SPARKLING WINE


  • SUB-TOPICS Of SPARKLING WINE CHAPTER
    • What is Sparkling Wine?
    • Different Sparkling Wine Methods
    • Sparkling Wine Process
    • Sparkling Wine Regions of The World

WHAT IS SPARKLING WINE?

SPARKLING WINE- Wine That Undergoes a Second Fermentation With Addition of Yeast.
CHAMPAGNE- Term Used to Designate Sparkling Wine Produced In Champagne Region of France.

  • Sparkling Wine is Produced In Almost Every Country Where Wine is Produced.
  • It’s Vital In Sparkling Wine Making That the Still Wine You’re Making Sparkling Wine Into is Un-Compromised In Quality. Second Fermentation Does’t Fix or Covers a Still Wines Flaws or Shortcomings.

No One Invented Sparkling Wine, It’s a Phenomena of Nature That No One Gets Credit For.


DIFFERENT SPARKING WINE METHODS

TRADITIONAL METHOD/ Champenoise/ Traditionelle/ Traditional

  • VINIFICATION- Second Fermentation Done In Bottle.

TANK METHOD/ Charmat-

  • VINIFICATION- Second Fermentation Done In Autoclave, That Could Be Sealed Airtight So Carbon Dioxide is Forced to Dissolve Into Wine. Fining, Filtering, Bottling All Achieved Without Loss of Carbon Dioxide In Process.
    • Autoclave- Large, Sometimes 30 Feet Tall Steel Pressurized Tanks Used In Italy for Mass Production of Sparkling Wines. (Prosecco, Asti Style)

METHODE ANCESTRALE/ Rurale, Artisanale, Gaillacoise

  • VINIFICATION- Method Historically Practiced In the French Regions of Gaillac, Die, Bugey.
  • Relies On Fermentation Shutting Down Before It’s Complete, Due to Cold Climate and Then Restarting After the Partially Fermented Grape Juice was Bottled. Wine is Partially Fermented In Vats and Then Fermentation is Stopped, Historically by Cold Winter Weather, But Now by Lowering the Temperature of the Vat Its In. Partially Fermented Wine is Then Bottled and Where Fermentation Resumes. Present Day Producers Are Bottleing Wines Before the First Fermentation is Completed.
    • This Process Leads to Low-Alcohol, Slightly Sweet Sparkling Wine With High Acidity and Bright Fruit Aromas and Flavors.
  • Methode Ancestrale is Lightly Known as Pet-Nat/ Petillant-Naturel or Col fondo In Italy.
  • Certain Producers Slightly Filter Wine.
  • HISTORY- Monks & Monasteries  ~Abbey of Saint Hilaire~
    • 1531 @Limoux Oldest Intentionally Produced Sparkling Wine.
    • 2007 @Loire Valley– First Appellation That Recognized Petillant Naturel,
      • Montlouis Petillant Naturel AOC.

PETILLANT-NATUREL/ AKA= Pet-Nats 

  • VINIFICATION- Grape Juice is Bottled While During Initial Fermenting, Trapping Carbon Dioxide Inside. Petillant Wines Can be Disgorged But Usually Left On its Sediment. Petellant-Natureal is a Simpler Less Expensive Way of Making Sparkling Wine. Part of Natural Wine Movement. Translate to Naturally Sparking In French.
    • Certain Producers Slightly Filter Pet-Nat.
    • Champagne is Produced by the Basic Champagne Grapes: Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier.  Pet-Nat is Produced by Endless Unusually Grapes and Blends of Grapes.
    • Pet-Nats Should Be Consumed Young.  Within the First Couple of Months They Might Show a Sweeting Side, But After a Month or So They Will Seem to Dry-Up as the Yeast Consume the Available Sugars.  Pet-Nat Should Be Drunk Within 3-4 Months.
    • Pet-Nats Are Generally Unfined and Unfiltered and Contain a Collection of Dead Yeast at Bottom of Bottle.
    • Pet-Nats Usually Come In at Less Than 13% ABV.
      • Lower In Alcohol With No Sugar Added.
    • Pet-Nats Will Sometime Be Stated On the Label and Sometimes Not.
    • The Closure of Choice Is Usually a Crown Cap.
    • These Wine Usually Have No Preservatives.
    • These Wines Are Unpredictable, and Each Tend to Be Unique.

CARBONATION METHOD/ Sparging, Forced Carbonation

  • VINIFICATION- Injecting Co2 by Needle Through Cork.
    • Sparging- Refers to the Process of applying Nitrogen in the Form of Very Fine Bubbles I Order to Remove Dissolved Oxygen From the Wine.  Sparging Can Be Used to Give Bubbles to a Wine or Improve the Wine’s Taste and Shelf Life.

SPARKLING WINE PROCESS

  • HARVEST WHOLE CLUSTER PRESS
  • INOCULATED WITH YEAST COLD FERMENTATION (8-20 Days)
  • FERMENTATION RACKING
  • CUVEE BLENDING TIRAGE CUVEE BLEND
  • SEALED BOTTLING SECONDARY FERMENTATION
  • BOTTLE AGING (Sur-Lie) RIDDLING
  • FREEZE NECK DISGORGING
  • DOSAGE AGED (3 Month- ?Years)
  • STABILIZATION FILTERING FINNING

HARVESTING GRAPES- Grapes Destined to Become Sparking Wine Must Be Harvested.
at a Lower Brix Level Than Grapes Destined to Be Still Wine. If Sugar is Too High Second Fermentation Gets Too Hot, Yeast Dies and Can’t Complete Fermentation.

  • Secondary Fermentation Will Add +1% ABV. to Finish Sparkling Wine.

