medi   |   High
  • Champagne Mousse Descriptors Carbonated,  Coarse,  Effervescent,  Fine,  Fizzy,  Froffy,  Small,  Spritzy,  Streaming
  • TERMS To DESCRIBE BARELY SPARKLING WINE
    • Perlant  (France)
    • Perlwein (Germany)
  • TERMS To DESCRIBE LIGHTLY SPARKLING WINE
    • Petillant (France)
    • Frizzante  (Italy)
    • Spritzig (Germany)
  • TERMS To DESCRIBE FULLY SPARKLING WINE
    • Mousseux  (France)
    • Spumante (Italy)
    • Sekt (Germany/ Austria)
  • SPARKLING WINE DEGREES Of SWEETNESS
    • EXTRA BRUT .0% Sugar…Bone Dry
    • BRUT  1.5% Sugar…Dry-
    • EXTRA DRY  1.2% to 2% Sugar…Off Dry
    • DRY  1.7% to 3.5% Sugar…Dryer
    • SEMI-SWEET  3.35% to 5% Sugar…Semi-Sweet
    • SWEET +5% Sugar…Sweet

Sparkling Wines of the Old World

CHAMPAGNE      @Reims

  • BLANC= Chardonnay   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier
  • GEOGRAPHY– France(North-Central), North-East of Paris(120km.),  LATITUDE: 49* ‘N’
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditional, +AGED/ 3yr.-6yr.
    • Produced Under 6 Atmosphere of Pressure, Grown Produced In Champagne
    • -Estate/ Producers– Canard-Duchene, Heidsieck, Krug, Moet, Perrier-Jouet, Pommery
  • CHAMPAGNE WINE EVALUATION
    • Sight: Fine Bubbles
    • Aroma: Apple, Pear, Almond, Toast, Biscuit, Yeasty, Nutty
    • Palate: Dry to Sweet/ Body, Peach
    • Structure: Low Tannins, -Abv., High Acid
      • PAIRING…Shell Fish, Raw Sea Food, French Fries
      • CHEESE…Brie, Chevre
  • **Refer to “OLD WORLD/ France/ Champagne” for Additional Information

Champagne Levels of Sweetness

  • DOUX (50+ G./L.)        |   DEMI-SEC (33-50 G./L.)
  • SEC (17-35 G./L.)          |   EXTRA-SEC (12-20 G./L.)
  • BRUT (0-12 G./L.)        |   EXTRA BRUT (0-6 G./L.)
  • BRUT NATURE/ ZERO (0-3 G./L.)

Sparkling Wines of France Outside of Champagne

  • CREMANT- Term Use to Designate Sparkling Wine Produced In France But Outside the Champagne Region.
  • **Refer to “LOCATIONS” For Additional Information On These Sparkling Wines

CREMANT D’ALSACE AOC.      @Jura

  • BLANC= Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Auxerrois
  • ROSE= Pinot Noir(100%), No Sylvaner or Gewurztraminor
  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Alsace
  • VITICULTURE– Less Than 55 Hectoliter per Hectar
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle, +AGED/+9 mo., On Lees
    • Estate-Producers– Albert Boxler, Albert Mann, Arthur Metz, Barmes-Buecher, Charles Baur, Dopff & Irion, Dopff au Moulin, Frey, Heitzmann, Jean-Claude Buecher, Julien Meyer, Lucien Albrecht, Pierre Sparr, Willm

CREMANT De LIMOUX AOC.        @Limoux

  • BLANC= Mauzac(-70%), Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc
  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Languedoc, In Minervois, Limoux
  • VITICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle, +AGED/+1 yr./ 9 mo. On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers– Cuvee Royale, Rives-Blanques, Roche Lacour, Toques et Clochers
  • HISTORY– 1531 First Sparkling Wine was Produced by Accident In Limoux

CREMANT De BORDEAUX AOC.