DOSAGE- Final Addition of a Precise Measure of Sugar, Wine, Grape Spirit, Citric Acid to Wine With Specific Purpose During Champagne Process.  Dosage Determines the Sweetness/ Residual Sugar of the Finished Wine.

SECONDARY FERMENTATION- Second Fermentation is Initiated by Addition of Liqueur de Triage.

  • Carbon Dioxide is One of the by-Products of Fermentation, an Gets Trapped Inside the Bottle. Under Pressure Carbon Dioxide Dissolves Into the Liquid. When the Bottle Opened the Carbon Dioxide Will Reemerge In the Form of Tiny Bubbles.

LIQUEUR De TIRAGE-  Adding Mixture of Sugar/ Cane (.5oz. per Pint), Yeast to Induce Second Fermentation in Bottle.

LEES Dead Yeast and Sediment That Fall to the Bottom of the Fermentation Vessel During the Completion of First or Second Fermentation.

  • GROSS LEES- Refers to the ‘Larger’ Size of Lees, Sediment and Debris On Bottom of Maceration/ Fermentation Container: Grape Skins, Seeds. If Left Unattended Gross Lees Decompose and Often Lead to Undesirable Compounds, Spoil Wine or Impart Funky Undesirable Flavors and Aroma. Gross Lees are Mostly Found On Bottom of Maceration Vessels After Pressing and are Racked-Off Before Fermentation.
  • FINE LEES- Refers to the ‘Smaller ’ Size of Lees, Silky Sediment That Accumulated On Bottom of Maceration/ Fermentation Vessel. After Fermentation is complete There Can be 1-3 Gallons or Lees On Bottom of the Fermentation Barrel.
    • Fine Lees– Made Up of Dead Yeast Cells. (More Desirable Outcome)
  • SUR LIE AGING-  Process of Allowing Fermented Wine to Continue to Sit On Lees In Order to Extract Additional Flavors Prior to Racking & Bottling.
    • Autolysis- Chemical Reactions Caused by the Decay or Breaking Down of Yeast Cells by Their Own Enzymes. This Enzymatic Process is Called Autolysis. Once Yeast Cells are Done Feeding On Sugar Fermentation is Stops and the Yeast Cell Dies. Dead Yeast Cells are Called Lees and Start to Decompose Caused by Enzymes Inside the Lees Which Eat Away at the Cell Membrane Until the Cell Ruptures Releases Mono-Proteins Which Can Lend to a Wines Enhanced Body and Mouthfeel. During Sur Lie Aging Autolysis Also Releases Amino Acids, and Other Biological Compounds Giving Wines and Champagne Complexity, +BODY, Creamy Notes and Toasty/ Bread Like Scents.
  • Stages/ Levels of Autolysis- Autolysis and Aging Potential is a Balance
    • 9-12 Months- Yeast is Barely Dead, You Can Sometime Taste the Yeast Primary and Fermentation Aromas.
    • 1 Year to 2 Years- The Depth and Expression of Autolysis Really Start to Come Out. The Textual Feel Starts to Come Out In the Wine.
    • 5 Years Plus- Wines Start to Lose There Freshness and Become Tires and Flavors Start to Mute-Out.
  • LEE STIRRING/ Batonnage Stirring(with Wood-Baton) of Lees That Have Settled On Bottom of Barrel, Cask, Tank, Vat (Burgundian Method), Batonnage Increases Wine Contact with Yeast Resulting In Increased Complexity.
    • VINICULTURE- ADVANTAGES– Nuttiness, Toastiness, Biscuit, Baked Bread.
  • CULTURE- ~Etymology~ The Term Lees Come From Word Autolysis.
  • VARIETALS THAT SEE SUR-LIE” AGING
    • White= Albarino, Chardonnay, Muscadelle, Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon Blanc
  • SUR LIE AGING EVALUATION
    • Sight: Hazy
    • Aroma: Cheese Rind, Sour Cream, Marsh-Mellow
    • Palate: +BODY
    • Structure:

RIDDLING/ Remuge- Rotating Bottles at an Increasing Downward Angle to Induce Lees and Sediment to Pool at Neck of Bottle. Riddling is Achieved by Twisting Punt of Bottle 1/8 of a Rotation Every Day for 5-8 Weeks to Complete.

  • PUPITRE- Rack Bottles are Placed In For Riddling.
  • HISTORY- 1810 @Champagne, France ~Widow Clicquot~
    • Created For Creating First Riddling Board by Drilling Holes In a Kitchen Table.
  • SINGLE CAGE RIDDLING SYSTEM/ Gyropalette- Spherical Steel Frames Mimic Riddling Electronically.
  • Agaraffe– Metal Clasp Used to Keep Cork In Place During Sparkling Second Fermentation.
    • (Now Predominately Done With Crown Cap.)

DISGORGEMENT- Removal of Yeast and Sediment Accumulated In the Neck of Bottle After Riddling is Completed. The Neck of Bottle is Placed In a Solution of Freezing Brine and Then Blasted Out with Removal of Crown Cap.

  • Disgorge Date- Date the Bottle was Done Aging Sur-Lee and Cork Was Put In.
  • Vinetage Date- Date That the Grapes Were Harvested.

LIQUEUR d’EXPEDITION Precise Measure of Sugar, Yeast and Sulfur Solution Added to Wine to Top Off Bottle From Loss of Liquid During Disgorgement and Produce Calculated Amount of Carbon Dioxide and ABV.

  • Determines Sweetness/ Type of Champagne.
  • If No Sugar Added the Wine is: Natural, Non-Dose, Extra Brut, Ultra, Integral.

PUNT  Indentation In the Bottom of Wine and Sparkling Bottles Left From Glass Blowing Process.

  • Beneficial For
    • Punt In Bottom of Bottle Was Designed to Strengthen the Integrity of the Bottle and Elevate Pressure In Sparkling Wine Bottles. (1940) (Pressure In Champagne Bottle is 90Lb. of Pressure per Square Inch.)
    • Riddling Champagne
    • Ease of Nesting End to End During Shipment and Storage.
    • Consolidation of Sediment. (When Upright)

NUCLEATION POINTS- Small Traditionally Random Defect Points In the Wine Glass That Trap Pockets of Carbon Dioxide. Glassmaker Now Use a Laser to Engrave Artificial Nucleation Sites On the Bottom of the Glass to Make the Effervescent Pattern Pleasing to the Eye In the Form of 20+ Scratches to Create a Ring Shape Which Produce a Consistent Column of Rising Bubbles.

  • Muselet- Wire Wrapped Around Cork So Cork Doesn’t Exploding During Storage.
    • From the Internal Pressure. (6 Counter Clock-Wise Turns to Get Off)
  • Muselet Cap-  Metal Cap On Top of Cork Usually With Producers Name Use to Protect the Cork From the Wire Cutting Into the Cork.
  • Plexomuselaphile- French Name Given For People Who Collect the Muselet Caps On the Top of Champagne and Sparkling Wines. Some Are Produce With Limited Art or Collectable Images On Them. Some Muselet Are Produce With Images Marking Special Occasions On Them.
  • ATTRIBUTES Of The CHAMPAGNE BLEND
    • ChardonnayBrings…Pomaceous Fruit, Finesse, Floral, Minerality
    • Pinot Noir- Brings…Red Fruits, Structure, Elegance, Perfume
    • Pinot Meunier- Brings…Body, Fruit
      • Experience- 300 Year the Champenoise Have Made Sparkling Wine
      • Aging- Cold, Cellars Dug into Chalk Hills(Miles Deep) Temperature- 40°-55°
      • +Aged/ +15 mo. to 2 yr.-3 yr. to +6 yr., +Complexity, +Character, Creamy
      • +Blended/ More Than 50 Different Wine, From Multiple Villages

STYLES Of CHAMPAGNE

  • By Quality          By Village
  • By Grape          By Sweetness
  • By Price
  • Blanc de Blanc- Refers to Sparkling Wine Produced From Only White Grapes.
  • Blanc de Noir- Refers to Sparkling Wine Produced From Only Black Grapes.
  • Champagne is Produced Under Higher Pressure Than Prosecco Which Leads Finer, Smaller Bubbles, Rather Than Bigger, Frothier Bubbles.
  • Atmosphere- Measurement For Pressure at Sea Level Used to Produce Sparkling Wine.
    • Normal Air Pressure at Sea Level is 14.7- Atm.
    • Champagne 6-Atm.   |    Cremant 3-Atm.   |   Prosecco 2-Atm.

HEAD/ Mousse- Collective Amount of Carbon Dioxide Which Rise to the Surface In the Form of Bubbles and the Resulting Effervescence and Accumulate On the Surface the Wine.

  • Large Coarse, Frothy Bubbles are a Sign of Prosecco or Poor Wine Making.
  • Small Bubbles Are a Sign of Quality.
  • Champagne Mousse Scale  Low   |   Medi-   |   Medium   |   Medi   |   High
  • Champagne Mousse Descriptors Carbonated,  Coarse,  Effervescent,  Fine,  Fizzy,  Froffy,  Small,  Spritzy,  Streaming
  • TERMS To DESCRIBE BARELY SPARKLING WINE
    • Perlant  (France)
    • Perlwein (Germany)
  • TERMS To DESCRIBE LIGHTLY SPARKLING WINE
    • Petillant (France)
    • Frizzante  (Italy)
    • Spritzig (Germany)
  • TERMS To DESCRIBE FULLY SPARKLING WINE
    • Mousseux  (France)
    • Spumante (Italy)
    • Sekt (Germany/ Austria)
  • SPARKLING WINE DEGREES Of SWEETNESS
    • EXTRA BRUT .0% Sugar…Bone Dry
    • BRUT  1.5% Sugar…Dry-
    • EXTRA DRY  1.2% to 2% Sugar…Off Dry
    • DRY  1.7% to 3.5% Sugar…Dryer
    • SEMI-SWEET  3.35% to 5% Sugar…Semi-Sweet
    • SWEET +5% Sugar…Sweet

Sparkling Wines of the Old World

CHAMPAGNE      @Reims

  • BLANC= Chardonnay   |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier
  • GEOGRAPHY– France(North-Central), North-East of Paris(120km.),  LATITUDE: 49°N
  • VINICULTURESPARKLING…Method/ Traditional, +AGED/ 3yr.-6yr.
    • Produced Under 6 Atmosphere of Pressure, Grown Produced In Champagne
    • Estate/ Producers- Canard-Duchene, Heidsieck, Krug, Moet, Perrier-Jouet, Pommery
  • CHAMPAGNE WINE EVALUATION
    • Sight: Fine Bubbles
    • Aroma: Apple, Pear, Almond, Toast, Biscuit, Yeasty, Nutty
    • Palate: Dry to Sweet/ Body, Peach
    • Structure: Low Tannins, –ABV., High Acid
      • PAIRING… Shell Fish, Raw Sea Food, French Fries
      • CHEESE… Brie, Chevre
  • **Refer to EUROPE/ France/ Champagne For Additional Information
  • CHAMPAGNE LEVELS Of SWEETNESS
    • DOUX (50+ G./L.)        |   DEMI-SEC (33-50 G./L.)
    • SEC (17-35 G./L.)          |   EXTRA-SEC (12-20 G./L.)
    • BRUT (0-12 G./L.)        |   EXTRA BRUT (0-6 G./L.)
    • BRUT NATURE/ ZERO (0-3 G./L.)