  • BLANC= Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Muscadelle
  • RED= Cabernet Franc
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Bordeaux
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 9 mo., On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers– Calvet, Les Cordeliers, Cave de Rauzan, La Fleur de Francois, Jaillance, Jean Louis Ballarin, Louis Eschenauer, Remy Breque, Thunevin

CREMANT De BOURGOGNE AOC.     @Entire Burgundy

  • BLANC= Aligote, Chardonnay, Melon de Bourgogne, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gri, Sacy
  • ROUGE= Gamay, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy
  • VITICULTURE– Manual Harvesting Mandatory
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle, +AGED/+9mo., On Lees
    • Blanc de Blancs, Blanc de Noirs, Rose
    • Blending After Fermentation, +AGED/ 9 mo., Prior to Degorgement
    • Estate/ Producers– Bailly-Lapierre, Cave de Lugny(Co.-Op.), Honore Louis, Jaffelin, Louis Bouillot, Maison Francois Martenot, Maison Parigot & Richard, Simonnet-Febvre, Francois Mikulski, Veuve Ambal
  • CULTURE
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Union of Producers and Growers of Cremant de Brougogne~ UPECB.

CREMANT De BUGEY CERDON AOC.

  • BLANC= Chardonnay, Jacqueere, Molette
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Jura, Cerdon
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 9 mo., On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers

CREMANT Du DIE AOC.    @Die

  • BLANC= Clairette, Aligoté, Muscat a Petit Grains
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Rhone Valley(South)
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…Method/  Traditionelle
    • +AGED/ 12mo. On Lees, +15 Grams/ RS.
    • Estate/ Producers– Achard-Vincent, Cave Carod, Die Jaillance, Poulet & Fils, Suzienne

CREMANT Du JURA AOC.      @Jura

  • BLANC= Chardonnay(+50%), Pinot Gris, Savaginin
  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Poulsard, Trousseau
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Jura, Cote du Jura AOC.(Greater), DEPARTMENT– Jura
  • VITICULTURE– ? ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle
    • Hand Harvest, +AGED/ 1 Year/ +9 Month Sur Lee
    • Estate/ Producers– Annie et Philippe Bornard, Benedicte & Stephane Tissot, Jean Francois Ganevat, Marcel Cabelier, Montbourgeau, Pignier, Rolet Pere & Fils

CREMANT De LOIRE     @Loire

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamey, Pineau d’Aunis, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Loire
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…Methode/ Traditionelle, +AGED/+1 Year, On Lees
    • Cremant de Loire Can Be Produced From the Entire Region , From 13 Different Grapes From Any Area From Muscadet to Sancerre
    • Estate/ Producers– Ackerman de Chanceny, Baumard, Bouvet-Ladubay, Breze, Cave de Saumur, Deligeroy, Gratien & Meyer, Lacheteau, Langlois, Marcel Martin, Monmousseau, Paul Buisse, Souchherie

CREMANT De SAUMUR AOC.

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pineau d’Aunis
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Loire Valley, Saumur
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 1 yr., On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers

CREMANT De MONTOUIS AOC.

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Loire, Montouis
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle
    • Estate/ Producers– Francois Chidaine, Lise & Bertrand

CREMANT De SAVOIE AOC.  

  • BLANC= Jacquere(+40%), Aligote(+20%), Altesse, Chasselas, Chardonnay
  • ROUGE= (-20%) Pinot Noir, Poulsard, Trousseau
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Savoie
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 12mo. On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers

CREMANT De SEYSSEL AOC.

  • BLANC= Altesse, Chasselas, Molette
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle
    • Estate/ Producers

CREMANT De SAVOIE AYSE AOC.  

  • BLANC= Altesse, Mondeuse Blanche, Gringet
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Haute-Savoie
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 2yr. On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers

CREMANT De VOUVRAY AOC.  

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Loire Valley, Vouvray
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 1 yr., On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers– Champalou, De Chanceny, Jaillance, Moncontour, Vigneau-Chevreau

CLAIRETTE De DIE AOC.