Sparkling Wines of France Outside of Champagne

  • CREMANT- Term Use to Designate Sparkling Wine Produced In France But Outside the Champagne Region.
  • **Refer to LOCATIONS For Additional Information On There Sparkling Wines.

CREMANT D’ALSACE AOC.      @Strassburg

  • BLANC= Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Riesling, Auxerrois
  • ROSE= Pinot Noir(100%)
  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Alsace(Greater)
  • VITICULTURE- Less Than 55 Hectoliter per Hectar
    • Chardonnay is Permitted In Alsace Only In Production of Cremant d’Alsace.
    • No Sylvaner or Gewurztraminor Permitted In Cremant.
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle, +AGED/+9mo., On Lees
    • Estate-Producers Albert Boxler, Albert Mann, Ansen, Arthur Metz, Bablenheim, Barmes-Buecher, Bott-Geyl, Charles Baur, Dopff & Irion, Dopff au Moulin, Frey-Sohler, Jean-Claude Buecher, Jean Geiler, Jean Sipp, Julien Meyer, Keuhn, Lucien Albrecht, Paul Mittnacht, Pierre Sparr, Willm

CREMANT De BORDEAUX AOC.

  • BLANC= Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Muscadelle
  • RED= Cabernet Franc
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Bordeaux
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 9 mo., On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers- Calvet, Les Cordeliers, Cave de Rauzan, La Fleur de Francois, Jaillance, Jean Louis Ballarin, Louis Eschenauer, Remy Breque, Thunevin

CREMANT De BOURGOGNE AOC.     @Entire Burgundy

  • BLANC= Aligote, Chardonnay, Melon de Bourgogne, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gri, Sacy
  • ROUGE= Gamay, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Burgundy
  • VITICULTURE- Manual Harvesting Mandatory
    • Estate/ Producers- Bailly-Lapierre, Cave de Lugny(Co.-Op.), Camille & Laurent, Francois Mikulski, Honore Louis, Jaffelin, Jean-Charles Boisset, Louis Bouillot, La Maison du Cremant, Maison Francois Martenot, Maison Parigot & Richard, Marsigny, Sainchargny, Simonnet-Febvre, Trenel, Veuve Ambal, Vitteaut-Alberti
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…METHOD/ Traditionelle, +AGED/+9mo., On Lees
    • Blanc de Blancs, Blanc de Noirs, Rose
    • Blending After Fermentation, +AGED/ 9 mo., Prior to Degorgement
  • CULTURE
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Union of Producers and Growers of Cremant de Brougogne~ UPECB.

CREMANT De BUGEY CERDON AOC.

  • BLANC= Chardonnay, Jacqueere, Molette
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Jura, Cerdon
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 9 mo., On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers-

CREMANT Du DIE AOC.    @Die

  • BLANC= Clairette, Aligoté, Muscat a Petit Grains
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Rhone Valley(South)
  • VITICULTURE- 
    • Estate/ Producers- Achard-Vincent, Cave Carod, Die Jaillance, Poulet & Fils, Suzienne
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/  Traditionelle
    • +AGED/ 12mo. On Lees, +15 Grams/ RS.

CREMANT Du JURA AOC.      @Jura

  • BLANC= Chardonnay(+50%), Pinot Gris, Savaginin
  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Poulsard, Trousseau
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Jura, Cote du Jura AOC.(Greater), DEPARTMENT– Jura
  • VITICULTURE-ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Producers– Annie et Philippe Bornard, Benedicte & Stephane Tissot, Benoit Badoz, Jean Francois Ganevat, Marcel Cabelier, Montbourgeau, Pignier, Rolet Pere & Fils
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle
    • Hand Harvest, +AGED/ 1 Year/ +9 Month Sur Lee

CREMANT De LIMOUX AOC.        @Limoux

  • BLANC= Mauzac(-70%), Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc
  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Languedoc, In Minervois, Limoux
  • VITICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle, +AGED/+1 yr./ 9 mo. On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers- Cuvee Royale, Famille Guilhem, Gerard Bertrand, J Laurens, M Cote Mas, Rives-Blanques, Roche Lacour, St. John, Toques et Clochers
  • HISTORY- 1531 First Sparkling Wine was Produced by Accident In Limoux.

CREMANT De LOIRE     @Loire

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamey, Pineau d’Aunis, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Loire
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Methode/ Traditionelle, +AGED/+1 Year, On Lees
    • Cremant de Loire Can Be Produced From the Entire Region , From 13 Different Grapes From Any Area From Muscadet to Sancerre.
    • Estate/ Producers- Ackerman de Chanceny, Baumard, Bouvet-Ladubay, Breze, Cave de Saumur, Deligeroy, Gratien & Meyer, Lacheteau, Langlois, Marcel Martin, Monmousseau, Paul Buisse, Prince Alexandre, Souchherie

CREMANT De MONTOUIS AOC.

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Loire, Montouis
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle
    • Estate/ Producers- Francois Chidaine, Lise & Bertrand

CREMANT De SAUMUR AOC.

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pineau d’Aunis
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Loire Valley, Saumur
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 1 yr., On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers-

CREMANT De SAVOIE AOC.  

  • BLANC= Jacquere(+40%), Aligote(+20%), Altesse, Chasselas, Chardonnay
  • ROUGE= (-20%) Pinot Noir, Poulsard, Trousseau
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Savoie
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 12mo. On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers-

CREMANT De SEYSSEL AOC.

  • BLANC= Altesse, Chasselas, Molette
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle
    • Estate/ Producers-

CREMANT De SAVOIE AYSE AOC.  

  • BLANC= Altesse, Mondeuse Blanche, Gringet
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Haute-Savoie
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 2yr. On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers-

CREMANT De VOUVRAY AOC.  

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Loire Valley, Vouvray
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 1 yr., On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers- Champalou, De Chanceny, Jaillance, Moncontour, Vigneau-Chevreau

CLAIRETTE De DIE AOC.

  • BLANC= Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains(+75%), Clairette(25%)
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Rhone Valley(South), Die
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle, +AGED/ 9mo. On Lees
    • Estate/ Producers-

MOUSSEUX ANJOU AOC.  

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc(+60%), Chardonnay
  • ROUGE= Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay, Grolleau, Pineau d’Anunis
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Loire Valley, Anjou
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle
    • Estate/ Producers-

MOUSSEUX De BOURGOGNE AOC.     @Burgundy

  • BLANC=        |   ROUGE= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Burgundy(Greater)
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional+AGED/+9 mo.
    • Estate/ Producers- Cave de Martally, Louis Boullot, Louis Picamelot, Paul Vhollet, Veuve Ambal

MOUSSEUX SAUMUR AOC.

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc
  • ROUGE= Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Loire Valley, Saumur
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditionelle
    • Estate/ Producers-

MOUSSEUX De ST.-PERAY AOC.

  • BLANC= Marsanne, Roussanne, Rousette   |   ROUGE=
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Northern Rhone Valley(South/ West Bank)
    • In St. Peray AOC.
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Champenoise
    • Estate/ Producers- Domaine du Biguet, Maison M Chapoutier

PETILLANT ANJOU AOC.

  • BLANC= Chenin Blanc(+80%), Chardonnay
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Loire Valley, Anjou
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Champenoise
    • Estate/ Producers-

PETILLANT De BUGEY CERDON AOC.

  • BLANC=
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Bugey
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/
    • Estate/ Producers-

PETILLANT GAILLAC MOUSSEUX AOC.  

  • BLANC= Mauzac, Len de L’El, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-South-West, Gaillac
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Champenoise
    • Estate/ Producers-

PETILLANT MONT LOUIS AOC.      @

  • BLANC=
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Loire
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/
    • Estate/ Producers-

PETILLANT CLAIRETTE De BELLEGARDE

  • BLANC= Clairette(100%)
  • GEOGRAPHY- France, REGION-Bellegarde
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Champenois, +11% ABV.
    • Estate/ Producers-

Sparkling Wines Outside France

ENGLISH SPARKLERS     

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Seyval Blanc, Muller-Thurgau, Reichensteiner, Bacchus, Auxerrois
  • RED= Pinot Noir, Pinot Munieur
  • GEOGRAPHY- England/ Wales
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional & Charmat
    • Estate Producers-
  • ENGLISH SPARKLING EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear, Golden
    • Aroma: Apple, Citrus
    • Palate: Dry to Brut
    • Structure: Low Tannins,  Abv., High Acid
      • PAIRING…             |   CHESSE… Shropshire Blue, Cornish Yarg

CREMANT De LUXENBOURG      

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Riesling   |   RED= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- Luxenbourg
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional
    • Estate/ Producer- Alice Hartmann, Bernard Massard, Caves Desom Saint-Remy, Caves St. Martin, Charles Leclaire, Poll-Fabaire

PROSECCO DOC.     @Veneto

  • BIANCO= Glera Tonda/ Lunga(+85%), Bianchetta Trevigiana, Marzemina Bianca, Perera, Rabbiosa, Verdiso
    • Internationale Chardonnay, Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio
  • ROSSO= ?
    • International Pinot Nero
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-Veneto, PROVINCIA-Treviso/ Venice/ Vicenza/ Padua/  Belluno
    • Greater Prosecco Producing Area, (Laps)Friuli ‘Region‘,Multi-Appellation
  • TOPOGRAFIA- Flat/ Rolling
  • VITICULTURA- ? ha. Planted,  Generally Machine Harvested
    • Estate/ Produttore- Gancia, Gina, Lunetta, La Marca, Mionetto, Soligo, Tiziano, Soligo, Valdo, Le Vigne di Alice
  • VINICULTURA- SPARKLING…Method/ Charmat   |   Method/ Classico
      • After Harvest, Vinified as White Wine Before Put In Pressurized Autoclave Tank Where Second Fermentation & Filtering is Completed. Second Fermentation Can Take Place In Less Than 4 Weeks.
    • Prosecco Hierarchy- Prosecco DOC., Prosecco Superiore DOCG.
    • Prosecco Superiore Rive DOCG., Prosecco Superiore di Cartizze DOCG.
    • Prosecco Can Be Produced As Fizzante or Spumante Depending On Amount of Pressure the Prosecco is Subjected to.
    • Prosecco Millesimato– Wine Produces From 100% of Superior Prosecco Valdobbiadene DOCG. Grapes.
    • **Refer to WINE STYLE/ SparklingFor Detailed Information On Charmat.
    • Col Fondo/ Sui Lieviti/ Rifermentato In Bottigia- Style Where Second/ Re-Fermentation is Done In the Bottle, Not Auto-Claves. Wine Isn’t Disgorged, Causing a Cloudy Appearance.
      • Bottled In Early Spring With Its Own Yeasts and Allowed to Slowly Re-Ferment.
  • ASOLO PROSECCO SUPERIORE DOCG.      @Asolani
    • BIANCO= Glera Tonda/ Lunga(+85%), Bianchetta Trevigiana, Marzemina Bianca, Perera, Rabbiosa, Verdiso
      • Internationale Chardonnay, Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio
    • ROSSO= ?
      • International Pinot Nero
    • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-Veneto, PROVINCIA-Treviso
    • TOPOGRAFIA- Hilly, SLOPES/ Treviso
    • VITICULTURA- 190 haPlanted
      • Estate/ Produttore- Amadio, Bele Casel, Case Paolin, Cirotto, Ida Angoletti, Loredan Gasparini, Martignago, Montelvini, Pat del Colmel