  • BLANC= Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains(+75%), Clairette(25%)
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Rhone Valley(South), Die
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 9 mo. On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers-

MOUSSEUX ANJOU AOC.  

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc(+60%), Chardonnay
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Grolleau, Pineau d’Anunis
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Loire Valley, Anjou
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle
    • Estate/ Producers

MOUSSEUX SAUMUR AOC.

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Loire Valley, Saumur
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle
    • Estate/ Producers

MOUSSEUX De BOURGOGNE AOC.     @Burgundy

  • BLANC=        |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Burgundy(Greater)
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditional+AGED/+9 mo.
    • Estate/ Producers– Cave de Martally, Louis Boullot, Louis Picamelot, Paul Vhollet, Veuve Ambal

MOUSSEUX De ST.-PERAY AOC.

  • BLANC= Marsanne, Roussanne, Rousette   |   ROUGE=
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Northern Rhone Valley(South/ West Bank)
    • In St. Peray AOC.
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…METHOD/ Champenoise
    • Estate/ Producers– Domaine du Biguet, Maison M Chapoutier

PETILLANT GAILLAC MOUSSEUX AOC.  

  • BLANC= Mauzac, Len de L’El, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-South-West, Gaillac
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Champenoise
    • Estate/ Producers

PETILLANT MONT LOUIS AOC.      @

  • BLANC=
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Loire
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/
    • Estate/ Producers

PETILLANT ANJOU AOC.

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc(+80%), Chardonnay
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Loire Valley, Anjou
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Champenoise
    • Estate/ Producers

PETILLANT De BUGEY CERDON AOC.

  • BLANC=
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Bugey
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/
    • Estate/ Producers

PETILLANT CLAIRETTE De BELLEGARDE

  • BLANC= Clairette(100%)
  • GEOGRAPHY– France, REGION-Bellegarde
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Champenois, +Abv.+11%
    • Estate/ Producers

Sparkling Wines of Outside France

ENGLISH SPARKLERS     

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Seyval Blanc, Muller-Thurgau, Reichensteiner, Bacchus, Auxerrois
  • RED= Pinot Noir, Pinot Munieur
  • GEOGRAPHY– England/ Wales
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditional & Charmat
    • Estate Producers
  • ENGLISH SPARKLING EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear, Golden
    • Aroma: Apple, Citrus
    • Palate: Dry to Brut
    • Structure: Low Tannins,  Abv., High Acid
      • PAIRING…             |   CHESSE…Shropshire Blue, Cornish Yarg

CREMANT De LUXENBOURG      

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling   |   RED= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– Luxenbourg
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditional
    • Estate/ Producer– Alice Hartmann, Bernard Massard, Caves Desom Saint-Remy, Caves St. Martin, Charles Leclaire, Poll-Fabaire

PROSECCO    

  • BIANCO= Glera, Verdiso, Perera, Biachetta
  • GEOGRAPHY– Italy, REGION-Veneto, Lombardia(Conegliano Valdobbiadene)
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Charmat, +AGED/ Never
    • Charmat– After Harvest, Vinified as White Wine Before Put In Pressurized Autoclave Tank Where Second Fermentation & Filtering is Completed (Produced Under 2-4 Atmosphere of Pressure)
    • Prosecco Can Be Produced As Fizzante or Spumante Depending On Amount of Pressure the Prosecco is Subjected to.
    • Col Fondo/ Rifermentato In Bottigia– Style Where Second Fermentation is Done In the Bottle
    • Estate/ Produttore– Gancia, Gina, Lunetta, La Marca, Mionetto, Soligo, Tiziano, Soligo, Valdo
  • PROSECCO WINE EVALUATION
    • Sight: Light, Coarse, Frothy Bubbles
    • Aroma: Green Apple, Honey-Suckle, Fruity
    • Palate: Semi-Sweet to Dry, -Body, Pear, Honey Due
    • Structure: Low Tannins, -Abv., Medi+Acid
      • PAIRING…Prosciutto Wrapped Melon, Sushi
      • CHEESE…Pecorino, Tallegio
  • CULTURE– PIONEERS– –Federico Marinotti Inventor of Charmat Method, 1895

FRANCIACORTA DOCG.  

  • BIANCO= Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio, Pinot Bianco
  • ROSSO= Pinot Nero, Maiolina
  • GEOGRAPHY– Italy, REGION-Lombardia, Brescia
  • VITICULTURA– 2,200 ha.
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Classico+AGED/ 3yr.
    • Reserva+AGED/ 5yr./ Sur Lees, Saten, Rose
    • Millesimato+AGED/ 30mo.
    • Estate/ Produttore– Bellavista, Berlucchi, Contadi Castaldi, Ca del Bosch

SPANISH CAVA    

  • BLANCO= Macabeo, Parellado, Xarello, Chardonnay, Subirat
  • TINTO= Garnacha, Monastrell, Pinot Noir, Trepat
  • GEOGRAPHY– Spain, REGION-Catalunya(Penedes DO.)
  • VITICULTURE– Cava is Produced In +150 Villages In Spain, Including Regions of Aragon, Navarre, Valencia, La Rioja, Extramadura, but the Majority and Spiritual Home of Cava is Catalunya.
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditional
    • Grand Reserva Cava+AGED/ +20mo., Vintage Dated
    • Reserva Cava+AGED/ +25mo. on Lees, Non-Vintage Dated
    • Estate Producers– Codorniu, Frexinet, Raventos, Segura Viudas, Serra Cristalino
  • CAVA WINE EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear
    • Aroma: Herbaceous, White Blossoms, Melon
    • Palate: Dry to Brut, Honeydew, Peach, Grapefruit
    • Structure: Low Tannins, -Abv., High Acid
      • PAIRING…Hamon   |   CHEESE… Garrotxa, Manchego

ESPUMANTE   

  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain(Greater)
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditional/ Chamat
    • Espumante Isn’t Cava, the Name is Used For Any Sparking Wine Produced Outside of One of the Spains Cava Producing Area

GERMANT SEKT    

  • WEIS= Riesling, Weissburgunder, Grauburgunder   |   ROT= Spatburguner
  • GEOGRAPHY– Germany, Austria
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditional & Charmat
    • Estate/ Producers– Barth, Henkell, Sohnlein-Brillant, Rotkappchen, Schloss Wachenheim Volker Raumland
  • SEKT WINE EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear
    • Aroma: Honey-Crisp Apple, Peach
    • Palate: Semi-Sweet to Brut
    • Structure: Low Tannins, -Abv., High Acid
      • PAIRING…Smoked Trout   |   CHEESE…Gouda

SOVETSKOYE SHAMPANSKOYE     

  • WHITE=  Aligote, Chardonnay        |   RED=
  • GEOGRAPHY– Russia, Moldova, Belarus, Ukraine
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditional
    • Estate Producer– Abrau-Durso, Sovetskoye Shampanskoye(Generic Brand Produced In Soviet Union)
  • HISTORY– After Soviet Union Dissolved Private Corporations In Belarus, Russia, Moldova and Ukraine Continued to Use the Soviet Champagne Brand to Promote Their Sparkling Wine.