CONEGLIANO VALDOBBIADENE DOCG.     @Valdobbiadene

  • BIANCO= Glera Tonda/ Lunga(+85%), Bianchetta Trevigiana, Marzemina Bianca, Perera, Rabbiosa, Verdiso
    • Internationale Chardonnay, Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio
  • ROSSO= ?
    • International Pinot Nero
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-Veneto, PROVINCIA-Treviso, LATITUDE: 45.5° N
    • COMMUNES-(15)-Bigolino, Conegliano, Follo, Funer, Guia, Guietta, Pianezze, Ron, Sacco, San Giovanni, San Pietro di Barbozza, San Giovanni, Santo Stefano, San Vito Località, Soprapiana, Valdobbiandene, Villanova, Zeccchei
  • TOPOGRAFIA- Rolling/ Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terrances/ Valleys/ Ridges
    • SLOPES/ ?, +Alt. 50mt.- 500mt., On~Piave~River~
    • ASPECT/ South, Series of Hills Running West to East
  • TERRE- Metamorphic, Sedimentary, Ancient Sea Floor
    • Calcareous, Limestone, Marl, Sandstone, Clay, Pockets of Glacial Deposits From Dolomites
  • VITICULTURA- 7,500 haPlanted,  Vine Growers- 3,400, Wine Producers- 178, Generally Hand Harvested
    • Estate/ Produttore- Adami, Albino Armani, Andreola, L’Antica Quercia, Astoria, Bianca Vigna, Bisol, Borgoluce, Bortolomiol, Bellenda, Bisol, Ca’dei Zago, Casa Coste Piane, Colesel, Collalto, Colvendra, Conca d’Oro, Conte Collalto, Drusian, Frozza, Garbara, Malibran, Marchiori, Maschio, Masottina, Merotto, Mongarda, Nino Franco, Le Rughe, Ruggeri, Santi, Slvano Follador, Sommariva, Sorelle Bronca, La Tordera, Villa Sandi, Vincenzo Toffoli, Zardetto
    • Vineyards- Cartizze(108ha.)(Mionetto, Le Colture, Villa Sandi), Bortolomiol, Giardino, Marchiori, Masottina, Ogliano, San Floriano, Santo Stefano, San Pietro Barbozza
    • Rive- (Meaning Steep Slopes)
      • Defined as Terroir-Expressive Wines Produced Exclusively With Hand-Harvested Grapes Sourced From a Single Village or Hamlet With a Distinct Soil Type and Microclimate..  Sub-Zone Areas Based On Administrative Boundaries of the Communes and Hamlets Which Give Each Its Name Within Conegliano-Valdobbiadene
        • On Label Mean Grapes Where Harvested by Hand From One of 43 Steep Hillsides Vineyard.
  • VINICULTURA- Prosecco, Drink Young
    • SPARKLING...Method/ Marinotti AKA=Charmat   |   Method/Classico
    • *STYLESExtra Brut–  -6 Grams/ Liter RS.   |    Brut– 6-12 Grams/ Liter RS.
      • Extra Dry– 12-17 Grams/ Liters RS.   |    Dry– 17-22 Grams/ Liter RS.
      • Rose– White Prosecco Grapes Blended With Pinot Noir. +85% Vinetage
    • **Refer to WINE STYLE/ Sparkling” For Detailed Information On Charmat.
  • CULTURA- WINE TRAILS~ ~Strada di Prosecco~
    • UNESCO. WORLD HERITAGE SIGHT~ ~Conegliano & Valdobbiadene~
      • Awarded For– Distinctive Landscape, Ciglioni(Smal Plots of Vines On Narrow Grassy Terraces, Small Villages and Farmlands.
    • FESTIVALS~ ~Conegliano Valdobbiandene Festival~ (May/ Veneto)
  • SUB-ZONES Of CONEGLIANO VALDOBBIANDENE
    • COMUNE Di CISON Di VAL’MARINO Cison di Val’Marino, Rolle
    • COMUNE Di COLLE UMBERTO Colle Umberto
    • COMUNE Di CONEGLIANO Ogliano, Scomigo
    • COMUNE Di FOLLINA Farro, Follina
    • COMUNE Di FARRA Di SOLIGO Col San Martino, Farra di Sougo(Particella 232), Soligo
    • COMUNE Di MIANE Campea, Combai, Maine, Premaor
    • COMUNE Di PIEVE Di SOLIGO Barbisano, Pieve di Soligo, Solighetto
    • COMUNE Di REFRONTOLO Refrontolo
    • COMUNE Di SAN PETRO Di FELETTO
      • Bagnolo, Rua, San Michele, San Pietro di Feletto, Santa Maria
    • COMUNE Di SANVENDEMANO Sanvendemano
    • COMUNE Di SUSEGANA Colfosco, Collalto, Susegana
    • COMUNE Di TARZO Arfanta, Corbanese, Resera, Tarzo
    • COMUNE Di VALDOBBIANDENE
      • Bigouno, Guai, San Giovanni, San Pietro di Barbozza, San Vito, Santo Stefano
    • COMUNE Di VIDOR Colbertaldo(Particella 68), Vidor
    • COMUNE Di VITTORIO VENETO Carpesica, Cozzuolo, Formeniga, Manizana
  • SUPERIORE Di CARTIZZE DOCG.     @Conegliano
    • BIANCO= Glera Tonda/ Lunga, Manzoni
      • Internationale Chardonnay
    • ROSSO=
      • Internationale Pinot Nero
    • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-Veneto, PROVINCIA-Treviso
      • COMMUNES-San Pietro di Barbozza, Seccol, Santo Stefano
    • TOPOGRAFIA- Hilly/ Mountainous/ Terraced
    • VITICULTURA- 108 haPlanted
      • Estate/ Produttore- Col Vetoraz, Mionetto, Villa Sandi

FRANCIACORTA DOCG.     @Brescia

  • BIANCO= Erbamat
    • Internazionale Chardonnay, Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio
  • ROSSO= Maiolina
    • Internazionale Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Nero
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-Lombardia, PROVINCIA-Brescia, @Hw.#A4
    • North-West of Brescia-City(12km.), (18km West to East/ 12km. North to South)
    • COMMUNES-Adro, Brescia, Capriolo, Cazzago San Martino, Celiatica, Coccaglio, Cologne, Corte Franca, Erbusco, Gussago, Iseo, Monticelli Brusati, Ome, Palermo, Paratico, Passirano, Provaglio d’Iseo, Rodengo, Rovato, Saiano
  • TOPOGRAFIA- Rolling/ Hilly/ Valley(Franciacorta)
    • SLOPES/ Rhaetian Alps, +Alt. 92mt.- 503mt., On~Lake~Iseo~(South), On~Oglio~River~
    • Topography Dominated by Ancient Glacier Which Advanced and Retreated Over History.
  • TERRE- Metamorphic, VolcanicSedimentary
    • Moraine/ Glacier Deposits, Limestone, Sand, Silt, Gravel, Clay
  • CLIMA- MediterraneanINFLUENCED/ Alps, Lake Effect(Lake Iseo)
  • VITICULTURA- 2,200 ha. Planted
    • Estate/ Produttore Barone Pizzini, Bellavista, Berlucchi, Bersi Serlini, Castel Faglia, Castello Bonomi, Cavalleri, Colline Della Stella, Contadi Castaldi, Ca’ del Bosch(248ha.), Ferghettina, Franca Contea, Guido Berlucchi, Lantieri, Majolini, Monte Rossa, Montensia, Il Mosnel, Le Quattro Terre, Uberti, Villa Crespia
    • Vineyards- La Sugera
  • VINICULTURA- SPARKLING…Method/ Classico),  Rosato
      • Franciacorta(+AGED/ 24 mo./ Sur Lee)
        • +50% Chardonnay or +50% Pinot Nero/ -50% Pinot Bianco/ -10% Erbamat
      • Franciacorta Reserva(Single Vinetage, +AGED/ 5 yr./ Sur Lee)
      • Franciacorta Rosato(Pinot Nero(+50%), +AGED/ 30 mo./ Sur Lee)
      • Franciacorta Vinteage Millesimato(Single Vinetage, +AGED/ 37 mo.)
      • Franciacorta Saten(Chardonnay+50%, +Pinot Blanc)
        • Brut(Lower Pressure In Bottle)
  • STORIA- Franciacorta is First to Receive a DOCG. For Using Traditional Bottle Fermentation Sparkling Wine.
  • CULTURA ~Etymology~ Derived From Courtes Francae…Meaning Free Courts…
    • Referring to a Tax-Free Zone Established In the Area by the Frankish Empire During the Middle Ages.
    • Monks & Montestaries ~San Pietro In Lamosa MonasteryCluniac Monks
    • ASSOCIATIONS~ ~Consorzio per la Tutela del Franciacorta~
    • WINE TRAILS~ ~Franciacorta Wine Route~
    • GASTRONOMIA… Pike, Perch, Tench, Crayfish
      • Shad/ Sardines From Lake Iseo(Gutted, Scaled/ Packed In Oil)

SPANISH CAVA    

  • BLANCO= Macabeo, Parellado, Xarello, Chardonnay, Subirat
  • TINTO= Garnacha, Monastrell, Pinot Noir, Trepat
  • GEOGRAPHY- Spain, REGION-Catalunya(Penedes DO.)
  • VITICULTURE- Cava is Produced In +150 Villages In Spain, Including Regions of Aragon, Navarre, Valencia, La Rioja, Extramadura, But the Majority and Spiritual Home of Cava is Catalunya.
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional
    • Grand Reserva Cava+AGED/ +20mo., Vintage Dated
    • Reserva Cava+AGED/ +25mo. on Lees, Non-Vintage Dated
    • Estate Producers- Codorniu, Frexinet, Raventos, Segura Viudas, Serra Cristalino
  • CAVA WINE EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear
    • Aroma: Herbaceous, White Blossoms, Melon
    • Palate: Dry to Brut, Honeydew, Peach, Grapefruit
    • Structure: Low Tannins, -Abv., High Acid
      • PAIRING… Hamon   |   CHEESE… Garrotxa, Manchego

ESPUMANTE   

  • GEOGRAPHY– Spain(Greater)
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional/ Chamat
    • Espumante Isn’t Cava, the Name is Used For Any Sparking Wine Produced Outside of One of the Spains Cava Producing Area.

GERMANT SEKT    

  • WEIS= Riesling, Weissburgunder, Grauburgunder   |   ROT= Spatburguner
  • GEOGRAPHY- Germany, Austria
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional & Charmat
    • Estate/ Producers- Barth, Henkell, Sohnlein-Brillant, Rotkappchen, Schloss Wachenheim Volker Raumland
  • SEKT WINE EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear
    • Aroma: Honey-Crisp Apple, Peach
    • Palate: Semi-Sweet to Brut
    • Structure: Low Tannins, –ABV., High Acid
      • PAIRING… Smoked Trout   |   CHEESE… Gouda

SOVETSKOYE SHAMPANSKOYE     

  • WHITE=  Aligote, Chardonnay        |   RED=
  • GEOGRAPHY- Russia, Moldova, Belarus, Ukraine
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional
    • Estate Producer- Abrau-Durso, Sovetskoye Shampanskoye(Generic Brand Produced In Soviet Union)
  • HISTORY- After Soviet Union Dissolved Private Corporations In Belarus, Russia, Moldova and Ukraine Continued to Use the Soviet Champagne Brand to Promote Their Sparkling Wine.

PEZSGO  

  • WHITE=           |   RED=
  • GEOGRAPHY- Romania, REGION-Bratislava
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional & Charmat
    • Estate Producers-
  • HISTORY- From 1825

SPARKLINGMethode Cap Classique MCC.    @South Africa

  • WHITE= Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc
  • RED=  Pinot Meunier, Pinot Noir
  • VITICULTURE- Any Variety, From Any Region
    • Estates/ Producers- Charles Fox, Graham Beck, Le Lude, Tradition
  • VINIFICATION SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional
    • Secondary Fermentation Must Be In Bottle, and +Aged/ Sur-Lee +9mo.
      • Brut-  Less Than…15 G./ RS.
      • Extra Brut- Less Than…6 G./ RS.
      • Brut Nature- Less Than…3 G./ RS.

CALIFORNIAN SPARKLING WINE

  • WHITE= Chardonnay   |   RED= Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- California, Russian River AVA., Anderson Valley AVA.
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional
    • Estate Producers- Cuvaison, Decoy, Domaine Chandon, Domaine Carneros, Gloria Ferrer, Korbel, Iron Horse, J, Long Meadow Ranch, Mumms, Schramsberg, Handley Cellars, Roederer, Scharffenberger
  • CALIFORNIA SPARKLING EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear/
    • Aroma: Apple, Pear
    • Palate: Semi-Sweet to Brut
    • Structure: Low Tannins, Abv., High Acid
      • PAIRING… Oysters, Caviar   |   CHEESE
  • Champagne Houses Who Expanded to California
    • Domaine Carneros- Taittinger     @Carneros AVA.
    • Chandon- Moet & Chandon      @Yountville AVA.
    • Mumm- GH. Mumm        @Rutherford AVA.
    • Roederer Estate- Roederer        @Anderson Valley AVA.
    • Scharffenberger Cellars- Scharffenberger      @Anderson Valley AVA.
    • Gloria Ferrer- “Freixenet       @Carneros AVA.
    • Piper Sonoma- Piper-Heidsieck        @Carneros AVA.

AMERICAN SPARKLING WINE

  • Estate Producers- Argyle(Willamette Valley, Oregon), Ste. Michelle(Columbia Valley, Washington), Gruet(New Mexico), Hermann J. Wiemer(Seneca Lake, New York), Mawby(Leelanau Peninsula, Michigan), Pashey(Willamette Valley, Oregon), Suhru(North Fork of Long Island, New York)

AUSTRALIAN SPARKLING

  • WHITE= Chardonnay   |   RED= Shiraz, Pinot Noir
  • GEOGRAPHY- Australia, Yarra Valley, Ballarat, Tasmania
  • VINICULTURE- SPARKLING…Method/ Traditional
    • Estate Producers-
  • AUSTRALIAN SPARKLING EVALUATION
    • Sight: Clear
    • Aroma:
    • Palate: Semi-Sweet to Brut
    • Structure: Low Tannins, -Abv., Medi+Acid
      • PAIRING… Scampi, Mushrooms    |    CHESSE

Red Sparkling Wines

BRACHETTO D’ACQUI DOCG.     @ItalyAcqui Terme

  • ROSSO= Brachetto(100%)
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-PiemontePROVINCIA-Asti, Alessandria
    • In Monferrato DOC., COMMUNES-(26)-
  • TERRE- Metamorphic, Calcareous-Clay, Marl
  • VITICULTURA- 1,050haPlanted
  • VINICULTURA- SPARKLING…Method/ Fizzante
    • Estate/ Produttore- Banfi, Bersano Castelgaro, Giacomo Bologna, Marengo Pineto

LAMBRUSCO SALAMINO DOC.      @ItalyCarpi

  • ROSSO= Lambrusco Salamino
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-Emilia-Romagna, PROVINCIA-Modena
    • In Modena DOC.(North-East), BORDERS-Lambrusco Sorbara DOC.(South)
  • VITICULTURA- ?  ha. Planted
  • VINICULTURA- SPARKLING/ Chamat/ Fizzante
    • Estate/ Produttore-
  • CULTURA- AKA=Salamino di Santa Croce

VERNACCIA Di SERRAPETRONA  DOC.    @Marche, Italy

  • RED= Vernaccia Nero AKA=Garnacha
  • GEOGRAFIA- Italia, REGION-Marche

VIN Du BUGEY-CERDON–     @Bugey, France

  • RED= Gamay

AUSTRALIA SPARKLING     @Australia

  • RED= Shiraz

MY THOUGHTS

  • It’s Difficult to State What Style of Sparkling Wine I Think is Best or That I Prefer.  The Different Styles Lead Themselves to Different Times of the Day.  I Like to Enjoy Prosecco Late In the Morning Often In a Brunch Environment.  While In an Afternoon Settling I Like Cava.  If  I’m In the Position to Drink Sparkling Wine at Night it Has to Be Champagne Which is a More Complex Character.


**Refer to BIBLIOGRAPHY/ Sources For Details On Scholarly Works Referenced.