PEZSGO  

  • WHITE=           |   RED=
  • GEOGRAPHY– Romania, REGION-Bratislava
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditional & Charmat
    • Estate Producers
  • HISTORY– From 1825

SPARKLINGMethode Cap Classique MCC.    @South Africa

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED=  Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir
  • VITICULTURE– Any Variety, From Any Region
  • VINIFICATIONSPARKLING…Method/ Traditional
    • Secondary Fermentation Must Be In Bottle, and +Aged/ Sur-Lee +9 mo.
      • Brut-  Less Than…15 G./ RS.
      • Extra Brut- Less Than…6 G./ RS.
      • Brut Nature- Less Than…3 G./ RS.
    • Estates/ Producers– Charles Fox, Graham Beck, Le Lude, Tradition

AMERICAN SPARKLING WINE

  • Estate Producers– Ste. Michelle(Columbia Valley), Gruet(New Mexico)

CALIFORNIAN SPARKLING WINE

  • WHITE= Chardonnay   |   RED= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– California, Russian River AVA., Anderson Valley AVA.
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditional
    • Estate Producers– Domaine Chandon, Domaine Carneros, Gloria Ferrer, Korbel,Iron Horse, Mumms, J Vineyards, Schramsberg, Handley Cellars, Roederer, Scharffenberger
  • CALIFORNIA SPARKLING EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear/
    • Aroma: Apple, Pear
    • Palate: Semi-Sweet to Brut
    • Structure: Low Tannins, Abv., High Acid
      • PAIRING… Oysters, Caviar   |   CHEESE
  • Champagne Houses Who Expanded to California
    • Domaine Carneros- “Taittinger” @CARNEROS AVA.
    • Chandon- “Moet & Chandon” @YOUNTVILLE AVA.
    • Mumm- “GH. Mumm” @RUTHERFORD AVA.
    • Roederer Estate- “Roederer” @ANDERSON VALLEY AVA.
    • Scharffenberger Cellars- “Scharffenberger” @ANDERSON VALLEY AVA.
    • Gloria Ferrer- “Freixenet” @CARNEROS AVA.
    • Piper Sonoma- “Piper-Heidsieck” @CARNEROS AVA.

AUSTRALIAN SPARKLING

  • WHITE= Chardonnay   |   RED= Shiraz, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY– Australia, Yarra Valley, Ballarat, Tasmania
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditional
    • Estate Producers
  • AUSTRALIAN SPARKLING EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear
    • Aroma:
    • Palate: Semi-Sweet to Brut
    • Structure: Low Tannins, -Abv., Medi+Acid
      • PAIRING…Scampi, Mushrooms    |    CHESSE

Red Sparkling Wines

BRACHETTO D’ACQUI DOCG.     @ItalyAcqui Terme

  • ROSSO= Brachetto(100%)
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-PiemontePROVINCIA-Asti, Alessandria
    • In Monferrato DOC., COMMUNES– 26
  • TERRE= “Metamorphic”, Calcareous-Clay, Marl
  • VITICULTURA– 1,050haPlanted
  • VINICULTURASPARKLING…METHOD/ Fizzante
    • Estate/ Produttore– Banfi, Bersano Castelgaro, Giacomo Bologna, Marengo Pineto

LAMBRUSCO SALAMINO DOC.      @ItalyCarpi

  • ROSSO= Lambrusco Salamino
  • GEOGRAFIA– Italia, REGION-Emilia-Romagna, PROVINCIA-Modena
    • In Modena DOC.(North-East), BORDERS: Lambrusco Sorbara DOC.(South)
  • VITICULTURA– ?  ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURASPARKLING/ Chamat/ Fizzante
    • Estate/ Produttore
  • CULTURAAKA=Salamino di Santa Croce

VERNACCIA NERO

VIN DU BUGEY- CERDON(Gamay)

AUSTRALIA SPARKLING SHIRAZ


My Thoughts…

  • “It’s Difficult to State What Style of Sparkling Wine I Think is Best or That I Prefer.  The Different Styles Lead Themselves to Different Times of the Day.  I Like to Enjoy Prosecco Late In the Morning Often In a Brunch Environment.  While In an Afternoon Settling I Like Cava.  If  I’m In the Position to Drink Sparkling Wine at Night it Has to Be Champagne Which is a More Complex Character.”


**Refer to “BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SOURCES” For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced